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Full text of "Medical lexicon : a new dictionary of medical science : containing a concise account of the various subjects and terms : with the French and other synonymes, and formulae for various officinal and empirical preparations, &c."

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MEDICAL LEXICON. 



A NEW DICTIONARY 



MEDICAL SCIENCE, 



CONTAINING 



A CONCISE ACCOUNT OF THE VARIOUS SUBJECTS AND TERMS; 



WITH THE 



FRENCH AND OTHER SYNONYMES, 



FORMULAE FOR VARIOUS OFFICINAL AND EMPIRICAL PREPARATIONS, &c. 



A 

THIRD EDITION, ^3/?}$ 

GREATLY MODIFIED AND ENLARGED. / 



A. 



A 



BY ROB LEY D UNGL ISON, M. D., 

Professor of the Institutes of Medicine, &c. in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia ; 

Lecturer on Clinical Medicine and Attending Physician at the Philadelphia 

Hospital; Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, &c. &c. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA & BLANCHARD. 
1842. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by Ruble? Dunglison, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsyl- 



W 

!3-r 



Wm. S. Young, Printer. 



TO 

ROBERT M. PATTERSON, M. D., 

DIRECTOR OP THE MINT OF THE UNITED STATES ; VICE PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY*, LATE PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA ; ETC. ETC. 

My Dear Doctor, 

When I dedicated the first edition of this work to you, we 

were colleagues in the University of Virginia. Since that period, 

we have been placed in various relations with regard to each 

other; and in all you have maintained those sterling qualities 

which led me at the time to inscribe it to you. Need I add, 

that I embrace with eagerness the opportunity, a third time 

afforded me, of manifesting to you the regard and esteem with 

which I am 

Faithfully Yours, 



ROBLEY DUNGLISON. 



Philadelphia, 
Spruce Street, February 6, 1842. 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. 

The second edition of this work was exhausted so soon after its 
appearance, that not many new terms were introduced, in the in- 
terval, into Medical Nomenclature. These have been added, with 
several that had escaped the author in the former editions. He has, 
likewise, incorporated in the body of the work the synonymes, 
which formed an index of not fewer than twenty thousand 
words in the last edition. This will be found an important 
improvement. If the simple synonymy of a term be needed, 
a mere reference to it may be sufficient; but if farther in- 
formation be desired, it may be obtained in the body of the 
work, under the term referred to. For example, the French 
word Tronc is said to be synonymous with Trunk. This may be 
sufficient for the inquirer; should it not be, however, the re- 
quisite information may be found by turning to "Trunk." 

The circumstance of the work not being stereotyped, enables 
the author to be constantly enlarging and improving it; and he 
has no doubt, that the present edition will be found to possess 
stronger claims on the attention of the practitioner and student 
than its predecessors. 

Philadelphia, 
Spruce Street, February 0, 1842. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

The present undertaking was suggested by the frequent complaints, made 
by the author's pupils, that they were unable to meet with information on 
numerous topics of professional inquiry, — especially of recent introduction, — 
in the medical dictionaries accessible to them. 

It may, indeed, be correctly affirmed, that we have no dictionary of me- 
dical subjects and terms which can be looked upon as adapted to the state of 
the science. In proof of this the author need but remark, that he has found 
occasion to add several thousand medical terms, which are not to be met 
with in the only medical lexicon at this time in circulation in the country. 

The present edition will be found to contain many hundred terms more 
than the first, and to have experienced numerous additions and modifications. 

The author's object has not been to make the work a mere lexicon or dic- 
tionary of terms, but to afford, under each, a condensed view of its various 
medical relations, and thus to render the work an epitome of the existing 
condition of medical science. In its preparation, he has freely availed him- 
self of the English, French, and German works of the same nature, and has 
endeavoured to add every subject and term of recent introduction, which 
has fallen under his notice ; yet, with all his care, it will doubtless be found 
that subjects have been omitted : the numerous additions, however, which 
he has made, and his strong desire to be useful, "by removing rubbish 
and clearing obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius 
press forward to conquest and glory," will, he trusts, extenuate these and 
other objections that might be urged against the work ; especially when the 
toil, which every compiler of a dictionary must endure, is taken into con- 
sideration ; a toil which has been so forcibly depicted by the great English 
Lexicographer, as well as by the distinguished Scaliger : 

"Si quelqu'un a commis quelque crime odieux, 
S'il a tue son pere, ou blaspheme les Dieux, 
Qu'il fasse un Lexicon : s'il est supplice au monde 
Qui le punisse mieux, je veux que Ton me tonde.'' 



ABBREVIATIONS, &c. 



ARBITRARILY EMPLOYED IN THIS WORK. 



Arab. 


Arabic. 


Ch. 


Chaussier. 


D. 


Dutch. 


Da. 


Danish. 


E. 


English. 


F. 


French. 


F. or Fall. 


Fahrenheit 


G. 


German. 


Heb. 


Hebrew. 


I. 


Italian. 


L. 


Latin. 


Linn. 


Linnaeus. 



P. Portuguese. 

Ph. Ji. Pharmacopoeia of America. 



Ph. D. 


Do. 


of Dublin. 


Ph. E. 


Do. 


of Edinburgh 


Ph. L. 


Do. 


of London. 


Ph. P. 


Do. 


of Paris. 


Ph. U. 


S. Do. 


of America. 


R. 


Reaumur. 




S. 


Spanish. 




S. G. 


Specific Gravity. 


Sw. 


Swedish. 




V. s. 


Venesection. 





NEW DICTIONARY 



OF 



MEDICAL SCIENCE. 



A, before a consonant; An before a vowel, 
a, av, have, in the compound medical terms, a 
privative or debasing signification, like that of 
the particles in, im, un, ir, in English. Thus : 
Stheni'a means strength. Jlstheni'a, want of 
strength. Anamia, want of blood, &c. 

AACHEN, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

A, or AA. See Abbreviation. 

AARZHIL, MINERAL WATERS OF. A 
is in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. The 
chief spring contains muriates of lime and soda, 
sulphates of lime and soda, oxyd of iron, and 
hydrosulphuric acid gas. 

ABACH, MINERAL WATERS OF. A 
hydrosulphuretted saline spring, not far from 
Ratisbon or Regentsberg in Bavaria. 

ABAISSEMEJYT DE LA MATRICE, Pro- 
lapsus uteri. 

ABAISSEUR DE L'AILE DU JYEZ, De- 
pressor alae nasi — a. de V angle des levres, De- 
pressor anguli oris — a. de la livre infirieure, 
Depressor labii inferioris — a. de la Machoire 
infirieure, Digastricus — a. de Vail, Rectus in- 
ferior oculi. 

ABALIENA'TUS. Corruptus. Corrupted. 
Membra abaliena'la. Limbs dead, or benumbed. 
— Celsus, Scribonius Largus. 

ABANGA. Name given by the inhabitants 
of St. Thomas to the fruit of a palm tree, the 
seeds of which they consider very useful in dis- 
eases of the chest, in the dose of three or four, 
given two or three times a day. 

ABAPTIST'A. Mapliston, from a. privative, 
and @u.7rTt£ziv, ' to plunge.' A term applied to 
the old Trepan, the conical shape of which 
prevented it from plunging suddenly into the 
cavity of the cranium. 

ABAREMO-TEMO. A Brazilian tree, which 
grows in the mountains, and appears to be a 
mimosa. Piso relates that the decoction of its 
bark, which is bitter and astringent, was ap- 
plied, in that country, to ulcers of a bad cha- 
racter. 

ABARNAHAS, Magnesia. 

ABARTICULA'TIO, Diarthrosis and Sy- 
narthrosis. 

ABATTfS, Giblets. 

ABBECOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
2 



ABBREVIATION 

A chalybeate spring, six leagues from Paris, 
and one from Poissy. It was once much fre- 
quented, but is now abandoned. 

ABBEVILLE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
An acidulous chalybeate at Abbeville, in the 
department of the Somme. 

ABBREVIATION, Abbrevia'tio,Brachyn'sis, 
Brachys'mos, Mbrcviatu'ra. (F.) Abriviation. 
Abbreviations are chiefly used in medicinal 
formula?. They are by no means as frequently 
employed now as of old, when every article had 
its appropriate symbol. The chief abbreviations 
now adopted are the following : 

■»f. Recipe, Take. 

A. a a, ana, (avol) utriusquc, of each. 
Abdom. Abdomen. 

Abs. Febr. Abscntefcbrc, In the absence of 
fever. 

Ad. or Add. Addc or addatur. 

Ad. Lib. Ad libitum, At pleasure. 

Admov. Admoveatur, Let it be applied. 

Altern. Hor. Alternis horis, Every other 
hour. 

Alv. Ad strict. Alvo adstricta, The bowels 
being confined. 

Aq,. Aqua, Water. 

Aq. Comji. Aqua communis, Common water. 

Aq. Font. Aqua fontis, Spring water. 

Aq,. Bull. Aqua bulliens, Boiling water. 

Aq. Ferv. Aquafervens, Hot water. 

Aq.. Marin. Aqua marina, Sea water. 

B. A. Balneum arena;, A sand-bath. 
Bals. Balsamum, Balsam. 

B. B. BBDS. Barbadensis, Barbadoes. 

Bib. Bibc, Drink. 

Bis. Ind. Bis indies, Twice daily. 

B. M. Balneum marice, A salt water bath. 

Bol. Bolus. 

Bull. Bulliat, Let it boil. 

But. Bulyrum, Butter. 

B. V. Balneum vaporis, A vapor-bath. 
C^rul. Caruleus, Blue. 

Cap. Capiat, Let him take. 

C. C. Cornu cervi, Hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Cornu cervi ustum, Burnt harts- 
horn. 

C. M. Cras mane, To-morrow morning. 
Cochl. Cochleare, A spoonful. 



ABBREVIATION 



10 



ABBREVIATION 



Cochl. Ampl. Cochleare amplum, A large 
spoonful. 

Cochl. Inf. Cochleare Infantum, A child's 
spoonful. 

Cochl. Mod. or Med. Cochleare modicum or 
medium, A dessert spoonful. 

Cochl. Parv. Cochleare parvum, A tea- 
spoonful. 

Col. Cola, colatura, Strain, and to the 
strained. 

Comp. Composkus, Compound. 

Conf. Confectio, Confection. 

Cons. Conserva, Conserve. 

Cont. Continuetur, Let it be continued. 

Coq. Coquc, Boil. 

Cort. Cortex, Bark. 

Crast. Crastinus, For to-morrow. 

Cuj. Cujus, Of which. 

Cujusl. Cujuslibct, Of any. 

Cvath. Cyathus, A glassful. 

Cyath. The*, A cup of tea. 

D. Dosis, A dose. 

D. et S. Detur et signetur, {placed at the end 
of a prescription.) 

D. D. Detur ad, Let it be given in or to. 

D. D. Vitr. Detur ad vitrum, Let it be given 
in a glass. 

Deaur Pil. Deaurcntur pihdce, Let the pills 
be gilded. 

Deb. Spiss. Debitaspissitudo, A due consist- 
ence. 

Dec. Dccanta, Pour off. 

Decub. Decubitus, Lying down, going to bed. 

De D. in D. Dc die in diem, From day to day. 

Dej. Alv. Dcjcctiones alvi, Alvine evacua- 
tions. 

Dep. Dcpuratus, Purified. 

Det. Detur, Let it be given. 

Dieb. Altern. Diebus alternis, Every other 
day. 

Dieb. Tert. Diebus tertiis, Every third day. 

Dig. Digeratur, Let it be digested. 

Dil. DUutus, Dilute. 

Dim. Dimidius, One half. 

Dist. Distilla, Distil. 

Div. Divide, Divide. 

Donec. Alv. Solut. Fuer. Donee alvus so- 
lutafuerit, Until the bowels are opened. 

Drach. Drachma, A drachm. 

Ejusd. Ejusdcm, Of the same. 

En em. Enema, A clyster. 

Kxhib. Exhibcalur , Let it be exhibited. 

Ext. Super Alut. Extcndc super alutam, 
Spread upon leather. 

F. Fiat, Let it be made. 

F. Pil. Fiat pilula, Make into a pill. 

F. Venjes. or F. V. S. Fiat vena sectio, Let 
bleeding be performed. 

Feb. Duk, Febre durante, The fever continu- 
ing. 

Fem. Intern. Fcmoribus intcrnis, To the in- 
side of the thighs. 

Fist. Armat. Fistula armata, A bag and 
pipe, a clyster pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl. Fluidus, and Florcs, Fluid, and Flowers. 

Frust. Frustillatim, In small pieces. 

Gel. Quivis. Gclaiina qudvis, In any kind 
of jelly. 

G. G. G. Gummi gvttce Gambia,, Gamboge. 
Gr. Granum, A grain. 

G«. Gutta, A drop. 



Git. or Gutt. Quibusd. Guttis quibusdam, 
With some drops. 

Gum. Gummi, Gum. 

Guttat. Guttatim, By drops. 

Hor. Decub. Hora decubitus, At bed-time. 

Hor. Interm. Horis intermediis, At interme- 
diate hours. 

H. S. Hora. somni, At bed-time. 

Inf. Infunde, Infuse. 

Ind. Indies, Daily. 

In j. En em. Injiciatur enema, Let a clyster be 
given. 

In Pulm. Inpulmento, In gruel. 

Jul. Julepus, a julep. 

Lat. Dol. Later i dolenti, To the pained side. 

Lb. and Lib. Libra, A pound weight. 

Llb. Libra, Pounds. 

Liq. Liquor. 

M. Misce, Mix. 

Mac. Macera, Macerate. 

Man. Manipuhis, A handful. 

Man. Prim. Mane primo, Early in the morn- 
ing. 

Mic Pan. Mica panis, Crumb of bread. 

Min. Minimum, The 60th part of a drachm, 
by measure. 

Mitt. Mitte, Send. 

Mitt. Sang. Mittatur sanguinis, Let blood 
be drawn. 

Mod. Prescript. Modo Prascripto, In the 
manner directed. 

Mor. Sol. More solito, In the usual manner. 

Muc. Mucilago, Mucilage. 

N. M. Nux moschata, Nutmeg. 

0. Octarius, A pint. 

01. Oleum, Oil. 

Ol. Lini, S. I. Oleum lini sineigne, Cold- 
drawn linseed oil. 

Omn. Bid. Omni biduo, Every two days. 

Omn. Bih. Omni bihorio, Every two hours. 

Omn. Hor. Omni Hora, Every hour. 

Omn. Man. Omni mane, Every morning. 

Omn. Nocte, Every night. 

Omn. Qua dr. Hor. Omni quadrante horw, 
Every quarter of an hour. 

O. O. O. Oleum olivm optimum, Best Olive 
oil. 

Ov. Ovum, An egg. 

Ox. Oxymel. 

Oz. Uncia, An ounce. 

P. Pondere, by weight. 

P. and Pug. Pugillus, a pugil. 

P. IE. Partes aquales, Equal parts. 

Part. Vic. Partitisvicibus, In divided doses. 

Peract. Op. Emet. Peracta operatione erne- 
tici, The operation of the emetic being over 

Pil. Pilula, A pill. 

Post. Sing. Sed. Liq. Post singulas sedcsli- 
quidas, After every liquid evacuation. 

Pot. Potio, A potion. 

P. P. Pulvis patrum, Jesuits' bark. 

P. Rat. YEtat. Pro ratione atatis , According 
to the age. & 

P. R. N. Pro re nata, As occasion may be. 

Pulv. Pulvis, A powder. 

Q. P. Quantum placeat, As much as may 
please. J 

Q. S. Quantum sufficiat, as much as is suffi- 
cient. 

Quou. Quorum, Of which. 

Q. V. Quantum volueris, As much as you wish. 



ABCkS 



11 



ABDUCTOR 



Rad. Radix, Root. 

Ras. Rasurcc, Shavings. 

Rect. Rectificatus, Rectified. 

Red. or Redig. in Pulv. Redactus in pulve- 
rem, or Redigatur inpulverem, Powdered, or Let 
it be powdered. 

Reg. Umbil. Rcgio umbilici, The umbilical 
region. 

Repet. Repetatur, Let it be repeated. 

S. A. Secundum artem, According to art. 

Sem. Semen, Seed. 

Semi-dr. Semi-drachma, Haifa drachm. 

Semi-h. Semi-hora, Half an hour. 

Serv. Sei-va, Keep, preserve. 

Sesquih. Sesquihora, An hour and a half. 

Sesunc. Sesuncia, An ounce and a half. 

Si Non Val. Si nonvalcat, If it does not an- 
swer. 

Si Or. Sit. Si opus sit. If there be need. 

Si Vir. Perm. Si vires pcrmittant, If the 
strength will permit. 

Solv. Solve, Dissolve. 

Sp. and Spir. Spirilus, Spirit. 

Ss. Semi, One half. 

St. Stct, Let it stand. 

Sub. Fin. Coct. Sub fincm coctionis, Towards 
the end of the boiling. 

Sum. Sumat, Let him take; also, SummUalcs , 
The tops. 

S. V. Spiritus vini, Spirit of wine. 

S. V. R. Spiritus vini rectificatus, Rectified 
spirit of wine. 

S. V. T. Spiritus vini tcnuior, Proof spirit of 
wine. 

Syr. Syrupus, Syrup. 

Temp. Dext. Tempori dextro, To the right 
temple. 

T. O. Tinctura opii, Tincture of opium. 

Tr., Ti and Tinct. Tinctura, Tincture. 

Trit. Tritura, Triturate. 

V. O. S. or Vit. Ov. Sol. Vitcllo ovisolutvs, 
Dissolved in the yelk of an egg. 

Z. Z. anciently myrrh : now zinziber, or gin- 
ger. 

lb, Libra, A pound. 

%, Uucia, An ounce. 

£, Drachma, A drachm. 

5, Scrupulum, A scruple. 

rrg, Minimum, A minim. 

ss, Semissis, or half; iss, one and a half. 

j, one ; ij, two ; iij, three ; iv, four, &c. 

The same system is not always followed in 
abbreviating. The subjoined will exhibit the 
usual mode : 

Jnfus. Colomb. % iss 

Tinct. gent. c. 5j i 

Syr. Cort. Aurant. ►) ij. 

Tinct. Caps. git. XL. ^f 

Capt. Coch. ij. p. r. n. 
This, written at length, is as follows : 

Recipe. 

lvfusi Colombo;, sesqui-uneiam, 
Tinctura; Gcntiana; Composikc, drachmam, 
Syrupi Corticis Aurantiorum, scrupula duo, 
Tinctura Capsici, guttas quadraginta. 
Misce. 
, Capiat cochlcaria duo pro re nala. 
ABCES, Abscess. 



ABDOMEN, from ab'dere, 'to conceal;" 
Etron, Hypogastrion, Epischion, Lap'ara, Hypo- 
choilion, Ouster, Hypoutrion, JVcdijs, Abdu'mcn, 
Venter imus, Venter in'fimus, Mvus, Uterus. 
(F) Ventre, V.infericur, lias ventre. The largest 
of the three splanchnic cavities, bounded, above, 
by the diaphragm; below, by the pelvis; be- 
hind, by the lumbar vertebras ; and at the sides 
and fore part, by muscular expansions. It is 
distinguished into three anterior regions, from 
above to below ; viz. the epigastric, umbilical, 
and hypogastric, each of which is itself divided 
into three others, one middle, and two lateral : 
thus, the epigastric region comprises the epigas- 
trium and hypochondria; the umbilical, the um- 
bilicus and flanks or lumbar regions ; and the 
hypogastric, the hypogastrium and iliac regions. 
None of these regions has its limits well defined. 
The chief viscera contained in the Abdomen 
are the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pan- 
creas, kidneys, &c. It is lined by the perito- 
neum. 

ABDOMINAL, Abdomina'lis. That which 
belongs to the Abdomen, as abdominal muscles, 
abdominal viscera, &c. 

ABDOM1NOSCOP1A. A hybrid word, 
from Abdomen, ' the lower belly,' and trno->ria>, 
' I view.' Laparosco'pia, examination of the 
lower belly as a means of Diagnosis. See Aus- 
cultation. 

ABDUCENS LABIORUM, Levator anguli 
oris. 

ABDUCENTES, Motor oculi externus. 

ABDUCTEUR DE L'CEIL, Rectus exter- 
nus oculi — a. de Voreillc, Abductor auris — a. du 
gros orteil, Abductor pollicis pedis — a. du petit 
ortcil, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — a. court 
du poucc, Abductor pollicis brevis — a. long du 
poucc, Abductor longus pollicis. 

ABDUCTION. Abduclio, from abdu'eere, to 
separate. The movement which separates a 
limb or other part from the axis of the body. 

The word has also been used synonymously 
with Ahruptio, Apag'ma, Apoclas'ma, a fracture 
near the articular extremity of a bone, with 
separation of the fragments. 

ABDUCTOR, same etymon. (F) Abducteur. 
A muscle which moves certain parts by sepa- 
rating them from the axis of the body. 

Abductor Auricularis, Abductor auris — 
a. Indicis pedis, Prior indicis pedis, Posterior 
indicis pedis — a. Medii digiti pedis, Prior 
medii digiti pedis — a. Minimi digiti, Flexor 
parvus minimi digiti — a. Minimi digiti, Prior 
minimi digiti — a. Oculi, Rectus externus oculi 
— a. Pollicis manus, and a. Brevis alter, Abduc- 
tor pollicis brevis. 

Abductor Auris, Abductor auricula'ris. (F) 
Abducteur de Voreillc. A portion of the poste- 
rior auris, the existence of which is not con- 
stant, and which passes from the mastoid pro- 
cess to the concha. 

Abductor In'dicis. Scmi-intcros scus indi- 
cts. A muscle which arises from the 03 trape- 
zium and metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is 
inserted into the first bone of the forefinger. 
Its use is to bring the forefinger towards the 
thumb. 

Abductor Min'imi Dig"iti, Carpo-phalan- 
irrus minimi digiti, Carpo-phalangien du petit 
doigt, Extcn'sor tcr'tii interno'dii minimi digiti 



ABDUMEN 



12 



ABLUTION 



— (Douglas.) Hypotk'enar minor mctacarpeus. 
See Flexor parvus. It originates fleshy from 
the os pisiforme, and from the annular ligament 
near it; and is inserted, tendinous, into the 
inner side of the base of the first bone of the 
little finger. Use, to draw the little finger from 
the rest. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis, Calco-sub- 
phalangeus minimi digiti, Calcayieo-phalangien 
du petit orteil, Parath'enar major — (Winslow, 
by whom the muscle is divided into two por- 
tions. Parathenar major and metatarseus.) Cal- 
caneo-sous-phalangien du petit orteil — (Ch.) 
(F) Mducteur du petit orteil. This muscle forms 
the outer margin of the sole of the foot, and is 
immediately beneath the plantar aponeurosis. 
It arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the outer 
side of the protuberance of the os calcis, and 
from the root of the metatarsal bone of the lit- 
tle toe, and is inserted into the outer part of the 
root of the first bone of the little toe. Use. To 
draw the little toe outwards. 

Abductor Pol'licis Brevis, Abductor Pol- 
licis Manus, Scapho-carpo-super-phalangeus Pol- 
licis, Sus-phalangicn du pouce, A. pollicis manus 
and A. brevis alter — (Albinus.) (F) Abductcur 
court du pouce. Car po- sus-phalangicn du pouce 
— (Ch.) A short, flat, triangular muscle, which 
arises from the anterior surface of the os sca- 
phoides and the annular ligament of the car- 
pus, and terminates at the outside of the upper 
extremity of the first phalanx of the thumb. A 
particular portion, on the inner side of this 
muscle, is called, by Albinus, Abductor brevis 
alter. 

Abductor Longus Pollicis, A. I. P. Manus, 
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis manus, Exten- 
sor primi internodii — (Douglas,) Extensor pri- 
mus Pollicis, Cubito-radi-sus-metacarpien du 
pouce, Cubito-sus-mitacarpien du pouce, — 
(Ch.) (F) Abducteur long du pouce. A 
long, thin muscle, arising from the posterior 
surface of the ulna, radius, and interosseous 
ligament, and inserted at the outer side of the 
upper extremity of the first metacarpal bone. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, Calco-sub-pha- 
langeus Pol'licis. (F) Abducteur du gros orteil. 
This muscle arises, fleshy, from the anterior 
and inner part of the protuberance of the os cal- 
cis, and tendinous from the same bone where it 
joins with the os naviculare. It is inserted, ten- 
dinous, into the internal os sesamoideum and 
root of the first bone of the great toe. Use. To 
pull the great toe from the rest. 

The name Abductor has been given also to 
all those interosseous muscles of the hand and 
foot, which perform the motion of abduction on 
the fingers or toes, and to muscles which exe- 
cute the same function on other parts of the body. 

ABDUMEN, Abdomen. 

ABEBiE'OS,from aneg. and (2i0*iit, ' firm,' 
infir'mus, deb'ilis. Weak, infirm, unsteady. 

ABEILLE, Bee. 

ABELMOSCHUS, Hibiscus Abelmoschus. 

ABELMUSK, Hibiscus Abelmoschus. 

ABELMELUCH. One of the names of the 
Ricinus, according to some authors. — Prosper 
Alpinus says that a tree, which grows about 
Mecca, is so called. Its seeds, which are black 
and oblong, are said to be a most violent ca- 
thartic. 



ABENSBERG, MINERAL WATERS OF. 

A. is a city of Bavaria, where there is a cold, 
sulphureous spring. 

ABERRATION, Abcrra'tio, from aberra're, 
< to wander from.' This word has several mean- 
ings. . 

1. The passage of a fluid of the living body 
into an order of vessels not destined for it. The 
passage of red blood, for example, into white 
vessels. . 

In this sense it is synonymous with the Er- 
ror Loci of Boerhaave. 

2. The flow of a fluid towards an organ dif- 
ferent from that to which it is ordinarily di- 
rected; as in cases of vicarious hemorrhage. 
Aberrations of sense or judgment are certain 
errors in the images perceived or certain de- 
rangements of the intellectual faculties. 

The word is used in optics to designate the 
dispersion of the rays of light in passing through 
a lens. 

The Aberration or Spheric"ity, or spher- 
ical aberra'tion, takes place, when the rays, as 
in a common lens, which pass through the cen- 
tre of the lens, and those which pass near the 
circumference, are unequally refracted, so that 
they do not meet at a common focus. 

This aberration of sphericity in the human 
eye is corrected by the iris. 

The Aberration of Refrangibil'ity ex- 
ists, when, as in a common lens, the rays that 
pass near the circumference of the lens are de- 
composed, so that a coloured image is observed. 
This aberration in the human eye is corrected 
by the iris, which does not permit the rays to 
fall near the circumference of the lens, and also 
by the crystalline lens itself, which, owing to 
its structure, serves the purposes of an achro- 
matic glass. 

ABESSI, Realgar. 

ABEVACUATIO. Apoccno'sis, from ab, 
diminutive, and evacuo, ' I empty.' An evac- 
uation. A partial or imperfect evacuation. By 
some, it is applied to an immoderate evacua- 
tion. — Kraus. 

ABHAL. A fruit well known in India, and 
obtained from a species of cypress. It passes 
for an emmenagogue. 

ABIES, Pinus Picea — a. Canadensis, Pinus 
balsamea — a. Gallica, Pinus picea — a. Rubra, 
Pinus rubra. 

ABIGA, Teucrum Chamoepitys. 

ABIOTOS, Conium Maculatum. 

ABIRRITATION. Ab-irrita'tio, from ab, 
privative, and irrita'tio, ' irritation.' This word 
strictly means, absence or defect of irritation. 
The disciples of Broussais use it to indicate a 
pathological condition, opposite to that of irri- 
tation. It may be considered as synonymous 
with Debility, Asthenia, &c. 

ABLACTATIO, Weanino- 

ABLATIO, Extirpation. " 

ABLUENS, Abstergent. 

ABLUTION. Ablu'tio, Aponip'sis, Cata- 
clijs'mus, from Ablu'erS, ' to wash.' A name 
given to legal ceremonies in which the body i s 
subjected to particular affusions. Ablution 
(especially of the extremities) with cold or te- 
pid water is employed, therapeutically to reduce 
febrile heat. Also, the washing by 'which me- 



ABNORMAL 



13 



ABSCESSUS, &c. 



dicines are separated from the extraneous mat- 
ters mixed with them. 

ABNORMAL, Abnormous. 
ABNORM1TAS, Anomalia. 
ABNORMOUS, Abnormal, Anormal, from 
ab, from, and norma, ' rule.' Not conformable 
to rule, irregular. 

ABOLL'TION, MoW'tio, destruction or sup- 
pression. A word, often employed, especially 
by the French, to express the complete suspen- 
sion of any symptom or function. Abolition of 
the sight, e. g. is the complete loss of sight. 

ABOMA'SUS, Abomasum, Enys'tron, Ren- 
net. The lowermost or fourth stomach of rumi- 
nating animals. 
ABOMINA'TIO, Disgust. 
ABONDAKCE, Plethora. 
ABORSIO, Abortion. 
ABORSUS, Abortion. 
ABORTIF, Abortive. 

ABORTION, Abor'tus, Abor'sus, Abor'sio, 
Dysto'cia aborti'va, Omotocia, Paracye'sis abor- 
tus, Amblo'sis,Amblo'ma, Diaph'thora, Ectro'sis, 
Examblo'ma, Examldo'sis, Ectros'mos, Apopal- 
le'sis, Apopal'sis, Apoph'thora, Pthora, ConvuV- 
sio u'teri, Deperdi'tio. (F) Avorlement, Bles- 
sure, Miscarriage. The expulsion of the 
foetus before the seventh month of uterogesta- 
tion, or before it is viable, (q. v.) The causes 
of this accident are referrible either to the mo- 
ther, and particularly to the uterus ; or to the 
foetus and its dependencies. The causes, in the 
mother, may be : — extreme nervous suscepti- 
bility, great debility, plethora ; faulty conform- 
ation, &c; and it is frequently induced imme- 
diately by intense mental emotion, violent 
exercise, &c. The causes seated in the fetus 
are its death, rupture of the membranes, &c. It 
most frequently occurs between the 8th and 
12th weeks of gestation. The symptoms of 
abortion are : — uterine hemorrhage with or 
without flakes of decidua, with intermitting 
pain. When abortion has once taken place, it 
is extremely apt to recur in subsequent preg- 
nancies about the same period. Some writers 
have called abortion, when it occurs prior to 
three months, Effluxion. The treatment must 
vary according to the constitution of the patient 
and the causes giving rise to it. In all cases, 
the horizontal posture and perfect quietude are 
indispensable. 

Abortion is likewise applied to the pro- 
duct of an untimely birth. Amblolhrid'ion, 
Er.troma, Abortment. (F) Avorton, Avortin. 

TO ABORT', Abori'ri. To miscarry. (F) 
Avortcr. 

ABOR'TIV E,Aborti'vus,Amblo'ticus, Phthor'- 
ius, Apophthor'ius. Ectrot'icus. (F) Abor- 
tif. A medicine to which is attributed the pro- 
perty of causing abortion. There is probably 
no direct agent of the kind. 
ABOKTMENT, Abortion. 
ABORTUS, Abortion. 
ABOUCHEMEJYT, Anastomosis. 
ABOUTISSEMEJYT, Suppuration. 
ABOULAZA, a tree of Madagascar, used, 
according to Flacourt, in the practice of the 
country, in diseases of the heart. 

ABRABAX, Abrasax, Abraxas. A mystic 
term expressing the number 365, and to which 
the Cabalists attributed miraculous properties. 



ABRACADA'BRA : the name of a Syrian 

Idol, according to Selden. This word, when 

pronounced and repeated in a certain form and 

a certain number of times, was supposed to 

have the power of curing fevers and preventing 

many diseases. It was figured on amulets and 

worn suspended round the neck. 

abracadabra 

bracadabra 

racadabra 

acadabra 

c a d a b r a 

a d a b r a 

d a b r a 

a b r a 

bra 

r a 

a 

ABRACALAN, A cabalistic term to which 
the Jews attributed the same virtue as to the 
word Abracadabra. 
ABRASAX, Abrabax. 

ABRA'SION, Abra'sio, Aposyr'ma, Apoxys'- 
mus, from abra'dere, ' to rasp.' A superficial 
excoriation, with loss of substance, under the 
form of small shreds, in the mucous membrane 
of the intestines. (F) Raclure des Boyaux. 
Also, an ulceration of the skin, possessing simi- 
lar characters. According to Vicq d'Azyr, the 
word has been used for the absorption of the 
molecules composing the various organs. 
ABRATHAN, Artemisia abrotanum. 
ABRAXAS, Abrabax. 
ABREVIATION, Abbreviation. 
ABRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 
ABROSIA, Abstinence. 
ABROTANUM CATHSUM, Artemisia 
abrotanum — a. Mas, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABROTONI'TES, a /BgoTovrmc, (oivos ' wine ' 
understood.) Wine impregnated with the Ar- 
temisia Abrotanum or Southernwood. 
ABRUPTIO, Abduction. 
ABSCESS, from abscedo, ' I depart,' or ' se- 
parate from.' Absces'sus, Absces'sio, Aphiste'sis, 
Apostc'ma, Impos'thume, Ecpye'ma, Ecpye'sis, 
Rcces'sus. (F) Abcbs, Depot. A collection 
of pus in a cavity, the result of a morbid pro- 
cess. See Pyogenia and Suppuration. 

The French have various distinctive terms 
for Abscesses. 

The Abces chaud, aigu, soudain, is one which 
follows violent inflammation. 

The Abces froid, chroniquc, scrofuleux, one 
which is the result of chronic or scrofulous in- 
flammation. 

The Abces par congestion, A. mHastatiquc, 
is a symptomatic abscess, one which occurs in 
a part at a distance from the inflammation by 
which it is occasioned: e. g. a lumbar abscess ; 
(q. v.) in which the inflammation may be in the 
lumbar vertebrae, whilst the pus exhibits itself 
at the groin. 

Abscess, psoas, Lumbar abscess. 
ABSCESSUS CAPITIS SANGUINEUS 
NEONATORUM, Cephalajmatoma— a. Gan- 
grrenescens, Anthrax — a. Gangrsenosus, An- 
thrax — a. Lumborum, Lumbar abscess — a. 
Mammas, Mastodynia apostematosa — a. Nuclea- 
tus, Furunculus — a. Oculi, Hypopyon — a. 
Pectoris, Empyema — a. Pulmonum, Empyema 



ABSCISION 



n 



ACACIA GUMMX 



— a. Spirituosus, Aneurism — a. Thoracis, Em- 
pyema. 

ABSCIS'ION, Mscis'io, Mscis'sio, from 
absci'dere or abscin'dere, ' to cut off' Apoc'opP., 
Jipothrau'sis, Diac'opS. Excision or extirpation 
of a part, especially of a soft part. — Fabricius 
Hildanus. 

A fracture or injury of soft parts with loss of 
substance. — Hippocrates. 

Diminution, or loss of voice. — Celsus. 

Sudden and premature termination of a dis- 
ease. — Galen. 

ABSC1SSIO PRiEPUTII, Circumcision. 

ABSCONSIO, Sinus. 

ABSINTHITES, a^vS-/™, Apsinthi'tes, 
Wine impregnated with Absinthium or Worm- 
wood. — Dioscorides. 

ABSINTHIUM, Artemisia absinthium— a. 
Maiitimum, Artemisia maritima — a. Ponti- 
cum, Artemisia pontica — a. Romanum, Arte- 
misia pontica — a. Santonicum, Artemisia san- 
tonica. 

ABSORBENT, Absorbent. 

ABSOR'BENT, Absor'bens from absorberc, 
' to drink, to suck up.' (F) Absorbant. That 
which absorbs. 

The Absorbent System is the collection of 
vessels and glands, which concur in the exer- 
cise of absorption. 

A medicine used for absorbing acidity in 
the stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, 
&c. 

Also, any substance, such as cobweb, sponge, 
&c, which, when applied to a bleeding surface, 
retains the blood, and forms with it a solid and 
adhesive compound, which arrests the hemor- 
rhage. 

ABSORP'TION, Rcsorp'tio, Inhala'tio, Imbi- 
li"tio, Absorp'tio, Catarrhophc'sis, Catar'rhophe, 
same etymon. The function of absorbent ves- 
sels, by virtue of which they take up substances 
from without or within the body. Two great 
divisions have been made of this function. 1. 
External absorption, or the absorption of compo- 
sition, which obtains, from without the organs, 
the materials intended for their composition : 
and, 2. Internal absorption, or the absorption of 
decomposition, which takes up from the organs 
the materials that have to be replaced by the 
exhalants. 

By external absorption is meant not only that 
which takes place at the external surface of the 
body, but also that of the mucous membranes of 
the digestive and respiratory passages. Hence, 
again, the division of external absorption into 
cutaneous, intestinal or digestive, and pulmonary 
or respiratory. 

Internal absorption is also subdivided into, 1. 
Molecular or interstitial, nutritive or organic, 
which takes up from each organ the materials 
that constitute it, so that the decomposition is 
always in equilibrio with the deposition. 2. 
The absorption of recrcmentitial secreted fluids, 
such as the fluid of serous membranes, synovia, 
&c. As these are constantly exhaled on sur- 
faces, which have no external outlet, they 
Would augment indefinitely, if absorption did 
not remove them in the same proportion as that 
in which they are deposited. 3. The absorption 
of a part of the excr cm en filial secreted fluids, as 
they pass over the excretory passages. 



Absorption does not effect the decomposition 
of the body immediately. It merely prepares 
the fluid which has to be eliminated by the se- 
cretory organs. 

The great agents of external absorption are 
the veins and chyliferous vessels ; of internal 
absorption, probably the lymphatics. In the 
chyliferous vessels and lymphatics the fluid is 
always found to possess the same general pro- 
perties. In them, therefore, an action of ela- 
boration or selection must have taken place. 

The veins, on the other hand, seem to exert 
no selection. Any fluid, possessing the neces- 
sary tenuity, passes through the coats of the 
vessel readily by imbibition, and proceeds along 
with the torrent of the circulation. Watery 
fluids in this manner enter the blood when they 
are taken into the stomach. Substances that 
require digestion, on the other hand, must pass 
through the chyliferous vessels and thoracic 
duct. 

ABSTkME, Abstemious. 

ABSTE'MIOUS, Abste'mius, Aoi'nos, from 
abs, ' without,' and teme'tum, ' wine.' (F) 
Absteme. Used by the ancient writers as well 
as by the French in the sense only of its roots ; 
— one who abstains from wine or fermented li- 
quors in general. 

ABSTER'GENT, from abster'gere, < to 
clean.' Abstersi'vus, Abster'sive, Ab'luens, Ab- 
sterso'rius, Deter' gens, Rhyp'ticus, Traumaticus. 
A medicine that cleanses the part to which it is 
applied. 

ABSTERGENT1A, Detergents. 

ABSTERSIVUS, Abstergent. 

ABSTERSORIUS, Abstergent. 

AB'STINENCE, Abstincn'tia, from abs, 
' from,' and tenere, ' to hold,' Abrosia, Asitia, 
Liman' chia, Limocto'nia, Fasting. Privation, 
usually voluntary, as when we speak of absti- 
nence from pleasure, abstinence from drink, &c. 
It is more particularly used to signify voluntary 
privation of certain articles of food. Fasting 
is a useful remedial agent in certain diseases, 
particularly in those of an inflammatory cha- 
racter. 

ABSUS, a kind of cassia — C.Absus — which 
grows in Egypt and in India, the seeds of 
which, pulverized and mixed with powdered 
sugar, have been employed, in form of a dry 
collyrium, in the endemic ophthalmia of Egypt 

ABUS DE SOI-MeME, Masturbation. 

ABUTA, Pareira brava. 

ABVACUA'TIO, an excessive or colliqua- 
tive evacuation of any kind. 

ACACIA GERMANICA, see Primus spi- 
nosa— a. Indica, Tamarindus— a. Nostras, see 
Prunus spinosa— a. Vera, see Acacia; gummi 
— a. Zeylonica, Hasmaloxylon Campechianum 

ACAC17E GUMMI, G. Aca'cioz Arab'ica-, G. 
Arab'icum, G. Acanthinum, G. Lcucum, G. The- 
baicum, G. Serapio'nis, G. Lamac, G. Senega or 
Seneca, Gum Ar'abic. (F) Gomme Arabique. 
1 he gum of the Mimosa Ailot'ica, Aca'cia vera 
Spina JEgyptiaca, of Upper Egypt, Kat. Ord 
Mimosem. Sex. Syst. Polygamfa Moncccia. It 
is in irregular pieces, colourless, or of a pale 
yellow colour, hard, brittle, of a shining frac- 
ture, transparent, soluble in water, and insolu- 
ble in alcohol, s. g. 1.4317. 

It is mucilaginous; but is rarely used, except 



ACAJOU 



15 



ACCLIMATION 



in Pharmacy. Sometimes it is administered 
alone as a demulcent. 

ACAJOU, Anacardium occidentale. 

ACAM'ATOS, from a priv. and khjuvoi, < I 
labour.' This word has been sometimes used 
for a good constitution of the body. According 
to Galen, it means that position in which a 
limb is intermediate between flexion and exten- 
sion ; a position which may be long maintained 
without fatigue. 

ACAMPSIA, Contractura. 

ACANOS, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHA, Vertebral column. Also, Spi- 
nous process of a vertebra. 

ACANTHA B'OLOS, Acan'thulus, Volsel'la, 
from cDtsLvSa., 'a spine,' and (ia.KKu>, 'I cast 
out.' A kind of forceps for removing extra- 
neous substances from wounds. — Paulus of 
iEgina, Fabricius ab Acquapendente, Scultetus, 

ACANTHALZUCA, Echinops. 

ACAJYTHE FAUSSE, Heracleum spondy- 
lium. 

ACANTHIUM, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHULUS, Acanthabolos. 

ACANTHUS MOLLIS, Melamphyl'lum, 
Bran'ca ursi'na, Brankur'sine, Bear's Breech, 
(F) Piid (Tours. This plant is mucilaginous 
like the Althaea, and is used as a demulcent. 

ACAPATLI, Piper longum. 

ACAR'DIA from a. priv., and tut/xti*, ' the 
heart.' The state of a fcetus without a heart. 

ACARICOBA. The Brazilian name for the 
Hydrocot'yle umbella'tum, used by the Indians as 
an aromatic, alexipharmic, and emetic. 

ACARON, Myrica gale. 

AC'ARUS from a. privative, and jta/ioc, 'di- 
visible.' A minute insect, noticed by several 
observers, in the itch. The Acarus Scabici, 
Sarcopte, Ciron. 

Acarus Cmo, see Psora — a. Scabiei, see 
Psora. 

ACATALEP'SIA from «. privative, and 
*.a.'rcLK*fA.@*.vo), ' I comprehend.' Uncertainty 
in diagnosis. Its opposite is Catalepsia. — Ga- 
len. 

ACATAP'OSIS, from* privative, and xwi- 
7ro<ri(, ' deglutition.' Incapacity of swallowing. 
Vogei has given this name to difficulty in deg- 
lutition. 

ACATASTAT'IC, Acatastat'icus, from * 
priv., and KaStrTHpi, ' to determine.' An epi- 
thet given to fevers, &c, when irregular in 
their periods or symptoms. — Hippocrates. 

ACATHAR'SIA, from a. priv., and x.xSrai- 
pity, ' I purge.' Sordes, Impurities. Omission 
of a purgative. — Foesius. 

ACATSJAVAL'LI, a Malabar plant, which 
is astringent and aromatic. A bath cf it is used 
in the country in cases of Hemicrania. It is 
supposed to be the Cassytha filiformis of Lin- 
naeus. 

AC A WERIA, Ophioxylum serpentinum. 

ACCABLEMENT, Torpor. 

ACCELERATEUR, Accelerator urinte. 

ACCELERATOR URl'NiE, Bulbo-caver- 
no'sus, Bulbo-urclral — (Ch.) Ejacxda'tor Semi'- 
nis, Bulbo-syndesmo-caverncux. (F) Arcrlira- 
teur. A muscle of the penis, which arises, 
fleshy, from the sphincter ani and membranous 
part of the urethra, and tendinous from thecrus 



and beginning of the corpus cavernosum penis. 
In its course it forms a thin, fleshy layer, the 
inferior fibres of which run more transversely 
than the superior, which descend in an oblique 
direction ; the muscles of both sides completely 
enclosing the bulb of the urethra. It is inserted 
into its fellow by a tendinous line running lon- 
gitudinally on the middle of the bulb. Its use 
is to propel the urine or semen forwards. 

ACCENT, Sonus vocis. Inflection or modi- 
fication of the voice, which consists in raising 
or dropping it on certain syllables. 

The accent exhibits various alterations in 
disease. 

ACCES, Paroxysm. 

ACCES'SION, Acces'sio, from acce'do, <I 
approach.' The invasion, approach, or com- 
mencement of a disease. 

ACCESSOIRE, Accessory— a. du long J16- 
chisseur commun des orteils : see Flexor longus 
digitorum pedis profundus perforans (accesso- 
rius) — a. de VObturatcur interne, Ischio-tro- 
chanterianus — a. du pied d' Hippocampe : see 
Cornu ammonis — a du Sacro-lombaire : see Sa- 
cro-lumbalis. 

ACCESSORIUS FLEXOR LONGUS 
DIGITORUM PEDIS: see Flexor longus 
digitorum pedis profundus perforans (accesso- 
rius) — a. Pedis hippocampi. See Cornu ammo- 
nis. 

ACCESSORY, Accesso'rius, (F) Accessoirc, 
Annexe. A consequence or dependance on any 
thing ; as accessory ligament, muscle, nerve, &c. 

The Accessory Sciences to Medicine are 
those which do not relate directly to the science 
of man in a state of health or disease ; as phy- 
sics, chymistry,&c. 

The term accessory is also given to several 
muscles. 

The Accessory of the Parot'id is a name 
given by Haller to a small gland, which ac- 
companies the parotid duct, and which is com- 
monly a mere prolongation of the Parotid itself. 

Accessory of the far vagum, Spinal 
nerve. 

ACCESSUS, Coition. 

ACC1DENS, Symptoma — a. Consecutifs, 
Consecutive phenomena. 

ACCIDENT, Accidcns, from accidere, to 
happen. A casualty; an unforeseen event. The 
French use the term in nearly the same sense 
as symptom. It means also an unexpected 
symptom. 

ACCIDENTAL, adventitious. That which 
happens unexpectedly. 

The French give the name Tissus accidcntels 
to those adventitious textures, that are the result 
of a morbid process. 

ACCIPTTER, Hierax, bg*£, 'the hawk.' 
Mencc'ratis Accip'itcr. (F) Epcrvicr. A ban- 
dage applied over the nose, so called from its 
likeness to the claw of a hawk. 

ACCLIMATED, Clima'ti assue/tus, a word 
of recent introduction from the French, which 
means ' accustomed to a climate.' 

ACCLTMATEMEJYT, Acclimation. 

ACCLIMATlOxN, Seasoning. (F) Accli- 
matement. The act of becoming acclimated, 
or accustomed to a climate. 

The constitution of a person, who goes to 
live in another and very different climate, 



ACCOMFANlMEiNT 



16 



ACETICUM 



usually experiences changes, which are fre- 
quently of an unfavourable character, and the 
study of which is of considerable importance in 
medicine. 

ACCOM'PANIMENT, Adjunctum. (F) Ac- 
compagnement. That which is joined to any 
thing. 

An Accompaniment to the cataract is a whitish, 
viscid substance, which sometimes surrounds 
the opaque crystalline and remains after the 
operation for cataract, causing a secondary 
cataract. 

ACCOUCHEE, Puerpera. 

ACCOUCHEMENT, Parturition— a. Labo- 
rious, Dystocia — a. Contre nature, see Presenta- 
tion, preternatural — a. Laborieux, Laborious 
labour. 

ACCOUCHEUR, (F.) Adju'tor Partus, Ob- 
stet'ricans, Maieuter. He who practises the art 
of midwifery. A Physician- Accoucheur , a Sur- 
geon-Accoucheur, A man-midwife, &c. 

ACCOUCHEUSE, Midwife. 

ACCOUTUMAJVCE, Habit. 

ACCRETION, Accre'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
crescere, ' to increase.' Augmentation ; also, 
increase by juxta-position. 

ACCROISSEMEJYT, Increase. 

ACCUSATIO, Indication. 

ACE'DIA, Jncuria, from a privative, and 
»»<Toc, 'care.' Want of care, neglect. Also, 
fatigue. — Hippocrates. 

ACELLA, Axilla. 

ACEPH'ALOBRACHUS,from a. privative, 
xs<t>*Mf, 'head,' and 0ga^icuv, 'arm.' A foetus 
without head or arms. 

ACEPH'ALOCHIRUS, from a. privative, 
xHpcthti, 'head,' and x. u ii ' h an <L' A fcetus 
without head or hands. 

ACEPH'ALOCYST, Acephalocystfis, from a 
privative, x.i^a.\n, ' head,' and kvo-ti;, ' bladder.' 
An hydatiform vesicle, without head or visible 
organs, ranked amongst the Entozoa, although 
possessed of few animated characteristics. — See 
Hydatid. 

ACEPH'ALOGAS'TER, Alhoracoceph'a- 
lus, from * privative, *sep«A», ' head,' and ya.<r- 
«mg, ' the belly.' A name given to monsters 
devoid of head, chest, and abdomen ; or to those 
which have an abdomen but no chest or head. 

ACEPHALOS'TOMA, from * privative, 
*,t<$a.\», ' head,' and (rro/ua., * mouth.' An ace- 
phalous fcetus, at the upper part of which there 
is an opening resembling a mouth. 

ACEPH'ALOTHORUS, from a. privative, 
xscpstxj), 'head,' and 3-&>/>*£, 'chest,' Apectoce- 
pkalus. A monster, devoid of head or chest. 

ACEPH'ALOUS, from a. priv. and xs<pca», 
1 head.' A monster born devoid of head. The 
condition is called Accphalia. 

ACER, Acrid. 

ACER SACCHARFNUM. The Maple, Su- 
<rar Maple. (F) Arable. This tree contains a 
Targe amount of sweet sap, whence a conside- 
rable quantity of sugar may be extracted. 
When purified, this, sugar can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from that obtained from the cane. — 
See Saccharum. 

ACERB, Acer' bus, Stryphnos, from acer, 
* sharp.' A savour, or taste, compounded of 
the acid, bitter, and astringent} such as is met 
with in unripe fruits, &c. 



ACE'RIDES, from * privative, and *»g«f, 
' wax.' Plasters devoid of wax.— Galen. 

ACERO'SUS, Achyro'des, Pithyn'nus, from 
avi/gov 'chaff' Furfura'ceous. An epithet used, 
by Hippocrates, for the coarsest bread, made of 
flour not separated from the chaff— Foesius. 

ACERVULUS CEREBRI. See Pineal 
Gland. 

ACES'CENCY, Acescen'tia, from aces'cere, 
1 to grow sour.' A disposition to acidity. The 
Humourists believed that the animal humours 
are susceptible of this change. 

ACESIS, Curation, Medicament. 

ACESMA, Medicament. 

ACESTOR, Physician. 

ACESTORIS, Midwife. 

ACESTOS, Curable. 

ACESTRA, Needle. 

ACETA MEDICATA, Acetica. 

ACETABULA UTERINA, Cotyledons. 

ACETAB'ULUM, from ace'tum, ' vinegar,' 
because it resembles the old vinegar vessel 
oxybaphon, c£v/3*<?iee. A measure capable of 
containing the 8th part of a modern pint. — 
Athenaeus. Galen. See Cotyloid. According 
to Castelli, the lobes or cotyledons of the pla- 
centae of ruminating animals have been so 
called. 

Acetabulum, Cotyle, Cotyloid — a. Mari- 
num, Umbilicus marinus. 

ACETA'RIA, same etymon. A salad or 
pickle. 

ACETAS, Acetate. 

ACETATE, Actftas. A salt formed by the 
union of the acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, 
or metallic base. The acetates, chiefly used in 
medicine, are the acetates of ammonia, lead, 
potash, and zinc. 

ACE'TICUM, ACIDUM, Acidum Ace'ti- 
cum for'tius, A. A. forte. A. Ace'ticum purum, 
Ace'tum radica'le, Oxos, Aceftic Acid, Strong 
Acc'tous Acid, Acidum Aceto'sum forts, Rad'ical 
Vinegar, Spir'itus Ven'eris {when made from 
verdigris,) Spirit of Verdigris. Concentrated 
acetic acid, prepared by decomposing an ace- 
tate and receiving the acetic acid by distillation, 
has a very pungent and grateful odour, and an 
acid and acrid taste. Its s. g. is about 1.046, 
and it is very volatile. 

It is stimulant, rubefacient, and escharotic, 
and is applied to the nostrils in syncope, as- 
phyxia, headaches, &c. It destroys warts. 

An Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar, Ac"idum 
Ace'ticum Camphora'tum, A. aceto'sum campho- 
ra'tum, is formed of this strong acid,£ vj, Cam- 
phor, § ss, 01. Caryoph, g". xv. 

A strong Acetic Acid is ordered by the Lon- 
don Pharmacopoeia prepared from wood. It is 
called Vinegar of wood, Improved distilled Vin- 
egar, Pyrolig'neous Acid, Ace'tum Ligno'rum, 
and its strength is such, that 87 gr. of crystal- 
lized subcarbonate of soda should saturate 100 
grains of the acid. 

The Ac"idum Ace'ticum Dilu'tum, A. a. 
ten' tic, Ace'tum dcstilla'tum, Acidum ace'ticum, 
Acidum aceto'sum destilla' turn, Acidum ace'ticum 
dcbd'ius, Distilled vin'egar, (F) Acide Antique 
faiblc, VinaigredistilU, is prepared by distilling 
vinegar, rejecting a 4th or 5th part of that 
which comes over first, and avoiding empyreu- 
ma. Its properties are like those of vinegar. 



ACETICA 



17 



ACHRAS SAPOTA 



ACE'TICA, Ace'ta Medico? to, , (F) Vinaigrcs 
Mcdicinaux. Pharmaceutical preparations of 
Vinegar. 

ACETOSA NOSTRAS, Rumex acetosa— a. 
Pratensis, Rumex acetosa — a. Romana, Rumex 
scutatus — a. Rotundifolia, Rumex scutatus — a. 
Vulgaris, Rumex acetosa. 

ACETOSELLA, Oxalis acetosella. 

ACE'TUM, o£uc, Oxys, Jlce'tum Vini, Com- 
mon Vinegar, Acidum. accto'sum, A'lcgar, Jlce'- 
tum Cerevis'ia., (F) Vinaigre. A liquor obtained 
by the acetous fermentntion. Vinegar has a 
pungent odour, and pleasant acid taste, s. g. 
1.0204. R is refrigerant in fevers ; antiseptic, 
and anti-narcotic ; and externally is stimulant 
and discutient. 

Ace'tum Aromat'icum, Jlcidum Ace'ticum 
Aromat'icum, Jlce'tum Theriacale. Thieves' Vin- 
egar, l r incgar of the four Thieves, Marseilles 
Vinegar, -(F) Vinaigre Aromatiquc. V. des qua- 
tre voleurs, (Rorismarin Cacum. sice. Fol. Sal- 
via sing 3 j. Lavand. fior. sice, g iv. Caryoph. 
cont. % ss. Jlcid. Jlcet. lb ij. Macerate 7 days 
and filter. Ph. E.) Odour pungent and aroma- 
tic. Used as a perfume. 

Ace'tum Col'chici, Vinegar of meadow 
saffron, (Colch. rod. recent, concis. g j. Jlcid. 
Acetic lb. j. Sp. tcnuior, § j. Ph. h.) It is used 
as a diuretic and also in gout. Dose, g ss to 

3 iss - 

Acetdji Distillatum : see Aceticum aci- 
dum — a. Lignorum : see Aceticum acidum — a. 
Mulsum dulce, Oxyglycus — a. Radicale, Aceti- 
cum Acidum. 

Ace'tum ScilljE, Jlcidum Ace'ticum Scillitf- 
icum. Vinegar of Squills. Vinaigre scillilique. 
{Scillm rod. recent, exsicc. lb j. Jlceti, lb vj. Sp. 
tcnuior. lb ss. Ph. L.) Diuretic, expectorant, 
and emetic. Dose 3 ss. to g ij. as a diuretic 
and expectorant. 

Acetum Theriacale, Theriacale aroma- 
ticum. 

Aceyte de Sal. A remedy for Bronchocele 
used in S. America. Roulin found it to con- 
lain a portion of Iodine. 

ACHACANA. A species of Cactus, in the 
province of Potosi in Peru. Its root is thick 
and fleshy, and of a conical shape. It is a good 
edible, and is sold in the markets of the coun- 
try. 

ACHANACA. A plant of the kingdom of 
Mely in Africa. It is used by the natives as an 
antisyphilitic. 

ACHAOVAN, a species of Egyptian chamo- 
mile. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ACHAOVAN-ABIAT. The Egyptian name 
of the cineraria maritima, used in female dis- 
eases. 

ACHAR, Atchar. 

ACHE, Apium graveolens — a. des Montagues, 
Liguslicum levisticum. 

ACHEI'LIA, from a. priv. and x itKo ^ ' n P-' 
A malformation, consisting in a deficiency of 
a lip or lips. 

ACHEIR, demanus, from a. privative, and 
yap. hand. One devoid of hands. — Galen. 

ACIIEROIS, Populus. 

ACM I A, jlchiar. A name given in India to 
the pickled shoots of the bamboo. 

Achia, Atchar. 

ACHIAR, Achia. 
3 



ACHIC'OLUM, Achi'tolus, Hidrote'rion, Su- 
da'rium, Fornix, Tholus, Sudato'rium. The 
sweating-room in the ancient bagnios. 

ACHILLE'A AGE'RATUM, Balsami'ta 
famirica, Eupato'rium MEsuEs,Agc'ratum, Cos 1 - 
tus horto'rum Minor, Maudlin, Maudlin Tansey. 
(F) Achille Visqueuse. JYat. Ord. Composite. 
Sub. Ord. Anthemideae. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia 
Polygamia superflua. Has the same properties 
as tansey, bitter and aromatic, and is used in 
like affections. 

The Achille'a Atra'ta, Herba Gen'ipi veri, 
(F) Achillie Noire, has similar virtues. 

Achille'a millefo'lium, Achille'a Myrio- 
pliijllon, Chrysocfoma, Millefo'lium, Chiliophyl' - 
Ion, Lumbus Vcn'eris,Milita'ris herba, Stratio'tcs, 
Carpentaria, Spec'ulum Ven'eris, Common Yar- 
row or Milfoil. (F) Millcfeuille. The leaves 
and flowers have an aromatic smell, and a 
rough, bitterish, somewhat pungent taste. 
They have been used in dyspepsia, flatulence, 
tfce. 

Achille'a Ptar'mica, Psendo-pyre'thrvm, 
Pyre' thrum sylves' Ire , Draco sylves'tris, Tarchon 
sylves'tris, Stcrnutamcnto'ria, Dracun' cuius Pra- 
ten'sis, Sneczc-tcort, Bastard Pcl'litory, Ptar'mi- 
ca. (F) Herbc a iternuer. The roots and flowers 
have a hot, biting taste, approaching that of the 
Pyrethrum. Their principal use is as a masti- 
catory and sialogogue. 

ACHILLRE JVOIRE, Achillea atrata— a. 
Visqueuse, Achillea ageratum. 

ACHILLE'IS, a beautiful species of barley, 
mentioned by Thcophrastus and Galen, called 
after a labourer, Achilles. The decoction was 
used in fevers and jaundice. — Hippocrates. 

ACHILLIS, TIONDO, Funis Hippoc'ratis, 
Cor da Hippoc'ratis, Corda magna, JYcrvus 
latus, (F) Tendon d' 'Achille. The strong tendon 
of the gastrocnemii muscles above the heel; so 
called, because it was the only vulnerable part 
of Achilles, or because of its strength. See 
Tendon. 

ACHIMBASSI, Archia'tcr. The chief of 
physicians. A name given, at Grand Cairo, to 
a magistrate who licenses physicians. 

ACHITOLUS, Achicolum. 

ACHLYS, Caligo. 

ACHMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 

ACHNE. Lint. Also, small mucous floc- 
culi situate in front of the cornea. — Hippo- 
crates. 

A< n.vE, Linteum. 

ACIIOLUS, from a. privative, and ^ox», 
1 bile.' Deficient in bile. 

ACHOR, Porrigo larvalis. 

Acho'res. A term often employed by the 
ancients to designate both the crusta lac/tea, 
and small superficial ulcerations on the skin of 
the face and head. Sec Porrigo Larva'lis. 

Aciiores Capitis, Porrigo scutulata. 

ACHORIS'TOS, from « privative, and 
;£&)£/£», ' I separate.' Any sign which neces- 
sarily accompanies a state of health or dis- 
ease. 

ACHOUROU. The Caraib name for a spe- 
cies of myrtle used in dropsy. 

ACHRAS SAPOTA. El Mepero. A very 
abundant tree in South America, the fruit of 
which is excellent. It is astringent. The 
leaves are likewise astringent. The seeds are 



ACHROI 



18 



ACINUS 



aperient and diuretic. It belongs to the family 
Sapoteae. — Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. 

ACHROI, from a. privative, and ^a>y.*, 
' colour.' Pale individuals. — Hippocrates. It 
is nearly synonymous with hti<foa/uioi, persons 
without colour, bloodless. 

ACHROMATIC, Achromat' "lcus , from a 
privative, and x^m/ua, ' colour.' A lens so con- 
structed as to correct the aberration of refran- 
gibility of common lenses. The Crystalline 
Lens is an achromatic lens. 

ACHROMATOP'SIA, Chrornatopseudop'sia . 
from a. privative, xgaf**, 'colour,' and otto/axi, 
'I see.' Incapability of distinguishing colours. 
A defect situate in the cerebral part of the 
visual organ. 

ACHYRODES, Acerosus. 

ACHYRON, Furfur. 

AC1A, from «*», a point. A word used by 
Celsus, and which has puzzled commentators; 
some believing it to have meant a needle ; 
others the thread ; and others, again, the kind 
of suture. "Ada, mollis, non nimis torla." — 
Celsus, Galen. (Chifflet thinks it meant the 
thread, Antwerp, 1G38.) 

ACID,ACETOUS, STRONG, Aceticum aci- 
dum — a. Aerial, Carbonic acid — a. Antimonious, 
Antimonium diaphoreticurn — a. Azotic, Nitric 
acid — a. Benzoic, Benjamin, flowers of — a. Bo- 
ric, Boracic acid — a. Calcareous, Carbonic acid 
— a. Carbonaceous, Carbonic acid — a. Carbon- 
ous, Oxalic acid — a. Gastric, Gastric juice — a. 
Hydrochloronitric, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Iga- 
suric: see Jatrophacurcas — a. of Lemons, Citric 
acid — a. Lithic, Uric acid — a. Dephlogisticated 
marine, Chlorine — a. Mephitic, Carbonic acid 
— a. of Milk, Lactic acid — a. Nitro-hydrochlo- 
ric, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Nitrous dephlogis- 
ticated, Nitric acid — a. Oxyseptonic, Nitric 
acid — a. Polygalic : see Polygala senega — a. 
Prussic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyroligneous : 
see Aceticum acidum — a Pyrolignic, Pyrolig- 
neous acid — a. of Sorrel, Oxalic acid — a. of Su- 
gar, Oxalic acid. 

ACWE ACETiqUE FA1BLE, see Aceti- 
cum acidum — a. Sulphurcux, Sulphurous acid 
— a. Sulfurique delaye, Sulphuricum acidum 
dilutum. 

ACIDS, Ac"ida, Aco'res, from am; ' a point,' 
genitive a.x.tJ'oe. Any liquid, solid, or gaseous 
body, possessed of a sour, more or less caustic 
taste, and the principal character of which is 
the capability of saturating, wholly or in part, 
the alkaline properties of bases. 

The acids, in general, are refrigerant and 
antiseptic. Their particular uses are pointed 
out under tbe individual articles. 

ACID'ITIES, Aco'res, Acidita'tio, Ac"idtim 
morbo'sum, Ac*idum prima' rum via'rum, (F) 
Aigreurs. Sourness of the stomach, the result 
of indigestion, indicated by acid eructations, 
&c. The affection is very common in chil- 
dren, and must be obviated by absorbents, 
as magnesia, chalk, &c, and by regulated 
diet. 

To ACID'ULATE. To render acidulous, 
or slightly acid. (F) Aiauiscr, Acidulcr. 

ACID'ULOUS, Acid'ulus, Oxodes. (F) Acid- 
vie, Aigre, Aigrelet. Substances are called 
acidulous, which possess a sourish taste, as 
tamarinds, cream of tartar, &c. 



Acidulous Fruits. Oranges, Gooseberries, 

&c. 

Acidulous Waters, Aqu<B add'ula. Mineral 
Waters containing carbonic acid gas suhhcient 
to render them sourish. See Waters, Mineral. 

A Simple Aciuulous Water, Aqua a ens 
fid, A'qua add'ula simplex. (F) Eau Actdule 
simple, is water impregnated with fixed air. 

Water, so impregnated, is cooling, and 
slightly stimulating. It is used beneficially in 
dyspepsia, and in cases of vomiting, &c. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM, Aceticum acidum 

a. Aceticum aromaticum, Acetum aromati- 

cum— a. Aceticum camphoratum : see Aceti- 
cum acidum— a. Aceticum empyreumaticum, 
Pyroligneous acid — a. Aceticum Scillilicum, 
Acetum scillse — a. Acetosellsa. Oxalic acid— a. 
Acetosum, Acetum — a. Allantoicum, Allantoic 
acid — a. Amnicum, Amniotic acid — a. Bora- 
cicum, Boracic acid — a. Borussicum, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Carbonicum, Carbonic acid — a. 
Citricum, Citric acid — a. Hydrocarbonicum, 
Oxalic acid — a. Hydrochloricum, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Hydroeyanicum, Hydrocyanic acid 
— a. Hydrothionicum liquiduin, see Hydrosul- 
phuretted water — a. Jatrophicum, see Jatropha 
curcas — a. Lacticum, Lactic acid — a. Ligneum, 
Pyroligneous acid — a. Ligni pyro-oleosum, 
Pyroligneous acid — a. Marinum concentratum, 
Muriaticum acidum — a. Morbosum, Acidities 
— a. Muriaticum nitroso-oxygenatum, Nitro- 
muriatic acid — a. Nitricum, Nitric acid — a. 
Oxalinum, Oxalic acid — a. Phosphoricum, 
Phosphoric acid — a. Primarum viarum, Acidi- 
ties — a Prussicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyro- 
aceticum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Sacchari, Ox- 
alic acid — a. Saccharinum, Oxalic acid — a. Salis, 
Muriaticum acidum — a. Salis culinaris, Muria- 
ticum acidum — a. Salis marini, Muriaticum aci- 
dum — a. Succinicum, Succinic acid — a. Sul- 
phuricum alcoolisatum, Elixir acidum Halleri 
— a. Sulphuris volatile, Sulphurous acid — a. 
Sulphurosicum, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulphuro- 
sum, Sulphurous acid — a. Tartari essentiale, 
Tartaric acid — a. Tartaricum, Tartaric acid — a. 
Tartarosum, Tartaric acid — a. Uricum, Uric acid 
— a. Vitriolicum, Sulphuric acid — a. Vitriolicum 
aromaticum, Sulphuricum acidum aromaticum 
— a. Vitriolicum alcohole aromaticum, Sulphu- 
ricum acidum aromat. — a. Vitriolicum vinosum, 
Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Zooticum, Hydrocy- 
anic acid — a. Zootinicum, Hydrocyanic acid. 

ACIDURGIA, Surgery (operative.) 

ACIER, Chalybs. 

ACIES, Chalybs — a. Digitorum manus, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Diurna, Hemeralopia. 

ACIESIS, Sterilitas. 

ACINE'SIA, Akine'sia, Immobil'itas, Qides, 
Esychia, Erem'ia, from a. privative, and nmtv, 
' to move.' Immobility. Also, the interval 
between the systole and diastole of the heart. 

ACINUS, Ac" inus glandalo' sus , from ax/voc 
or ac"inus, < a grape-stone.' A glandiform cor- 
puscle or granulation. A fancied termination 
of a secretory artery of a gland in a granular 
body, in which the secretion is supposed to 
take place, and the excretory radicle to take its 
r ' s t;- A Cmi are the g l °Vuli artcria'rum ter 1 mini 
of Nichols. The term acini glandulosi has also 
been given to glands, which, like the pancrea3 
are arranged as it were in clusters. 



ACMASTICOS 



19 



ACQUA BINELLI 



ACMAS'TICOS, from a.*.^, 'the top,' and 
a-race, ' I remain.' A fever, which preserves 
an equal degree of intensity throughout its 
course. It is also called Homot'onos. The 
Greeks gave it the name Epacmas'ticos, and 
Siju'ochos, when it went on increasing, and 
Paracmast'icos, when it decreased. — Galen. 

ACME, Vigor, Status, Fasti' gium. The pe- 
riod of a disease at which the symptoms are 
most violent. A^», is 'the commencement;' 
a.vstpx<rtc, 'the period of increase;' and *«,«», 
' the height.' 

ACMON, Incus. 

ACNE, Acna, Ionthus varus, Psydra'cia 
Acne, Stone Pork, Whelk, Bubucle. A small 
pimple or tubercle on the face. — Gorrceus. 
Foesius thinks the word ought to be Acme, 
and, according to Cassius, it is, at all events, 
derived from xx/un, ' vigour ;' the disease affect- 
ing those in the vigour of life, especially. 

Wilan and Bateman have adopted the term 
in their Nosology of cutaneous diseases, and 
placed it in the Order, Tubercula. 

Acne, with them, is an eruption of distinct, 
hard, inflamed tubercles, sometimes continuing 
for a considerable length of time, and some- 
times suppurating slowly and partially. They 
usually appear on the forehead, temples, and 
chin ; and are common to both sexes ; but the 
most severe forms are seen in young men. 
They require but little management, and con- 
sist of four varieties ; the Acne indura'la, A. 
simplex, A. puncta'ta {Ion'lhus varus punctuftus, 
Puncta muco'sm or Maggot Pimple,) A. rosa'cea. 
^— See Gutta Rosea. 

Acne rosacea, Gutta rosea. 

ACNES'TIS, from a. privative, and kvxuv, 
* to scratch.' The part of the spine which ex- 
tends, in quadrupeds, from between the shoul- 
ders to the loins. According to Pollux, the 
middle of the loins. 

ACNESTOS, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ACCE'LIOS, from a. privative, and koikio., 
'belly.' Devoid of belly. One who is so ema- 
ciated as to appear to have no belly. — Galen. 

ACOES1S, Audition. 

ACOLAS1A, Intemperance. 

ACOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ACONE, Mortar. 

ACOJYIT a GRANDS FLEURS, Aconitum 
cammarum — a. Salutaire, Aconitum anthora. 

ACONITINE, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONI'TUM, from Acone, a place in Bithy- 
nia, where it is common. Cynoc'tonon, Cani- 
ci'da, Ac'onitc, Wolfsbane, Monkshood. Nat. Ord. 
Ranunculaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Trigynia. 

Aconi'tum An'thora. Aconi'tum Salutif'e- 
rum, An'thora vulga'ris, Antith'ora, Sal'utary 
Monks'hood. (F) Aconit salutaire. The root of 
this variety, like all the rest, is poisonous. It 
is used as a cathartic and anthelmintic. Dose 
Qssto^j. 

The Aconi'tum Cam'marum. A. pamculatiim. 
(F) Aconit a grands fteurs, resembles the 
Aconitum Napellus in properties. 

Aconi'tum Napel'lus, Napel'lus verus, Aco- 
ni'tum, Common Monkshood or Wolfsbane. A. 
Ncomonta'num. (F) Chaperon de Moine. The 
leaves aie narcotic, sudorific, and deobstruent (?) 
They have been used in chronic rheumatism, 
scrofula, scirrhus, paralysis, amaurosis, &c. 



The active principle is called Aconitine. It has 
been used of late, applied externally, in Neu- 
ralgic cases, iatraleptically and endermically. 
Dose of the Aconitum, gr. j. to gr. iij. 

ACONU'SI, from anon, 'audition," and vow- 
era?, ' disease.' Morbi u.urium el audilus. Dis- 
eases of the ears and audition. 

AC'OPON, from a. privative, and xcjto? 

' weariness.' A remedy against weariness. 

Foesius, Gorraeus, &c.Acopum, — Celsus, Pliny. 
See Anagyris. 

AC'OPlS. Pliny gives this name to a pre- 
cious stone, which was boiled in oil and used 
against weariness. 

^ACOR BENZOINUS, Benjamin— a. Boraei- 
cus, Boracic acid — a. Succineus, Succinic acid 
— a. Sulphuris, Sulphuric acid — a. Tartaricus, 
Tartaric acid. s 

ACORE BATARD, Iris pseudacorus— a. 
Faux, Iris pseudacorus — a. Odorant, Acorus 
calamus. 

ACORES, Acids and Acidities. 

ACO'RIA, from a. privative, and jtogsai, '1 
satiate.' An inordinate or canine appetite. — 
Hippocrates. 

ACORI'TES. A wine made of the Acorus.— 
Dioscorides. 

ACORN, JUPITER'S, Fagus castanea— a. 
Oily, Guilandina moringa — a. Sardinian, Fagua 
castanea. 

ACORNS. See Quercus alba. 

ACORUS CAL'AMUS. A. Verus, Cal'a- 
mus Aromatficus, C. Odora'tus, Cal'amus vul- 
garis, Typha Aromat'ica, Acorus Brazilicn'sis. 
(F) J one Roseau ou Canne aromatique, Acore 
odorant. Nat. Ord. Aroideas. Sex. Syst. Hex- 
andria Monogynia. Clava rugo'sa, Swcctjlacr 
or Ac' or us. The root is stomachic and carmina- 
tive, but is rarely used. It is regarded a good 
adjuvant to bark and quinine in intermittents. 

Acorus Adulterinus, Iris pseudacorus — a. 
Palustris, Iris pseudacorus — a. Vulgaris, Iris 
pseudacorus. 

ACOS, Medicament. 

ACOS'MIA, from a privative, and uo<rjuoc, 
'order, ornament.' Disorder, irregularity in 
the critical days, according to Galen, who uses 
the word ko<t/u&c for regularity in those days. 
Others, and particularly Pollux, call bald per- 
sons AKoc-poi, because they are deprived of one 
of their most beautiful ornaments. 

ACOUOM'ETER, from * K ou*, ' I hear,' and 
fj.irge>v , ' measure.' An instrument designed by 
Itard for measuring the degree of hearing. 

ACOUOPHO'NlA,Co/>/K/ne7x; from mvu, ' I 
hear,' and pa>v», 'voice.' ' Auscultatory Percus- 
sion:' a mode of auscultation, in which the ob- 
server places his ear on the chest, and analyzes 
the sound produced by percussion. — Donne. 

ACOUS'MA, an imaginary noise. Depraved 
sense of hearing. 

ACOUS'TIC, Acus'ticus, that which belongs 
to the ear; as Acoustic nerve, Acoustic trum- 
pet, &,c. 

An Acoustic Medicine is one used in dis- 
eased Audition. 

Acous'tics, Acustica, (F) Acoustique, is the 
part of physics which treats of the theory of 
sounds. It is also called Phonics. 

ACOUSTIQUE, Acoustics. 

ACQUA BINELLI, Aqua Binellii— a. di 



ACQUETTA 



20 



ACROPSILOiN 



della Toffana, 



Napoli, Liquor nrscnicalis 
Liquor arsenicalis. 

ACQUETTA, Liquor arsenicalis. 

ACQUIRED DISEASES, Morbi acquisi'ti, 

Adventitious diseases, M. Advcnti'tii. Diseases 
which occur after birth, and which are not de- 
pendent upon hereditary predisposition. 

ACRAI'PALA, from & privative, and xg*i- 
■nrctKn, 'drunkenness.' Remedies against the 
effects of a debauch. — Gorrams. 

ACRA'LEA, the extreme parts of the body, 
as the head, hands, feet, nose, ear«, &c. — Hip- 
pocrates and Galen. See Acrea. 

ACRA'NIA, from a. privative, and xg*vtcv, 
' the cranium.' Want of cranium, wholly, or 
in part. 

ACRAS SAPOTA. Sapota. 
ACRASIA, from a. privative, or 'bad,' and 
xeu.<ris, 'mixture.' Intemperance. Excess of 
any kind. — Hippocrates. 

It has been employed to denote debility, sy- 
nonymously with Jicratia ; but this may have 
been a typographical inaccuracy. 

ACRATrA, from a. privative, and xg^io^, 
'strength." Impotence; weakness. 

ACRATIS'MA, from a. privative, and xe^a.v- 
vufjii, ' to mix.' A breakfast, consisting of 
bread steeped in wine, not mixed with water. — 
Galen, Athenreus. 

ACRATOM'ELI, from axgurcv, 'pure 
wine,' and /utxi, 'honey.' Wine mixed with 
honey. 

ACRATURE'SIS, from Jicratia, 'weakness,' 
and cvpov, 'urine.' Inability to void the urine 
from paralysis of the bladder. 

ACRE. The extremity or tip of the nose. 
See Acrimony. 

A'CREA, axgaTKgia, Jlcrotc'ria, from axgot, 
' the summit.' The extreme parts of the body, 
as the feet, hands, nose, ears, &c. 

Also, the extreme parts of animals that are 
used as food. Acroco'lia. 

ACRID, from a^gsc, 'a point or summit,' or 
from axu, ' a point,' Acer. An epithet for sub- 
stances which occasion a disagreeable sense of 
irritation or of constriction at the top of the 
throat. 

Acrids, in Pathology, are certain imaginary 
substances, supposed, by the Humourists, to 
exist in the humours, and to cause various dis- 
eases. See Acrimony. 

An Acrid heat, (F) Ckaleur urre, is one that 
causes a hot, tingling sensation at the extremi- 
ties of the fingers. 

ACRIDOPH'AGI, from ax^ic, 'a locust,' 
and qzyai, ' I eat.' Locust-eaters. Acridopha- 
gous tribes are said to exist in Africa. — 
Strabo. 

ACRIMONY, Acu'ilas, Acrimo'nia, Acre. 
Acrimony of the humours. An imaginary acrid 
change of the blood, lymph, &c, which, by the 
Humourists, was conceived to cause many dis- 
eases. 

ACRINIA, from a. privative, and xpva, '1 
separate.' A diminution in the quantity, or a 
total suspension of the secretions. 

ACRIS, a sharp bony prominence. Also, 
the locust. 

ACRIS'IA, from * privative, and xpio-ig, 
' judgment.' A condition of disease, in which 
no judgment can be formed; or in which an 



unfavourable opinion must be given. — Hipp. 
and Galen. 

ACRIT'ICAL, Acritos, from a. privative, 
and xgta-ic,, 'judgment.' That which takes 
place without any crisis, or which docs not 
foretell a crisis; as a critical sijmptoyn, ab- 
scess, &c. 

ACRITOS, Acritical. 

ACRIVIOLA, Tropasolum majus. 

ACROBYS'TIA, Acropos'thia, from axgo;, 
' top,' and fivco, ' 1 cover.' The extremity of 
the prepuce. — Hippocrates. Rufus. 

AC ROCH EI R' , Acrochir' , Acrochcir'on, from 
axgoc, ' extremity,' and x il ii ' tne nan£ l-' The 
fore arm and hand. — Gorrceus. Also, the hand. 

ACHROCHOR'DON, from axgo h 'extre- 
mity,' and ^ogtfr), ' a string.' A tumour, which 
hangs by a pedicle. A kind of hard wart. — 
Aetius, Celsus. 

ACROCHORIS'MUS, from axgo;, 'extre- 
mity,' and ^ogivce, ' I dance.' A kind of dance, 
with the ancients, in which the arms and legs 
were violently agitated. 

ACROCOL1A, Acrea. 

ACROD'RYA, from o.xgo<;, ' extremity,' and 
Jguc, 'a tree.' Autumnal fruits, as nuts, ap- 
ples, &c. 

ACRODYNTA, from «x ? oc, • extremity,' and 
ocTi/va, 'pain.' A painful affection of the wrists 
and ancles especially, which appeared at Paris 
as an epidemic, in 1828 and 1829. It was sup- 
posed by some to be rheumatic, by others to be 
owing to spinal irritation. 

ACROLENION, Olecranon. 

ACRO'MIAL, Acromia'lis. Relating to the 
Acromion. 

The Acromial Artery. External Scap'ular. 
A. Arte'ria Tkorad'ica kumera'lis, Artere troi- 
sieme des Thoraciques , — (Ch.) A. Thoraciquc 
liumcralc, arises from the anterior part of the 
axillary artery, opposite the upper edge of the 
pectoralis minor. It divides into two branches: 
one, superior ; the other, inferior : the branches 
of which are distributed to the subclavius, ser- 
ratus major anticus, first intercostal, deltoid, 
and pectoralis major muscles, as well as to the 
shoulder joint, &c. They anastomose with 
the superior scapular, thoracics, and the cir- 
cumflex arteries. 

The Acromial Vein has the same arrange- 
ment as the artery. 

ACRO'MIO-CORACOIDEUS. Belonging 
to the acromion and coracoid process. 

The triangular ligament between the acro- 
mion and coracoid process of the scapula is so 
called. 

ACRO'MION, Acro'm him, from ux^oc, 'the 
top,' and aunt, 'the shoulder,' Os Acro'mii 
Hu'mcrus summits, Annus summus, Macro hu'- 
meri, Rostrum porci'num, Caput Scap'ula. 
The process which terminates the spine of 
the scapula, and is articulated with the clavi- 
cle. 

ACROMTHALON, Acrompha'lion, from 
|f|o?, ' the top,' and cju<p-j.\ct , ' the navel.' The 
extremity of the umbilical cord, which remains 
attached to the foetus after birth 

ACROPOSTHIA, Acrobystia. 

ACROPSI'LON, from *x § o fj 'extremity,' 
and 4^ c, 'naked.' The extremity of the 
glans penis. J 



ACROS 



21 



ADDEPJJAGIA 



ACROS, ««go?, 'extremity, top.' The 
strength of the Athletae, and of diseases : tlie 
prominences of bones : the extremities of the 
fingers, &c. See Acrocheir, Acromion, &c. 

ACROTER1A, Acres. 

ACROTERIAS'MUS, from «* § 0T» g /*, « the 
extremities;' lience ax.goTxgtct^nv, ' to mutilate." 
Amputation of the extremities. 

ACROTHYMTON, from a H os, ' top,' and 
$u/mcv, ' thyme.' A kind of conical, rugous, 
bloody wart : compared by Celsus to the flower 
of thyme. 

ACROT'ICA, from aicgof, 'summit.' Dis- 
eases affecting the excernent functions of the 
external surface of the body. 

Fravity of the fluids or emunctories that 
open on the external surface ; without fever or 
other internal affection, as a necessary accom- 
paniment. 

The 3d order of the class Eccrit'ica of Good. 

ACROTISMUS, Asphyxia. 

ACT, Actus. The effective exercise of a 
power of faculty. The action of an agent. 
Acte is used by the French, to signify the pub- 
lic discussion, which occurs in supporting a 
thesis: — thus, soutenir un Acte aux Ecoles de 
Medecine, is, ' to defend a Thesis in the Schools 
of Medicine.' 

ACTiE'A RACEMO'SA, Clmicifuga, Ma- 
cro' trijs racernosa. Black snakeroot, Richieced, 
Cohosh. (F) Acte'c a grappas. J\at. Orel. Ra- 
nunculaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Monogynia. 
A common plant in the United States. The 
root is astringent; and, according to Barton, 
has been successfully used in the form of de 
coction, as a gargle in putrid sore throat. A 
decoction of the root cures the itch. It is aero- 
narcotic, and has been used in rheumatism, 
acute and chronic; chorea, &c. 

ACTE, Sambucus. 

ACTE, Act. 

ACTKE a GRAPPES, Actcea racemosa. 

ACTIF, Active. 

ACTION, Actio, Opera'tio, Entrgi'a, Praxis : 
from agerc, ' to act.' Mode in which one ob- 
ject influences another. 

The animal actions are those that occur in 
the animal body : the vital, those that are seen 
in bodies endowed with life : the physiological, 
those of a healthy character : the pathological 
or viorbijic, those that occur in disease, &c. 
The ancients divided the physiological actions 
into vital, animal, natural, sexual, particular, 
general, &c. See Function. 

ACTIVE, same etymon. Dras'ticus, Acti'- 
vus, Sten'icus, Hypersten'icus. (F) Actif. This 
adjective is used, in Pathology, to convey the 
idea of superabundant energy or strength. 
Active symptoms, e. g. are those of excitement. 
In Therapeutics, it signifies energetic : — as, an 
active treatment. The French use the expres- 
sion Medecine agissantc, in contradistinction 
to Medecine expect.anle. In Physiology, ac- 
tive has a similar signification, many of the 
functions being divided into active and pas- 
sive. 

ACTON. A village near London, at which 
there is a purgative mineral spring, like that at 
Epsom. 

ACTUAL, Actua'lis. That which acts imme- 
diately. A term usually restricted to the red 



hot iron, or to heat in any form; in contradis- 
tinction to the potential or virtual, which is ap- 
plied to caustics or escharotics. 

ACTUA'RIUS. Originally a title of dig- 
nity given to the Byzantine physicians. 

ACU1TAS, Acrimony. 

ACULEUS LIGNEUS, Splinter. 

ACUPUNCTURE. Acupunctvl 'ra, from acus, 
'a needle,' and punctu'ra, 'a puncture.' A 
surgical operation, much in use amongst the 
Chinese and Japanese, which consists in punc- 
turing parts with a very fine needle. It has 
been employed, of late years, in obstinate 
rheumatic affections, &c, and apparently with 
success. Acupuncture is likewise a mode of in- 
fanticide in some countries : the needle being 
forced into the brain through the fontanelles, 
or into the spinal marrow, &c. 

ACURG1A, Surgery (operative.) 

ACUS, Needle— a. Capitata, Pin — a. Para- 
centica, Trocar — a. Triquetra vulgaris, Trocar 
— a. Veneris, Eryngium campestre. 

ACUSIS, Audition. 

ACUST1CA, Acoustics. 

ACUTE, Acu'lus, c%v;. (F) Aigu. A disease 
which, with a certain degree of severity, has a 
rapid progress, and short duration. Oxynosc'ma, 
Oxyn'osos, Oxynu'sos. 

Diseases were formerly subdivided into Morlii 
acutis'simi, very acute, or those which last only 
three or four days: M. subacutis'simi, which 
continue seven days: and M. sulacu'ti. or those 
which last from twenty to forty days. 

The antithesis to acute is chronic. Acute, 
when applied to pain, sound, cries, &c, means 
sharp. 

ACUTENACULUM, Porte-aiguille. 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA, a. privative, x t/*voc, 
'blue,' and (Zxtwu, 'I see.' Defective vision, 
which consists in incapability of distinguishing 
blue. — Gotiie. 

ACYES1S, Sterilitas. 

ACYRUS, Arnica montana. 

ADiEMONIA, Anxiety. 

ADAKO'DIEN. A Malabar plant of the 
family Apocineae, used in that country in dis- 
eases of the eyes. 

ADACA. "The Sphecran'thus Tn'dicus, a Ma- 
labar plant, which is acrid and aromatic. 

AD'ALl, Lip'pia. A Malabar plant, which 
the Orientals regard as an antidote to the bite 
of the niiju . 

ADAMAS, Diamant. 

ADAMl'T A, Adumi'lum. A very hard, white 
calculus. — Paracelsus. 

The first word has been used for stone in the 
bladder: the second for lithiasis or the calcu- 
lous condition. 

ADANSONIA DIGITATA, Baobab. 

ADAR'CE, Adar'cion, Adar'cis. A concre- 
tion found about the reeds and grass in the 
marshy regions of Galatia, and hiding them, as 
it were : hence the name ; from a. privative, and 
figKu, ' I see.' It was formerly in repute for 
cleansino- the skin from freckles, &c. 

ADARIGO, Orpiment. 

ADARNECH, Orpiment. 

A D ART1CULATIO, Arthrodia. 

ADDAD. A Numidian plant. Bitter and 
poisonous. 

ADDEPHA'GIA, from «Wm, 'much,' and 



ADDER'S TONGUE 



qayav, 'to eat.' Voraciousness. Galen 
Hoffman have given this name to voracious 
appetite in children affected with worms. Sau- 
vages refers it to Bulimia. Also, the goddess 
of gluttony. 

ADDER'S TONGUE, Ophioglossum vul- 
gatum. 

ADDITAMEN'TUM. A term once used sy- 
nonymously with Epiphysis, q. v. It is now re- 
stricted to the prolongations of two cranial su- 
tures, the lambdoidal and squamous. 

Additamentum Coli. Appendix vermi- 
formis cseci — a. Necatum, Olecranon — a. ad 
Sacro-lumbalem, see Sacro-lumbalis— -a. Unca- 
tum ulna:, Olecranon — a. Ulnae, Radius. 

ADDUCENS OCUL1, Rectus internus 
oculi. 

ADDUCTEUR DE L'(EIL, Rectus internus 
oculi — a. du'gros orteil, Adductor pollicis pedis 
— a. Premier ou moyen, Adductor longus femo- 
ris — a. du pouce, Adductor pollicis manus— a. 
Second ou petit, Adductor brevis— a. Troisiemc 
ou grand, Adductor magnus. 

ADDUCTION, Adduc'lio, from ad, 'to,' 
and duccrc, ' to draw.' Par ago' gc. The action 
by which parts are drawn towards the axis of 
the body. 

The muscles, which execute this function, 
are called Addudtors. 

Adductors of the Thigh. These are three 
in number, which have, by some anatomists, 
been united into one muscle — the Triceps Ad- 
duc'tor Fem'oris. 

1 . The Adduc'tor longus fem'oris, Adduc'tor 
fem'oris primus, Tiiceps minor, P u' bio-femora' - 

lis, — (Ch.) (F) Premier ou moyen adducteur. 
Arises by a strong tendon from the upper and 
fore part of the os pubis and ligament of the 
symphysis, at the inner side of the pectinalis. 
It runs downwards and outwards, and is in- 
serted by a broad, flat tendon into the middle 
of the linea aspera. 

2. The Adduc'tor brevis, A fem'oris secun'dus, 
Triceps secun'dus, Sub-pnbiofemora'iis. — (Ch.) 
(F) Second ou petit Adducteur. Arises tendi- 
nous from the os pubis, at the side of its sym- 
physis, below and behind the last muscle. It 
runs obliquely outwards, and is inserted by a 
short, flat tendon into the inner and upper part 
of the linea aspera, from a little below the tro- 
chanter minor to the beginning of the insertion 
of the adductor longus. 

3. The Addac'tor magnus, Adduc'tor fem'oris 
ter'tius et quartus, Triceps magnus, Is 1 chiofemo- 
ralis — (Ch.) (F) Troisihne ou grand adduc- 
teur, is much larger than either of the others. 
It arises from the ramus of the pubis, from that 
of the ischium, and from the tuber ischii, and 
is inserted into the whole length of the linea 
aspera. Near the lower part of the linea aspera 
it is pierced by a kind of oblique, fibrous 
canal, through which the crural artery and 
vein pass. 

Adductor Medii Digiti Pedis, Posterior 
medii digiti pedis — a. Oculi, Rectus internus 
oculi. 

Adduc'tor Pol'licis Manus, A. Pol'licis,A. 
ad min'imum dig" Hum, Mctucur' po-plialangidus 
pol'licis— (Ch.) (F) Adducteur du pouce. A 
muscle which arises, fleshy, from almost the 
whole length of the metacarpal bone of the 



ADENO-PHARYNGvEUS 

.serled into the inner 




Tarso-metatarsi-phalangien du pouce. (F) M 
ducteur du gros orteil, arises by a long , h n 
tendon, from the under part of the os calcis, 
from the os cuboides, os cuneiforme externum, 
and from the root of the metatarsal bone of the 
second toe. It is divided into two fleshy por- 
tions, and is inserted into the external sesamoid 
bone, and root of the metatarsal bone of the 
ore at toe. 

° The Adduc'tor Metacar'pi min'imi Dig"- 
iti, Mclacarpeus, Cadpo-metacarpeus min'imi 
di<f"iti, is situate between the abductor and 
fle~xor, next to the metacarpal bone. It arises, 
fleshy, from the unciform process of the os un- 
ciforme, and from the contiguous part of the 
annular ligament of the wrist, and is inserted, 
tendinous and fleshy, into the fore-part of the 
metacarpal bone of the little finger, from its 
base to its head. 

Bichat has given the general name, Addud- 
tors, to those of the interosseous muscles of the 
hand or foot, which perform the action of ad- 
duction. 

Adductor Tertii Digiti Pedis, Prior tertu 
digiti pedis. 

ADEC. The inner man.— Paracelsus. 
ADECTA, Sedatives. 
ADELIPARIA, Polysarcia. 
ADELODAGAM. A bitter Malabar plant, 
used in asthma, catarrh, and gout. 
ADELPHIA, see Adelphixia. 
ADELPHIX'IA. Adclphix'is, from *Jt\<po<, 
' brother.' Consanguinity of parts in health or 
disease. Frater'nitas, Fratra'tio. Hippocrates 
used the epithet a.Jz\<pt*, Adel'phia, for diseases 
that resemble each other. 
ADELfHIXlS, Sympathy. 
ADEN, aSnv, ' a gland;' hence Adenalgia, 
Adcniform, &c. — See Gland. 

ADENALGIA, from a JW, 'a gland,' and 
tL\yos. ' pain,' glandular pain. 

ADENEMPHRAXTS, from «<f»v, ' a gland,' 
and i{A$p*!-i;, ' obstruction;' glandular obstruc- 
tion. 

ADEN'IFORM, Adeniform' is , Adcndi'des, 
dSivonSng, from Aden, 'a gland,' and Forma, 
' form or resemblance.' Glandiform, or resem- 
bling a gland. 

ADENl'TIS, from afvv, 'a gland,' and Itis, 
a termination denoting inflammation. Glandu- 
lar inflammation. 

ADENOCHIRAPSOLOC'IA, from aS»v, 

a gland,' X n h ' lne hand, 1 cLim-tv, ' I lay hold 

of,' and \oyos, 'a description.' The doctrine 

of curing scrofula or the king's evil by the 

royal touch. 

ADENOG'RAPHY, Adcnogra'phia, from 
ctJW, ' a gland,' and -ygx<pu, ' I describe.' That 
part of anatomy which describes the glands. 
ADENOIDES, Adeniform. 
ADENOL'OGY, Adenoid gia, from *<f»v, 'a 
gland,' and xoyot, 'a description.' A treatise 
on the glands. 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGEUS, from *S» V> < a 
gland,' and <$a.£uy%, ' the pharynx.' Some fleshy 
fibres have received this name, which pass from 



ADENO-PHARYNGITIS 



23 



AD1TUS 



the constrictor pharyngis inferior to the thyroid 
gland. Their existence is not constant. 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGl'TIS, same etymon. 
Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx. 

ADENOPHTHALM1A, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

ADENOPHY'MA, Adenon'cus; from «<f»»,' a 
gland,' and vvjuu, 'a swelling.' Swelling of a 
gland, or glandiform ganglion. (F) Glandage. 
Adenophyma is used by some to signify a soft 
glandular swelling. Jldenon'cus, one of a harder 
character. — Kraus. 

Adenophyma Inguinalis. Bubo. 

ADENO'SUS, (Absces'sus.) A hard, glandu- 
lar abscess, which suppurates slowly. — M. A. 
Severinus. 

ADENOT'OMY, Menoto'mia, from «/»v, ' a 
gland,' and Tiy.va>, 'I cut.' Dissection of the 
glands. 

ADEPHAGIA, Boulimia. 

ADEPS, Adeps Suilla, Oryn'gium, o^vyyiov. 
Pig's flare. The fat of the hog. 

The Adeps PrjEpara'ta, Hog's lard, Bar- 
row's grease, Lard, Ax'unge, Axun'gia, Adeps 
suil'la pnepara'ta, A. prapara'ta, Axun'gia por- 
ci'na, (F) Graisse dc Pore, Saindoux, is prepared 
by melting the pig's flare, and straining it. 
This is called rendering the lard. Lard is emol- 
lient, but is chiefly used for forming ointments 
and plasters. 

The Adeps Anseri'na, A'deps an'seris, or 
Goose grease, (F) Graisse d'Oie, is also emol- 
lient. It has been used as an emetic. 

Adeps, Pinguedo — a. Cantharidibus medica- 
tus, Unguentum lyttas medicatum — a. Cortice 
Daphnes gnidii medicatus, Unguentum epis- 
pasticum de Daphne gnidio — a. Humanus, Li- 
quamumia — a. Hydrargyro medicatus, Unguen- 
tum Hydrargyri — a. ex Hydrargyro mitius dic- 
tum cinereum, Unguentum oxidi hydrargyri 
cinereum — a. Hydrargyri muriate oxygenato 
medicatus, Unguentum muriatis hydrargyri 
oxygenati medicatum — a. Hydrargyri nitrate 
medicatus, Unguentum hydrargyri nitratis — a. 
Hydrargyri oxido rubro et plumbi acetate me- 
dicatus, Unguentum ophthalmicum — a. Lauro 
medicatus, Unguentum laurinum — a. Ovilli, 
Sevum — a. Papavere, hyoscyamo, et belladon- 
na medicatus, Unguentum populeum — a. Sul- 
fure et ammoniac muriate medicatus, Unguen- 
tum sulphuratum ad scabiem — a. Sulfure et 
carbonate potass® medicatus, Unguentum sul- 
phuratum alcalinum ad scabiem — a. Tartare 
stibii medicatus, Unguentum antimonii tartari- 
zati — a. Oxido zinci medicatus, Unguentum 
oxidi zinci impuri. 

ADEPT, Alchymist. 

ADEP'TA MEDICI'NA. Medicine, which 
treated of diseases contracted by celestial ope- 
rations, or communicated from heaven. 

Adepta Philosophia, Alchymy. 

ADFLATUS, Afflatus. 

ADHiERENTIA, Adherence. 

ADHiESIO, Adherence. 

ADH ATO'DA, Jvstie"ia adhato'da. The Ma- 
labar Nut Tree. (F) Noyer de Ceylon. Used 
in India for expelling the dead foetus in abor- 
tion. The word is said to convey this meaning 
in the Ceylonoso. 

ADHE'RENCE, Adhe'sion, Adharcn'tia, 
Concrc'tio, Atre'sia, Pros'physis, Proscollc'sis, 



Ad/uc'sio, from adha'rere, ' to stick to.' These 
words are usually employed synonymously. 
The French often use adherence for the state of 
union, and adhesion for the act of adherino-. 

ADHESION, Adherence. 

ADHE'SIVE (INFLAMMATION), is that 
inflammation which terminates by an adhesion 
between inflamed and separated surfaces. 

Adhe'sive is also an epithet for certain plas- 
ters, which stick closely to the skin. 

ADIAN'THUM CAPIL'LUS VEN'ERIS, 
Maiden hair. Mat. Ord. Filices. Sex, Syst. 
Cryptogamia Filices. (F) Capillaire de Mont- 
pcllier. A European plant, of feeble aromatic 
and demulcent properties. It is used for form- 
ing the Sirop dc Capillaire or Capillaire. 

Adian'thum Peda'tum, A. Canaden'sc, Ca- 
pil'lus Canadensis, Canada, Maidenhair, (F) 
Capillaire du Canada, has the same properties. 
The Capillaire was once made from this. 

Adianthom Album, Asplenium ruta mura- 
ria — a. Aureum, Polytrichum — a. Rubrum, As- 
plenium trichomanoides. 

ADIAPHORO'SIS, Adiaplwre'sis, from «. 
privative, Stz, 'through,' and <pogoc, 'a pore.' 
Defect or suppression of perspiration, Adiap- 
neus'tia, aJ'iu.n-vtua-TKt. 

ADIAPH'OROUS, Adiaphorus, Indifferens, 
Neutral. A medicine, which will neither do 
harm nor good. 

ADIARRHCE'A, from a. privative, and Stag- 
£tiv, ' to flow.' Retention of any excretion. — 
Hipp. 

ADICE, Urtica. 

ADIPEUX, Adipose. 

AD1POCERA CETOSA, Cetaceum. 

AD'IPOCIRE, Adipocira, from adeps, 'fat,' 
and cera, ' wax.' The base of biliary calculi, 
called also Cholestcrine. (F) Gras des Cadavres, 
Gras des Cimetieres. Also, a sort of soap, 
formed from animal matter under certain cir- 
cumstances. The human body, when it has 
been for some weeks in water, assumes this ap- 
pearance; and it has been a subject for legal in- 
quiry, what length of time is necessary to pro- 
duce it. This must, of course, depend upon 
various circumstances, as climate, season, &c. 

ADIPOCIRE DE BALEIJYE, Cetaceum. 

AD'IPOSE, Ad' i pons, .hlijio'sus, from adeps, 
'fat.' (F) Adipcux. That winch relates to fat- — 
as the Adipose membrane, A. vessels, &c. See 
Fatty. 

The Ad'ipose Sarco'ma of Arernethy, Em- 
phi/ma sarco'ma adipo'sum, is suetty through- 
out, and is enclosed in a thin capsule of con- 
densed cellular substance, connected by moans 
of minute vessels. It is chiefly found on the 
fore and back part of the trunk. See Sarcoma. 

ADIPOSIS, see Polysarcia. 

AD1POSUS, Fatty. 

ADIPOUS, Fatty. 

AD I V'Sl A, Dipso'sis expers. Absence of thirst. 

ADIP'SON, from a. privative, and $i\a., 
' thirst.' Any substance which relieves thirst. 
Applied to a decoction of barley to which oxy- 
mel was added — Hipp. 

ADIPSOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ADTTUS, 'an entrance,' 'an approach;' 
Pros'odos. The entrance to a canal or duct, as 
Aditus ad Aquaduclum Fallopii. 



ADIULISTOS 



24 



^GYPTIACUM 



ADIULIS'TOS, from tt privative, and i 
feuhigu, ' I run.' Unstrained wine for phar- 
maceutical purposes. — Gorrasus. 
AD.IUNCTUM, Accompaniment. 
ADJUTOR PARTUS, Accoucheur. 
AD'JUVANT, Jhljuvans, from Mjuva'rc, 
' to aid.' A medicine, introduced into a pre- 
scription to aid the operation of the principal 
ingredient or basis. Also, whatever assists in 
the removal or prevention of disease. 

ADOLES'CENCE, Adolcscen'tia, Juveritus, 
Youth. (F) Jeunesse. The period between 
puberty and that at which the body acquires 
its full development; being, in man, between 
the 14th and 25th year; and, in woman, be- 
tween the 12th and 21st. 

ADO'LIA. A Malabar plant, whose leaves, 
put in oil, form a liniment, used in facilitating 
labour. 

ADOR, Zea Mays. 

ADORION, Daucus carota. 

ADOUCfSSAjYT, Demulcent. 

AD PONDUS OM'NIUM. The weight of 
the whole. In a prescription it means, that 
any particular ingredient shall equal in weight 
the whole of the others. 

ADRA RIZA, Aristolochia clematitis. 

ADROBO'LON, from *<fgoc, 'great,' and 
/Sukoc, ' mass.' The Bdellium of India, which 
is in larger pieces than that of Arabia. 

ADROS, afpoc, ' plump and full.' Applied 
to the habit of body, and also to the pulse. — 
Hippocrates. 

ADSARIA PALA, Dolichos pruriens. 

ADS PI RATIO, Aspiration. Inspiration. 

ADST1TES GLANDULOS1, Prostate. 

ADSTRICTIO, Constipation. 

ADUEAS'SO. The Justitia bivalvis. A 
small shrub, used in India as a local application 
in gout. 

ADULT AGE, Andri'a, from Adoles'cere, 
'to grow.' VlrU'iUj. The age succeeding 
adolescence, and preceding old age. Advil, 
Advt'tus, is also used for one in the adult age. 

ADULTE RATIO, Falsification. 

ADURION, Rhus coriaria. 

ADUST, Ailus'tus, from Adu'rerc, ' to burn.' 
The blood and fluids were formerly said to be 
adust, when there was much heat in the con- 
stitution and but little serum in the blood. 

ADUSTIO, Burn. 

ADUS'TION, Adus'tio. State of the body 
described under Adust. In Surgery, it signi- 
fies cauterization. 

ADVENTITIOUS DISEASES, Acquired 
diseases. 

ADVENTITIUS, Accidental. 

ADYNA'MIA, Impoten'tia from a. priv. and 
£uva.fjLtc, ' strength.' Adyna'sia, Adyna'tia. 
Considerable debility of the vital powers; as 
in typhus fever. Some Nosologists have a 
class of diseases under the name Adynamia. 

Adynamia Virilis, Impotence. 

ADYNASIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATOS, Sickly. 

7E1MEA. Genital organs. 

TEDCEAG'RAPIIY, JEdfBagra'ph'ia, from 
aiJ'.u, 'organs of generation,' and ygx<pu, 'I 
describe.' A description of the organs of gene- 
ration. 



iEDOZAL'OGY, JEdaaW 'g'ut , from ««JW, 
the pudendum,' and Myos, 'a description.' 
A Treatise on the organs of generation. 

JEDCEAT'OMY, Mdwato'mia, from aiSot*, 
'the pudendum,' and rtpvu, 'I cut.' Dissec- 
tion of the parts of generation. 

iEDGEl'TlS. Inflammation of the genital 
organs. 

iEDCEOBLENQRRHCEA, Leucorrhcca. 

iEDOSON, Insuen. 

iEDCEOMAN'lA, Nymphomania. 

^DOPSO'PHIA, from «/JW, ' the puden- 
dum,' and -\.oqtiv , ' to make a noise.' Emission 
of wind by the urethra in man, by the vagina 
in woman. — Sauvages and Sagar. 

.EDOPTOS1S, Hysteroptosis — ffi. Uteri, 
Prolapsus uteri — se. Uteri inversa, Uterus in- 
version of the — ae. Uteri retroversa, Retrover- 
sio uteri — ce. Vaginae, Prolapsus V. — ae, Vesi- 
cae, Exocyste. 

iEEIG'LUCES, Aeig'lvces, from ah, 'al- 
ways,' and yxvHvc, ' sweet.' A kind of sweet 
wine or must. — GorraEus. 

^EGAGROPILA, from *iy*yi>o;, -the rock 
goat, and ttixoc, ' hair.' Bezoar d\1llemagnc, 
Pila Dama'rum seu Rupicapra'rum. A ball, 
composed of hairs, found in the stomach 
of the goat; once used medicinally. See Be- 
zoar. 

^GEIROS, Populus. 

iEGER, Sick. 

iEGIAS, JEgis, JEglia, JEgides, from «/£ 
'the. goat;' why, is not known. (F) Aige or 
Aigle. There is obscurity regarding the pre- 
cise meaning of this word. It Was used to 
designate an ulcer, or speck on the transparent 
cornea. — Hippocrates. 

Maitre Jean uses it for a calcareous deposit 
between the conjunctiva and sclerotica. 

^GIDES, iEgins. 

^.'GILOPS, An'chilops, An'kylops, from a/ff, 
' a goat,' and a>-\., ' the eye.' An ulcer at the 
greater ansrle of the eye, which sometimes does 
not penetrate to the lachrymal sac, but at others 
does, and constitutes fistula lachrymalis. — Ga- 
len, Celsus, Oribasius, Aetius, Paulus of jEgi- 
na, &c. 

iEGI'RINON, an ointment of which the 
fruit or flower of the poplar was an ingredient; 
from Aiyapo;, ' the black poplar.' 

iEGLIA, iEgias. 

iEGOOERAS, Trigonella Foenum. 

jEGONYCHON, Lithospernum officinale. 

jEGOPHONIA, Egophony. 

.EGOPODIUM PODAGRARIA, Ligusti- 
cum podagraria. 

jEGRIPPA, Agrippa. 

JEGR1TUDO, Disease— as. Ventriculi, Vo- 
miting. 

^GROTUS, Sick. 

jEGYPTIA, an epithet for several medi- 
cines, mentioned by Galen, Paulus of iEgina, 
and Myrepsus. 

jEgyptia Moschata, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

./Egyp'tia Styptf/ria Aiyvrnt,± s-Tvyrrxpiu, 
JEgyptian alum, recommended by Hippocrates. 

Sgvp'tuUl'cera; JEgyptian ulcers. Ul- 
cers of the fauces and tonsils, described by 
Aretaeus, as eommon in Eo-ypt and Syria. 

iEGYPTION, iEgyptiacum. 

AIGYPTIACUM, tuyuTrrtov, ptvfoaiov, Mel 



.EGYPTIUM, &c. 



25 



.ETHEREA HERBA 



jEgyptiacum, Phar'macum JEgyptiacum; a 
preparation of vinegar, honey, and verdigris, 
scarcely used now, except by veterinary sur- 
geons as a detergent. See Linimenlum iEru- 
ginis. 

^EGYPTIUM MEDICAMENTUM AD 
AURES, Pharmacum ad aures. 

iEGYP'TIUS PESSUS ; JEgyptian -pessary. 
A pessary, composed of honey, turpentine, but- 
ter, oil of lily or rose, saffron, each one part; 
with sometimes a small quantity of verdioris. 

AEICHRYSON, Sedum. 

AEIPATHIA, see Continent (disease.) 

iEIPATHEIA, see Continent (disease.) 

iENEA, Catheter. 

jEOLECTHYMA, Variola. 

iEOLLION, Varicella. 

.EON, *ttov. The entire age of a man from 
birth till death. — Hippocrates, Galen. Also the 
spinal marrow. See Medulla Spinalis. 

.EONESIS, Fomentation. 

.EONION, Sedum. 

jEO'RA, from aia^iv, ' I suspend.' Gesta- 
tion, Swinging. — Aetius, Celsus, &c. 

iEQUALIS, Equal. 

iEQUAT'OR OCULI. The line formed by 
the union of the upper and under eyelid, when 
they are closed. It is below the middle of the 
globe. 

jEQUIVOCUS, Equivocal. 

AER, Air. 

AERATION OF THE BLOOD, Hamatosis. 

AERATUS, Carbonated. 

J1ERE, Carbonated. 

iEREOLUM, JErcolus, Chalchus. The sixth 
part of an obolus, by weight; consequently 
about 2 grains. 

iE'RESIS, a/ps-r/?, 'the removal of any 
thing.' A suffix denoting a removal or separa- 
tion, as Aph<presis, Diccresis, &c. 

AERIFLUX'US. The discharge of gas, and 
the fetid emanations from the sick. — Sauvages. 

AEROL/OGY. Aerolog"ia, Aerolog"ice, from 
«t«§, 'air,' and \cycs, 'a description.' That 
part of Physics which treats of the air, its 
qualities, uses, and its action on the animal 
economy. 

AEROMANCY, Acromanti'a, from *»g, 
1 air,' and /uxvrax, ' divination.' An art in ju- 
dicial astrology, which consists in the foretell- 
ing, by means of the air or substances found in 
the atmosphere. 

AEROMELI, Fraxinus ornus. 

AEROPHO'BIA, from *»$, 'air,' and <j>o/3or, 
'fear.' Dread of the air. This symptom often 
accompanies hydrophobia, and sometimes hys- 
teria and other affections. 

.ERUCA, Cupri subacetas. 

.ERU'GO, to;, from jes, 'copper.' The 
rust of any metal, properly of brass. See 
Cupri Subacetas. 

^ERU'GINOUS, JErugino'sus, /&JV, from 
JErugo, * verdigris.' (F) Erugineux. Resem- 
bling verdigris in colour; as the bile when dis- 
charged at times from the stomach. 

JES, Cuprum. 

iESCHOS, di<r%os. Deformity of the body 
jrenerally or of some part. — Hippoc. 

.ES'CULUS HIPPOCAS'TANUM, Cas- 
tan'ea equi'na, Pavi'na, Horse-chestnut, Buck- 
eye. (F) Marronicr d'Indc. Nat. Ord. Hippo- 
4 



castanea), Sex. Syst. Heptandria Monogynia. 
The bark has been advised as a substitute for 
the cinchona. Both bark and fruit are astrin- 
gent. Externally, it has been employed, like 
the cinchona, in gangrene. 

.ESECAVUM, Brass. 

.ESTATES, Ephelides. 

.ESTHEMA, aio-drt/ua, gen. a.icrQufjicL'roc, 'a 
sensation, a perception.' See Sensation and 
Sensibility. 

^ESTHEMATONU'SI, from a/o-9^*, and 
vouo-ot, 'diseases.' Diseases affecting sensation. 

.ESTHEMATORGANONU'SI. Diseases 
of the organs of sensation. 

.ESTHE'SIS, aio-^o-t;, Aisthe'sis, from 
cinrScLvo/uxi, 'I feel.' The faculty of being af- 
fected by a sensation. Sensibility, as well as 
the senses themselves. See Sense. 

^ETHETERION, Sensorium. 

.ESTHET'ICA, from mo- Smooch, <I feel.' 
Diseases affecting the sensations. Dulness, 
depravation or abolition of one or more of the 
external organs of sense. The 2d order, class 
Neurotica of Good. 

^ESTIVUS, Estival. 

.ESTUARIUM, Stove. 

^ESTUATIO, Ardor, Ebullition, and Fer- 
mentation. 

M ST US, Ardor. 

.Estus Volat'icus. Sudden heat, scorching 
or flushing of the face. — Vogel. 

.ETAS, Age — a?. Decrepita, Decrepitude. 

.ETHER, Ether, from a/3-»g, 'air,' or from 
a<3-<D, ' I burn.' Liquor athe'reus. A volatile 
liquor obtained by distillation from a mixture 
of alcohol and a concentrated acid. 

The .Ether Ciiloricus, Chloric Ether, has 
been administered in spasmodic asthma, and 
in adynamic conditions of the nervous system, 
in the dose of ^ss. 

The .Ether Hydrocyanicus, JEther Prus- 
sicus, or Hydrocyanic Ether, has been advised 
in whooping cough, and where the Hydrocya- 
nic Acid is indicated. Dose, G drops. 

jEther Sulthur'icus, JE. Vitriol! icus , 
Naphtha Vitrioli. Ether prepared from sul- 
phuric ether and alcohol. (Sp. rectificat; Acid. 
Sulpk. aa lb iss. Distil until a heavier liquid 
passes over Ph. L.) 

The Rectified Ether, JEther rcctifica'tus pre- 
pared by distilling 12 oz. from a mixture of sid- 
phuric ether, f. % xiv, fused potass, 3 ss, and dis- 
tilled water, f. 3 ij, is a limpid, colourless, very 
inflammable, volatile liquor; of a penetrating 
and flagrant odour, and hot, pungent taste. 
Its s. g. is 0.732. It is a diffusible stimulant, 
narcotic and antispasmodic, and is externally 
refrigerant. Dose gtt xxx to 3 iss. 

The Parisian Codex has an JEther ace'ticus, 
an JEther muriat'icus or JEther hydrochlor'icus, 
an JEther nit'ricus vel nitro'sus, and an JEther 
phosphora'tus. They all possess similar virtues. 

JEther Martialis, Tinctura seu Alcohol 
sulfurico-asthereus ferri — as. Nitricus alcoohsa- 
tus, Spiritus astheris nitrici — as. Sulphuricus 
acidus, Elixir acidum Halleri — aj. Sulphuricus 
cum alcohole, Spiritus cetheris sulphurici — a?. 
Sulphuricus cum alcohole aromaticus, Spiritus 
ajtheris aromaticus. 

.ETHEREA HERBA, Eryngium mariti- 
mum. 



^ETHEREAL 



26 



AGARIC 



JETUE'REAL, Hthe'real,Ethe'reous^the'- AFFECTUS Jjgj-J. JgZSSLffi- 
reus. (V)Ethe'ree,Teintureetheree. An rethe- lens, Cynanche maligna a. ny 



real tincture is one formed by the action of sul- 
phuric ether, at the ordinary temperature, on 
medicinal substances. 

^ETHEROLEA, Olea volatilia. 

jETHIOP'ICUS LAPIS, Ethiopian stone. A 
stone formerly supposed to be possessed of con- 
siderable virtue. — Oribasius. 

.ETHIOPIS, Salvia Sclarea. 

iETHIOPS, from a<3-&>, 'I burn,' and &4, 
• countenance.' A black or burnt countenance. 
The ancients gave this name to certain oxides 
and sulphurets of metals, which were of a black 
colour. 

JEthiops Martial, Drutox'ydum Fern ni- 
grum. The black deutoxide of iron. Once in 
repute as a tonic. 

^Ethiops Albus, Albino — ae. Alcalisatus, 
Hydrargyrum cum creta — as- Animal, see Cho- 
roid— re! Mineralis, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum— re. Narcoticus, Hydrargyri sulphure- 
tum nigrum— re. per se, Hydrargyri oxydum 
cinereum — re. Saccharatus, Hydrargyrum sac- 
charatum— re. Vegetabilis, see Fucus vesiculo- 
sus. 

.ETHOLTCES, from a; 3- a, 'I burn.' Fiery 
pustules on the skin. Some have considered 
them to have been boils. 

jETHU'SA MEUM, Meum, Meu, Spignel, 
Baldmoncy. (F) Rthuse,Mcum. The root ha 



dl AF'FFRFNT Affcrcns, from affero, <I 
brtafj The vlicl- which convey the lymph 
to the lymphatic glands, are called afferent. 

AF'FION or OF'FIUM, U'pnrm, (q. v.) 
The Bantamese thus designate an electuary of 
which opium is the basis, and winch they use 
as an excitant. —.t** 

AFFLA'TUS or ADFLA'TUS, £/*■"«, 
from ad, ' to,' and fare, < to blow.' When any 
air strikes the body and produces disease, it is 

1 AFFLUENCE and AF'FLUX, from of- 
fiu'ere, ' to flow to.' A flow or determination 
of humours, and particularly of blood, towards 
any part. 

AFFLUXUS, Fluxion. 
AFFUSIO ORBICULARIS, Placenta. " 
AFFU'SION, Pros'chysis, Epich'ysis, Af- 
fu'sio, from ad < to,' and funderc, ' to pour.' 
The action of pouring a liquid on any body. 
Affusions, cold and warm, are used in different 
diseases. The cold affusion is sometimes very 
beneficial in cutting short typhus fever and 
scarlatina, if used during the first week. It 
consists in placing the patient in a tub, and 
pouring cold water over him ; then wiping him 
dry, and putting him to bed. The only pre-_ 
caution necessary, is, to use it in the state of 



been advised as carminative, stomachic, &c greatest heat and exacerbation ;, not when cnil- 
MT\OL'OGY,JEtiolo'gia,Etiol'ogy,Aitiolo'- liness, or topical inflammation is present. 



gia, from acr/a, 'a cause,' and ao^oc, ' a dis- 
course.' The doctrine of the causes of disease. 
iETPTES, Eagle-stone. Pierre d'Jliglc, Hy- 
drate de tritoxide de fer. This stone was for- 
merly supposed to facilitate delivery, if bound 
on the thigh ; and to prevent abortion, if bound 
on the arm. It was, also, called Lapis Colly- 
mus. 

^ETOI PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 
Aetoi Phlebf.s, Temporal veins. 
iETOLION, Cnidia grana. 
AFFADISSEMEJYT. (F) That condition 
of the digestive function in which the appetite 
is diminished, the sense of taste blunted, and 
the action of the stomach enfeebled ; a state 
usually accompanied by general languor. 
AFFAIRES, Menses. 

AFFECTIO HYPOCHONDRIACA, Hypo- 
chondriasis — a. Hysterica, Hysteria — a. Tym- 
panitica, Tympanites. 

AFFECTION, Affec'tio ; any mode in which 
the mind or body is affected or modified 



AFIUM, Opium. 
AFTER BIRTH, Secundines. 
AFTER PAINS, see Pains, labour. 
AGJ1CEMEJYT, (F), from ana^uv, ' to' 
sharpen.' The setting on edge. 

Agacement des dents ; a disagreeable sensation 
experienced when acids are placed in contact 
with the teeth. Tooth edge. Setting the teeth 
on edge. 

Agacement des ncrfs; a slight irritation of the 
system, and particularly of the organs of sense 
and locomotion, corresponding nearly to the 
English Fidgets. 
AGALACTATIO, Agalactia. 
AGALACTIA, Agalax'is, Agalac'tio, and 
Agalacta'tio, Defec'tus, lac'tis, Oligoga'lia, from 
a privative, and yxKct, ' milk.' Absence of 
milk in the mammre. 

AGALAXIS, Agalactia. 

AGAL'LOCHUM, Calambac, Calambouk, 
Lig'num Agal'lochi ve'ri, Lig'num Al'o'es, L. 
ju ui uuuy io aiic^itu ui iiiuuuicu, i Aspal'athi, Xylo-aloes, Aloes icood. A resinous 

The Affections of the mind, Affcc'tus An'- and very aromatic weed of the East Indies, 
tmi, (F) Affections de Varne, include not only from the Excacaria Agalloclta. Used in 
the different passions, as love, hatred, jealousy, making pastils, &c. — Dioscorides, Oribasius, 
&c, but every condition of the mind that is Paulus. 

accompanied by an agreeable or disagreeable AG'ARIC, Agar'icum. A genus of plants 
feeling, as pleasure, fear, sorrow, &c. in the Linnrean system, some of which are 

In Pathology, Affection, Pathos, Pathe'ma. | edible, others poisonous. It was so called from 

^ Agaria, a region of Sarmatia— Dioscorides. 

Among the edible varieties of the Boletus, 
the following are the chief. 1. The Agar'icus 
cda'lis, (F) Agaric comestible ct champignon de 
couche. 2. The Agar'icus 
Mousseron. 



is synonymous with disease : thus we speak of 
a pulmonary affection, a calculous affection, &c. 

AFFECTIONS DE UAME, affections of the 
Mind. 

AFFECTIVE. That which affects, touches, 
&c. Gall gives the term affective faculties, (F) 
Facultis affectives, to functions dependent upon 
organization of the brain, and comprising the 
sentiments, affections, &c. 



odora'tus, (F) 

The most common poisonous varieties are 
the Agar'icus Keca'tor, (F) Agaric meurtrier : 
and 2. The Agar'icus acris, (F) Agaric acre; 



AGARIC FEMALE 



27 



AGONY 



besides the Jluranitc, a sub-genus, which in- 
cludes several species. One of the most deli- 
cate is the Jlgaricus Aurantiacus, but care must 
be taken not to confound it with the A. Pseudo- 
Aurantiacus, which is very poisonous. The A. 
aurantiacus is called, in French, Oronge. See 
Poisons, Table of. 

AGARIC FEMALE, Boletus igniarius — a. 
of the Oak, Boletus Igniarius. 

AGARIC BLANC, Boletus laricis— a. de 
Chene, Boletus igniarius — a. Odor ant. Boletus 
suaveolens. 

AGAR1CUS, Boletus igniarius — a. Albus, 
Boletus laricis — a. Aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. 
Aurantiacus, Bolites — a. Auriculaeforma, Peziza 
auricula — a. Chirurgorum, Boletus igniarius — 
a. Pseudo-aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. Quercus, 
Boletus igniarius. 

AGATHOSMA CRENATUM, Diosma cre- 
nata 

AGA'VE AMERICA'NA. American Agave. 
Nat. Ord. Bromeliaeeas, Sex. Syst. Hexandria 
Monogynia. This plant has been considered 
diuretic and antisyphilitic. 

AGE, 'nKiKtct, Helikia, JE'tas. Period of life. 
Time that has elapsed since birth, &.c. Five 
ages are often designated in the life of man. 
1. First infancy (Infun'tia) : 2. Second infancy 
(Pueri" lia) : Adolescence (Adolcsccn'tin) : 4. 
The adult age {Viril! itas) : 5. Old age (Senec'- 
tus) : all which see. 

AGEN'ESIS, from a. privative, and j£i>so-/c, 
' generation.' Imperfect development of any 
part of the body : as cerebral agenesis, i. e. 
imperfect development of the brain in the 
foetus. 

AGENNESIA.Sterilitas. 

AGENT, Agens, from ag"ere, ' to act.' 
Any power which produces, or tends to pro- 
duce an effect on the human body. Morbific 
agents, (F) Agens morbifajucs, are the causes 
of disease. Therapeutical agents, (F) Agens 
thtrapcutiques , the means of treating it, &c. 

AGER NATURE, Uterus. 

AGERA'SIA, Insenescen'tia, from a. priva- 
tive, and >«faj, 'old age.' A vigorous and 
green old age. 

AGERATUM, Achillea ageratum. 

AGE'RATUS LAPIS. A stone used by 
cobblers to polish shoes. It was formerly 
esteemed discutient and astringent. — Galen, 
Oribasius, Paulus. 

AGES, Palm. 

AGEUS'TIA or AGHEUS'TIA, Apogeus'- 
tia, Apogeu'sis, Dysa;stli.e'sia gustato'ria, Para- 
geu'sis, from a. priv., and yiu<rri;, ' taste.' 
Diminution or loss of taste. — Sauvages, Cul- 
len. 

AGGLOM'ERATE, Agglomera'tus. Ap- 
plied to humours or glands in aggregation. 

AGGLU'TINANT, Agglutinans, Collet'- 
itcus, Glu'tinans, from gluten, 'glue.' (F) 
Agglutinant, .Igglulinatif, Glutinatif. Reme- 
dies were formerly so called, which were con- 
sidered capable of uniting divided parts. — 
Paulus. 

Plasters are called agglutinants, (F) agglu- 
tinatifs, which adhere strongly to the skin. 
Certain bandages are likewise so termed. (F) 
Bandelettes agglutinatives. 

AGGLUTINA'TION, Colle'sis, Epicolle'sis, 



Proscollefsis, Glutina'tio, from agglutinare, ' to 
glue together.' The first degree of adhesion. 
Also, the action of ao-glutinants. 

AGGLU'TINATE, from agglvtina'rc, 'to 
glue together.' The French use the word 
agglutiner, in the sense of ' to reunite ;.' as 
agglutiner les levres d'une plaie, ' to unite the 
lips of a wound.' 

AG GLUTINATIF, Agglutinant. 

AGGLUTINER, Agglutinate. 

AG'GREGATE, Aggrega'lus, from aggre- 
gate, 'to assemble together.' Glands are 
called aggregate, which are in clusters. Ag- 
gregate pills (F) Pilules agrigatives, signified, 
formerly, those which were believed to con- 
tain the properties of a considerable number of 
medicines, and to be able to supply their 
place. 

AGIAHA'LID OR AGIHA'LIO, OR 
AGRAHA'LID, An Egyptian and Ethiopian 
shrub, similar to the Ximenia. The Ethio- 
pians use it as a vermifuge. The fruit is pur- 
gative. 

AGHEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

AGIHALID, Agiahalid. 

AGITATION, Agitatio ; Done' sis, constant 
and fatiguing motion of the body (inquies), 
or distressing mental inquietude (Animi agi- 
ta'tio) . 

AGITATORIUS, Convulsive. 

AGLO'SSIA, from a. priv. and yxua-a-u, ' the 
tongue.' A malformation which consists in 
the want of a tongue. 

AGLOSSOSTOMOG'RAPHY, Aglossosto- 
mogra'phia, from a priv. yXcero-a., 'the tongue,' 
a-Toun, 'the mouth,' and ^.papa, 'I describe.' 
Description of a mouth without a tongue. — 
Roland (of Saumur). 

AGLUTI'TION, Agluti'tio, from a. priv., 
and glulirc, ' to swallow.' A hybrid term, 
designating the impossibility of swallowing. — 
Linnanis. 

AGME, Fracture. 

AGMINA DIGITORUM MANUS, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Membrana, Amnios. 

AGNA'THIAjfrom a. priv. and yvaBo;, 'jaw.' 
A malformation which consists of a want of the 
jaw, especially of the lower. 

AGNOIA, from a. priv. and ytvo<rxa<, ' I 
know.' State of a patient who does not re- 
cognise individuals. — Hippocr., Galen, Foesius. 

AGNUS CASTUS, Vttex. 

AGO'GE, 'jya-yn, the order or condition of 
a disease. — Hippoc, Galen. Likewise the 
state of the air. — Hippoc, Galen, Gorrasus, 
Foesius. 

AGOGUE, ctyuiyo; , ' a leader,' from aym, ' I 
lead or expel.' Hence Cholagoguc, an e.xpeller 
of bile : Hi/dragogiic, &c. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS, Agompho'sis, from * pri- 
vative, and yofA<fca>, ' I nail.' Looseness of the 
teeth. Gorrccus. See Gomphiasis. 

AGOMPHOSIS, Agomphiasis. 

AGONE, Hyoscyamus. 

AGONIA, Sterilitas. 

AGONIS'TICA, from *yuv, ' a combat.' 
The part of ancient gymnastics, which had 
reference to the combats of the Athletae. 

Also, very cold water, given internally, to 
calm febrile heat. Paulus of yEgina. 

AG'ONY, Ago'nia, An'gor, from ayaiy, 'a 



AGOSTUS 



yes 



AIR 



combat.' The last struggle of life. — Galen, 
Gorrceus, &c. The agony, which is of longer 
or shorter duration, is characterized by great 
change in the features, gradual abolition of 
sensation and motion, loss of voice, dryness 
or lividity of the tongue and lips, rattling in 
the throat, small and intermittent pulse, and 
coldness of the extremities. This state is not 
present in those who die suddenly. See Facies 
Hippocratica. 

AGOS'TUS, from aya,,'I lead.' The fore 
arm from the elbow to the fingers. Also the 
palm of the hand. — Gorrreus. See Palm. 

AGRA, ajpa, from etypice, 'I seize hold of,' 
— a seizure, as Odontagra, a tooth seizure, 
tooth-ache ; Chiragra, Podagra, &c. 

AGRAHALID, Agiahalid. 

AGRltGATIVES PILULES. See Aggre- 
gate. 

AGRIA, Herpes exedens. 

AGRIAMPELOS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AG'RIMOiNY, Eupato'rium, Cqf'al, Lap'- 
pula Hepat'ica. (F) Aigrcmoine. The Agri- 
mo'nia Eupato'ria. Nat. Ord. Rosacea, Sex. 
Syst. Icosandria Digynia. A mild astringent 
and stomachic. Dose, in powder, from J)j 

t0 3i- 

Agrimony, hemp, Eupatorium cannabinum. 

AGRIOCASTANUM, Bunium bulbocasta- 
num, Lycoperdon tuber. 

AGRIOCINARA, Sempervivum tectorum. 

AGRICOCCIMELEA, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRIORIGANUM, Origanum majorana. 

AGRIOSELINUM, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

AGRIOTHYM'IA, from ctyejoc, 'ferocious,' 
and d-ujutss, 'disposition - ' Ferocious insanity. 
— Sauvages. 

AGRIPALMA GALLIS, Leonurus car- 
diaca. 

AGRIPAUME, Leonurus cardiaca. 

AGRIP'PA or iEGRIFTA, from ager 
partus, ' difficult birth :' or perhaps from 
<*>§«, ' taking or seizure,' and jtguc, ' the foot.' 
This term has been given to those born by the 
feet. It is pretended that the family of 
Agrippa obtained their name from this cir- 
cumstance. Parturition where the feet pre- 
sent is called Agrippa partus, Agrippinus 
partus. 

AGRIPPINUS PARTUS. See Agrippa. 

AGRO DI CEDRO. See Citrus medica. 

AGROSTIS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRUNA, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRYPNIA. Insomnia. 

AGRYPNOCOMA, Coma vigil. 

AGRYPNO'DES, 'j.ypu7rva>S'»t;, from etypu7r- 
voc, ' sleepless.' Characterized by sleepless- 
ness, as Febris agrypnodes, a fever accom- 
panied with sleeplessness. 

AGRYP'NUS, aypvTrvoc, ' sleepless,' ' vigi- 
lant;' hence Agrypnodes (Febris), fever at- 
tended with watching. 

AGUE, Intermittent fever — a. free, Laurus 
sassafras — a. Quartan, Quartan — a. Tertian, 
Tertian fever — a. weed, Eupatorium perfo- 
liatum. 

AGYRTA, Charlatan. 

A'GUE CAKE, Placen'ta febri'lis, Phys- 
co'nia splen'icum, P. splenica, Splcnis Tumor; 



(F) Gateau f6bri1c,—a visceral obstruction 
(generally in the spleen), which follows agues, 
and is distinctly felt by external examination. 
To a greater or less degree, it is not uncommon. 
AGUE or ALHA'GI, the Hedisarum allwgi. 
A thorny shrub of Persia and Mesopotamia, 
which affords manna. The leaves are pur- 
gative. 

AGY'ION, from a. priv. and yviov, * limb.' 
Mutilated, or wanting limbs. — Hippocr. Weak, 
feeble. — Galen. 

AGYR'IAS, from ayvgn, ' a collection.' 
Opacity of the crystalline. — Aetius. Pare. 

AGYR'TA, from uyv^ic, 'a crowd.' For- 
merly meant a stroller, who pretended to su- 
pernatural powers. Subsequently, a quack or 
illiterate pretender. See Charlatan. 

AGYRTIA, Charlatanry. 

AHOUAI, Thevetia Ahouai. 

AHUSAL, Orpiment. 

AIDE, (F) Ad'jutor min'ister. An assistant 
to a surgeon in his operations. 

AIDOROMANIA, Nymphomania. 

AIERSA. Iris Germanica. 

AIGE, iEgias. 

AIGLE. Near the city of this name, in 
Normandy, is the chalybeate spring of Saint 
Xantin, much used in the IGth and 17th cen- 
turies. 

AIGLE, iEgias. 

AIGRE, Acidulous. 

AIGRELET, Acidulous. 

AIGREMOIJVE, Acrimony. 

AIGREURS, Acidities. 

AIGU, Acute. 

AIGUILLE, Needle. 

AIGUILLOJY, (F) Spina Helmontii. A 
term used since the time of Van Helmont, to 
designate the proximate cause of inflammation. 
According to him, an inflamed part is in the 
same condition as if an aiguiilon or thorn was 
thrust into it. 

AIGUISER, to Acidulate. 

AIL, Allium. 

AILE, Ala, Aileron. 

AILERON, (F) Extre'ma ala vel Pin'nula, 
diminutive of (F) Ailc, a wing. The extremity 
of the wing of a bird, to which the great fea- 
thers are attached. 

Ailerons de la matrice, three folds at the 
base of the broad ligaments of the uterus, 
which are occupied by the ovary and its liga- 
ment, the Fallopian tube, and the round liga- 
ment. 

AIMA, cti/u*., See Haema . 

AIMAJYT. Man-net. 

AIMATERA. Hepatirrhcea. 

AIMORRHCEA, Hcemonhao-ia. 

A1MORRHOIS, Haemorrhois. 

AIMORROIS, Hoemorrhois. 

AIJYE, Inguen. 

A1PI, Jatropha manihot. 

AJPJMA COXERA, Jatropha manihot. 

A1PIPOCA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIR, Aer, from ««, < I breathe,' Common air, 
Atmospheric air, is an invisible, transparent 
inodorous, insipid, ponderable, compressible, 
and elastic fluid, which, under the form of the 
atmosphere surrounds the earth to the height 
of 15 or 10 leagues. 



AIR 



29 



ALBOR 0V1 



Air is essentially composed of two gases, 
oxygen and azote, in the proportion of 20 of 
the former to 80 of the latter. Oxygen is the 
vital portion, but the azote is necessary to 
dilute it. Air also contains a small portion of 
carbonic acid gas, and it has, always floating 
in it, aqueous vapour, different terrestrial ema- 
nations, Sec. Its effects upon the human body 
vary according to ils greater or less density, 
temperature, moisture, &c; hence, change of 
air is found extremely serviceable in the pre- 
vention and cure of certain morbid conditions. 
See Climate. 

Air, Cells of the Lungs, Bronchial cells; 
see Cellule — a. Dcphlogisticated, Oxygen — a. 
Empyreal, Oxygen — a. Factitious, Carbonic 
acid — a. Fixed, Carbonic acid — a. Inflammable, 
Hydrogen — a. Pure, Oxygen — a. Solid, of 
Hale's Carbonic acid — a. Vital, Oxygen. 

AIR, acide vitriolique, Sulphurous acid — a. 
alcalin, Ammonia — a. du feu, Oxygen — a. gatd, 
Azote — a. xicit, Azote. 

The air passages, (F) Voies aeriennes, 
aerifercs, are the larynx, trachea, bronchi, &c. 
AIRAIJY, Bellmetal, Brass. 
AIRE, Areola. 

AIRELLE AJVGULEUSE, Vaccinium myr- 
tillus — a. ponctuie, Vaccinium vitis idsea. 
AIRIGJYE, Hook. 
AISSELLE, Axilla. 
AISTHESlS,jEsthesis. 

AITHOMO'MA, from aiS-or, 'black.' A 
black condition of all the humours of the eye. 
A. Pare. 

AITIA, Cause. 
A1TIOLOGY, .Etiologia. 
AITION, Cause. 

A1X-LA-CHAPELLE, MINERAL WA- 
TERS OF. Called by the Germans, Aachen. 
A thermal, sulphureous, mineral water, which 
contains, in 1000 grammes, 28.54 cubic inches 
of hydro-sulphuric acid gas, 18.05 cubic inches 
of carbonic acid gas, 0.1304 grammes of car- 
bonate of lime, 0.0440 grammes of carbonate of 
magnesia, 0.5444 grammes of sub-carbonate of 
soda, 2.3697 grammes of muriate of soda, 0.2637 
of sulphate of soda, and 0.0705 of silica. The 
temperature is 46° R. (135.5 F.) 

The factitious icatcr of Aix-Ia-Chapclle, A' qua 
Aquisgrunen'sis, (F) Eau d'Aix-la- Chap tile, is 
made by adding pure water gxvijss, to hydro- 
sulpkuretted water £ iv, carbonate of soda gr. 
xx, muriate of soda gr. ix. Ph. P. 

There are thermal sulphureous springs at 
Aix in Savoy, and some thermal springs at Aix 
in Provence. 

AIZOON, Sempervivum tectorum. 
AJU'GA. A. pyramida'lis, Consol'ida Me'dia, 
Bu'gula, Upright Bugloss, Middle Consound. 
(F) Bugle pyramidale. This plant is subastrin- 
gent and bitter. See, also, Teucrium Chamae- 
pitys. 

The Aju'ga Reptans, Bu'gula, Common 
Bugle, (F) Bugle rampantc, has similar proper- 
lies. 

AKATALIS, Juniperus communis. 
A K AT ERA, Juniperus communis. 
AKINESIA, Acinesia. 
AKOLOGY, Materia Medica. 
ALA, Pinna, Pteryx, < a wing.' (F) Aile. A 
term often used by anatomists for parts which 



project, like a wing, from the median line ; as 
the Ala: nasi, Aim of the uterus, &c. See Axilla 
and Pavilion of the Ear. — a. Extrema, see Aile- 
ron. 

ALABAS'TER, Alabas'trum. (F) Alb&tre, 
Alabastri'tes. A variety of compact gypsum ; 
of which an ointment was once made ; — the 
unguentum alabastri'num ; used as a discutient. 
Alabaster likewise entered into several Denti- 
frices 

ALABASTRITES, Alabaster. 
ALjE INTERNA MINORES CLITORI- 
DIS, Nymphae — a. Majores, Labia pudendi — a. 
Minores, Nymphas. 

AL/EAGNUS, Myrice gale. 
ALAITER, To suckle. 
ALALIA, Mutitas. 
ALAMBIC, Alembic. 

ALANFU'TA. A name given, by the Ara- 
bians, to a vein, situate between the chin and 
lower lip, which they were in the habit of 
opening in cases of fcetor of the breath. — Avi- 
cenna. 

ALAQUE'CA. The Hindusthanee name of 
a stone, found in small, polished fragments, 
which is considered efficacious in arresting 
hemorrhage when applied externally. It is a 
sulphuret of iron. 

ALARES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 
' ALA'RES VEN;E. The superficial veins 
at the fold of the arm. 

ALA'RIA OSSA. The wing-like processes 
of the sphenoid bone. 

ALATERNUS, COMMON, Rhamnus ala- 
ternus. 

ALA'TUS. Pterygo'des. One whose scapu- 
la? project backwards like wings. 

ALBADA'RA. The sesamoid bone of the 
metatarso-phalangal joint of the great toe. The 
Rabbis and Magicians attributed extraordinary 
virtues to it. — Arabians. 
ALBAGIAZI, Sacrum. 
ALBAMENTUM, Albumen ovi. 
ALBAN, SAINT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A French acidulous chalybeate, in the depart- 
ment of the Loire. 
ALBATRE, Alabaster. 
ALBARA, Lepra alphoides. 
ALBARiES, Lepra alphoides. 
ALBARAS NIGRA, I ,epra nigricans. 
ALBAROS. Lepra alphoides. 
ALBICAN'TIA COR'PORA. C. Candican'- 
tia, from al'bico, ' I grow white.' Willis's 
glands in the brain ; anterior to the tuber an- 
nulare. See Mammillnry Eminence. 
ALBIJY D'CEUE, Albumen ovi. 
ALBFNO. ' White.' Leucac'thiops, JElhiops 
albas, Dondo, from albus, ' white.' (F) Blafard, 
Ncgrc-blanc. A Spanish word applied to indi- 
viduals of the human race who have the skin 
and hair white, the iris very pale, bordering on 
red ; and the eyes so sensible, that they can- 
not bear the light of day. This condition, 
which has been called Leucathio'pia, Alpho'sis 
JEthiop'ica, Albonois'mus, Leucopnihi'u, is seen 
more frequently in the Negro. Both sexes are 
exposed to it; but it does not seem to be true, 
that there are tribes of Albinos in the interior 
of Africa. 
ALBINOISMUS, see Albino. 
ALBOR OVI, Albumen ovi. 



ALBORA 



30 



ALCHYMY 



AL'BORA. A kind of itch or complicated 
leprosy — Paracelsus. 
ALBOT, Crucible. 
ALBOTIM, Terebinthina. 
ALBUGIN'EA, Tu'nica albugiri ca. A. Tes- 
tis, Peritestis, Membra' na capsula'ris testis. (F) 
Albugincc, Tunique albuginie, is a strong, 
fibrous, and resisting membrane, which imme- 
diately envelops the testicle, and has, at its 
upper pait, an enlargement, called corpus 
Highmorianum. From its inner surface it 
sends off a number of flat, filiform prolonga- 
tions or septa, between which are contained, 
the seminiferous vessels. Externally, it is co- 
vered by the tunica vaginalis testis. 
ALBUGLYEE, Albuginea. 
ALBUGIN'EOUS. Albugin'eus, from albus, 
' white.' A term applied to textures, humours, 
&c, which are perfectly white 

Albugin'eous Fibre, (F) Fibre albuginie, a 
name given by Chaussier to what he considers 
one of the four elementary fibres. 

The albugineous fibre is linear, cylindrical, 
tenacious, elastic, but little extensible, and of a 
shining, satiny appearance. It always forms 
fascia? or fasciculi, which constitute the tendons, 
articular ligaments, and aponeuroses: hence 
the name Albugineous membranes, given by 
Chaussier to the fibrous membranes. 

Gautluer considers that the rete mucosum 
consists of four layers, to two of which he 
gives the names, — membra'na albvgin'ea pro- 
fun'da, and mcmbra!na albugin' ea supcrjicia'lis, 
respectively. 

ALBUGO OCULORUM, Leucoma— a. Ovi, 
Albumen ovi. 
ALBULA, Leucoma. 

ALBUM GRiECUM, Cynoc'oprns, Spo' ilium 
Graco'rum, Album Canis, Stercus Caninum Al- 
bum. The white dung of the dog. It consists 
almost wholly of phosphate of lime, from the 
bones used as food. It was formerly applied as 
a discutient to the inside of the throat in quin- 
seys, but is now justly banished from practice. 
Album canis, Album grcecum — a. Ceti, Ce- 
taceum. 

Album nigrum. The excrementofthe mouse. 
ALBU'MEN, from albus, < white.' (F) Al- 
lumine. An immediate principle of animals 
and vegetables, which constitutes the chief part 
of the white of egg. It is found in the serum, 
chyle, synovia, serous fluids, &c. 

The albu'men ovi, Albu'mor, Albu'go Ovi, 
Albor Ovi, Can'didutm Ovi, Albu'men, Clurc'ta, 
Ovi albus liijuor, Albumen' turn, Lac, avis or white 
of egg. (F) Blanc d'vnif, (Old F) A/bin d'a-uf, is 
used in pharmacy for suspending oils, &c, in 
water. See Ovum. 

ALBUMLYE, Albumen. 

ALBUMINURIA, a hybrid, from 'Albumen,' 
and cvpov, 'the urine.' The condition of the 
urine in which it contains albumen, the pre- 
sence of which is indicated by its coagulation 
on the application of adequate heat. 
ALBUMOR, Albumen ovi. 
AL'CAEST, Al'cahest Al'chaest, perhaps 
from (G) all, 'all,' and g e i s t, 'spirit.' A 
word invented by Paracelsus to designate a 
liquor, which, according to him, was capable 
of removing every kind of swelling. 

The same word was used by Van Ilelmont 



for a fancied universal solvent, capable of re- 
ducing every body to its elements. 

Tin" at.cai.st ok glauber is a thick liquor 
obtained by detonating nitrate of potass on hot 
coals, which transforms it into subcarbonate of 
potass. 

The alcaest of respour is a mixture of 
potass and oxyd of zinc. 

ALCAHEST, Alcaest. 

ALCALES'CENCE, Alkalcs'r.rnce, Alcales- 
ccn'tia. The condition in which a fluid be- 
comes alkaline. 

Alcalescence of the humours was an old 
notion of the Humorists. It can only occur 
during the putrid fermentation of animal mat- 
ters, which contain azote, and produce ammo- 
nia. 'Alcalinity ' is the quality of being alca- 
line. 

AL'CALI or AK'KALI, from al {Arab.,) 
' the,' and kali, the name of the Salso'la Soda, 
a plant which contains a large quantity of one 
of the principal alkalis — soda. The alkalis are 
substances soluble in water, possessing gene- 
rally a urinous, acrid, and caustic taste, turning 
the syrup of violets green, and restoring to 
blue the infusion of litmus, which has been 
reddened by acids ; reddening the yellow of 
turmeric, and having the greatest tendency to 
unite with acids, whose character they modify, 
and form salts with them. In medicine we un- 
derstand by this term Potassa, Soda, or Ammo- 
nia (q. v ) 

Caustic alcali, Al'kali Caus'ticum. A pure 
alkali. One deprived of its carbonic acid. 

The fixed alcalis are soda and potassa; 
the Volatile Alcali, ammonia. 

Alcali ammoniacum acetatum, Liquor am- 
monia; acetatis — a. Ammoniacum fluidum, Li- 
quor ammonia? — a. Fixum tartarizatum, Potassa? 
tartras — a. Minerale sulphuricum, Soda, sul- 
phate of — a. Tartari aceto saturatum, Potassa? 
acetas — a. Vegetabile salito dephlogisticatum, 
Potassa? murias hyperoxygenatus — a. Vegeta- 
bile tartarizatum, Potassa? tartras — a Vegetabile 
vitriolatum, Potassa? sulphas — a. Volatile ace- 
tatum, Liquor ammonia? acetatis — a. Volatile 
aeratum, Ammonia? carbonas — a. Volatile ex 
sale ammoniaco, Ammonia? carbonas. 

ALCALIGENE, Azote. 

ALKALINITY, see Alkalescence. 

ALCANA, Anchusa officinalis. 

ALCANNA ORIENTALIS, Lawsonia iner- 
mis — a. Spuria, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Vera, 
Lawsonia inermis. 

ALCEA, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. jEgyp- 
tiaca, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. Indica, Hibis- 
cus abelmoschus. 

ALCE'A RO'SEA, Common hollyhock. Emol- 
lient, like the Althaea. 

ALCHACHENGE, Physalis. 

ALCHACHIL, Rosmarinus. 

ALCHAEST, Alcahest. 

ALCHEMIL'LA,^. vulga/ris, Common La- 
dies Mantle. Pes Leo'nis, Lcontopo'dium (F) 
Pied de Lion. I ormerly in great repute as an 
astringent in hemorrhage 

ALCHEMY, AlchyrnV 

ALCHITRAM, see Pinus Sylvestris 

A T L ™ITURA,'see Pinus s/lvestrU 

^l^ri™ 1 ™' C ^ naia scolymus. 

ALCHYMY, Al'cherny,Alck t mi'u, Alchimi'a 



ALCOHOL 



31 



ALEXANDRINE 



Adep ta Philoso'phia, from al, an Arabic parti- 
cle, signifying superiority, excellence, and 
Chimia, ' Chymistry.' This word was formerly 
synonymous with Chymistry; but, from the 
7th century, it has been applied to the myste- 
rious ait of endeavouring to discover a univer- 
sal remedy, and a mode of transmuting the 
baser metals into gold : an operation to which 
they gave the name Opus magnum, and Philo- 
sopher's stone. 

Alchymy has also been called Scicn'tia vel 
Philoso'phia Hcrmct'ica, from an idea that 
Hermes or Mercury was its inventor. 

Hariis has well defined this chimerical art: 
' Ars sine arte, cvjvs principium est mentiri, me- 
dium laborare, et finis mendicare.' 

Al'chymist, Flatua'rius, Adept'; one pre- 
tending to alchymy. 

AL'COHOL, Al'cool,M'kool; an Arabic word, 
formerly used for an impalpable powder, and 
signifying 'very subtile, much divided.' At 
the present day it is applied to the highly rec- 
tified spirit of wine. See Spiritus rcctijicalus, 
or rectified spirit, distilled from dried subcar- 
bonate of potassa. 

Alcohol is an inflammable liquor, lighter than 
water, of a warm, acrid taste, colourless, trans- 
parent, and of a pungent, aromatic smell. It is 
the product of the distillation of vinous liquors. 
Alcohol is miscible with water in all propor- 
tions, and it is the direct solvent of resins, 
balsams, &c. Various other vegetable princi- 
ples are soluble in it, and hence it is used, in 
different states of concentration, in the prepa- 
ration of elixirs, tinctures, essences, &c. 

Alcohol acts on the animal body as a powerful 
stimulus : as such, in a- dilute form, it is used in 
the prevention and cure of disease. Its habit- 
ual and inordinate use is the cause of many 
serious affections, of a chronic character espe- 
cially, as visceral obstructions, dropsy, &c. 

Alcohol jEthereus ferratus, A. sulfurico- 
sethereus ferri — a. cum Aloe perfoliata, Tinc- 
tura aloes — a. Ammoniae et guaiaci, Tinctura 
guaiaci ammoniata — a. Ammoniatum, Spiritus 
ammonia? — a. Ammoniatum aromaticum, Spi- 
ritus ammonias aromaticus — a. Ammoniatum 
fcetidum, Spiritus ammoniae fcetidus — a. cum 
Aromatibus sulphuricatus, Sulphuricum acidum 
aromaticum — a. cum Aromatibus compositus, 
Tinctura cinnamomi composita — a. Castoria- 
turn, Tinctura castorei — a. cum Crotone casca- 
rilla, Tinctura cascarillas — a. Dilutum, Spiritus 
tenuior — a. Ferratus, Tinctura ferri muriatis — 
a. cum Sulphate ferri tartarisatus, see Ferrum 
tartarizatum — a. cum Guaiaco officinale ammo- 
niatus, Tinctura guaiaci ammoniata — a. Iodii, 
Tinctura Iodinae — a. cum Opio, Tinctura opii 
— a. Sulphuricatum, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. 
Sulphuricum, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Sul- 
phuris, Carbonis sulphuretum. 

ALCOOL, Alcohol — a. Camphri, Spiritus 
camphorce. 

ALCOOLAT, Tincture. 

ALCOOLATUM, Tincture— a. Antiscorbu- 
ticum,Tinctura de cochleariis — a Carminativum 
Sylvii, Tinctura carminativa Sylvii — a. do 
Cochleariis, Tinctura de Cochleariis — a. de 
Croco compositum, Tinctura de croco compo- 
sita. 



ALCOOLISER (F). Formerly, 'to reduce 
into an impalpable powder.' No longer used. 

ALCOOLOMETER, Areometer. 

ALCORJVOQUE (F) Cortex Jtlcornoco, A 
bark but little known and distributed in France, 
which has been considered capable of curing 
phthisis. It is bitter, tonic and slightly as- 
tringent. Dose of the powder ^i to gss. 

AL'CYON, Hal'cyon. A swallow'of Cochin 
China, whose nests are gelatinous and very nu- 
tritious. They have been proposed in medicine 
as analeptic and aphrodisiac. 

ALCYO'NIUM, Bastard sponge. The ashes 
were formerly employed as dentifrices : they 
were believed proper for favouring the growth 
of the hair and the beard, and were used in 
Alopecia. 

ALDER, BLACK, Prinos, Rhamnus fran- 
gula. 

ALE, Cerevisia. 

ALEACAS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALECOST, Tanacetum balsamita. 

ALECTO'RIUS LATIS, Alecto'ria; from 
ctXiKTag, 'a cock.' The name of a stone, sup- 
posed to exist in the stomach of the cock, or, 
according to others, in that of the capon, four 
years old. Many marvellous properties were 
formerly attributed to it, which are as ground- 
less as its existence. There are no stones in 
the stomach, except what have been swallowed. 

ALEGAR, Acetum. 

ALEIMMA, Liniment. 

ALE1PHA, Liniment. 

ALEIPTE'RIUM, from <*x«/?&>. 'I anoint.' 
The place in the ancient gymnasium where 
the combatants anointed themselves. 

ALEIP'TRON, Same etymon. A box for 
containing ointments. 

ALEMA, Farina. 

ALEM'BIC {Arab.) Moorshead, Capitcl'lium, 
Capit'ulum, (F) Alavibic. A utensil made of 
glass, metal, or earthen ware, and adapted for 
distillation. It consists of a body or cucurbit, to 
which is attached a head or capital, and out of 
this a beak descends laterally to be inserted 
into the receiver. 

ALEM'BROTH (Salt.) The alchymists de- 
signated by this name, and by those of Sal 
sapicn 'tice , Sal vita and S. Sciential, the product 
resulting from the sublimation of a mixture of 
corrosive sublimate and sal ammoniac. It is 
stimulant, but not employed. 

ALESE (F) Aleze, Linteum, from *xt%u, 'I 
preserve.' A guard. A clolh arranged in seve- 
ral folds, and placed upon a bed, so as to guard 
it from the lochial or other discharges. 

AL'ETON, Farina. 

AL'ETRIS FARINO'SA. Stargrass, Star- 
wort. Nat. Ord. Asphodeleas, Sex. Sijst. Hex- 
andria Monogynia. This plant is an intense 
and permanent bitter, and is used as a tonic and 
stomachic. It is common in the United States. 

ALEURON, Farina. 

AEEUROTES1S, see Cribration. 

ALEXANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrurn. 

ALEXANDRI ANT1DOTUS AUREA, see 
Alexandrine. 

ALEXAN'DRINE, Emplas'trum Alexan'dr i , 
a garlic plaster, invented by Alexander, con- 
temporary of Mesue. Other ancient prepara- 



ALEXICACUM 



32 



ALKALI 



lions were called ' Alexandrine;' as the Alex- 
an'driaviid'otus au'rea, used in apoplexy; the 
Colli/r'ium siccum Alc.rtindri'num, or ' Colly- 
rium of King Alexander,' mentioned by Aetius. 
ALEXICACUM, Amuletum, Alexipbannic. 
ALEXJPHAR'MIC, Alexiphar'micus, Anti- 
phar'macus, Alexica'cus, Caco-alexite'ria, Lexi- 
pliar'macus, (F) Alexipharmaquc, from tthi^in, 
'to repel,' and pag.uaxov, 'poison.' A term 
formerly used for medicines which were con- 
sidered proper for expelling from the body va- 
rious morbific principles, or for preventing the 
bad effects of poisons taken inwardly. 
ALEXIPYRETlCUS, Febrifuge. 
ALEX1R. Elixir. 

ALEXITE'RIA, from axsf *c-3-a/, • to assist. 
Originally, alexiterium was used synonymously 
with remedy. In more modern times it has 
been applied to a class of medicines, that coun- 
teract poisons placed in contact with the exte- 
rior of the body, in contradistinction to alexi- 
pharmic. 

ALEXITERIUM CHLORICUM, see Dis- 
infection — a. Nitricum, see Disinfection. 
ALEZE, AVese. 
ALFUSA, Tutia. 
ALGAL1E, Catheter. 

AL'GAROTH, Al'garot, Algaro'thi Pulvis, 
Pulvis Angel'icus, Ox'idum seu submu'rias 
Stib'ii prcecipitan! do para' turn : Antimo'nii Ox'y- 
dum; Ox'idum antimo'nii Nitro-muriat'icum, 
Ox'idum Stib'ii Ac"ido Muriat'ico oxygena'to 
para' turn, Mercu'rius Vita, Merr.u'rius Mortis, 
so called from Victor Algarothi, a Veronese 
physician ; the sub-muriate of protoxide of anti- 
mony, separated from the muriate of antimony 
by washing away some of its acid. It was 
formerly much used as an emetic, purgative, 
and diaphoretic. 

ALGE'DO, from axyoc, ' pain.' Violent pain 
about the neck of the bladder, occasionally oc- 
curring in gonorrhoea. — Cockburn. 
ALGEDON, Pain. 
ALGEMA, Pain. 
ALGES1S, Pain. 
ALGETICUS, see Algos. 
AL'GIDUS, from algor, < cold.' That which 
is accompanied by coldness. 

Febris Ai/gida, F. horrif'ica, F. quer'quera. 
(F) Fievrc algide. A pernicious intermittent, 
accompanied by icy coldness, which is often 
fatal in the second or third paroxysm. 
ALGOR, Rigor. 

ALGOS, axyog, 'pain.' See Pain. Hence, 
Alget'icus, aA^jT/xo?, ' painful,' as Epilepsia 
algetica. The suffix algia has the same signi- 
fication, as in Cephalalgia; Pleuralgia, Neural- 
gia, &c. 

ALHAGI, Agul. 
ALIBIL1S, Nutritious. 

AL'ICA, Hal'ica, Farina'rium, Chondrus, 
from ax<|, 'bouillie.' A grain from which the 
ancients made their tisanes ; supposed, by 
some, to have been the Triticum Spelta. At 
times, it seems to have meant the tisane itself. 
AL'ICES, from aAi£a>, ' 1 sprinkle.' Spots 
which precede the eruption of smallpox. 
ALIENATIO, Anomalia. 
ALIENATION, MENTAL. Insanity. 
AL1ENUS, Delirious. 
ALIFORMIS, Pterygoid. 



ALIFORMES MUSCULI, Pterygoid mus- 

ALIGULUS, Confection. 

ALIMELL^, Parotid. 

AL'IMENT, Alimen'lum, Ciba'num, Uroma, 
Conns' te, Cibus, Esca, Nutri'tus, Nutrtmen turn, 
Sitos, Trophl, (F) Aliment, Nonrnture, from 
alere, ' to nourish;' food. Any substance, which 
if introduced into the system, is capable ot 
nourishing it and repairing its losses. 

The study of Aliments forms one of the most 
important branches of Hygiene. They are 
confined to the organized kingdom: the mine- 
ral affording none. 

As regards the immediate principles which 
predominate in their composition, they may 
be classed as follows. 



TABLE OF ALIMENTS. 



1. Fcculaceous. 

2. Mucilaginous. 

3. Saccharine. 

4. Acidulous. 

5. Oleaginous a 

Fatty. 

6. Oaseous. 

7. Oelatinous. 

8. Albuminous. 

9. Fibrinous. 



r Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice. 
) Indian corn, potatoe, sago, 
( peas, beans, &c. 
( Carrot, salsify, beet, turnip, aspa- 
) ragus, cabbage, lettuce, arti- 
( choke, melon, &c. 
( Sugar, fig, date, raisin, apri- 
j cot, &x. 

("Orange, currant, gooseberry, 
J cherry, peach, strawberry, 
| raspberry, mulberry, prune, 
^ pear, apple, sorrel, &c. 
, r Cocoa, olive, sweet almond, nut, 
5 walnut, animal fat, oil, but- 
( ter, &c. 

Different kinds of milk, cheese. 
t Tendon, aponeurosis, true skin, 
J cellular texture; very young 
( animals. 

Brain, nerve, eggs, Sec. 

Flesh and blood. 

ALIMENTARY TUBE, Canal, alimentary. 
ALIMENTATION, Alimental tio ; the act of 
nourishing. 

ALIMENTUM, Pabulum. 
ALIMOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALINDE'SIS, from aKivfofxat, ' to be turned 
about.' A species of exercise, which consisted 
in rolling in the dust, after having been anoint- 
ed with oil. — Hippocr. 

ALIPiENOS, Alipec'num, Alipan'tos, from * 
priv. and xittxvuv, ' to be fat.' An epithet for- 
merly given to every external remedy, devoid 
of fat or moisture ; such as powders. — Galen. 
ALIPANTOS, AlipEenos. 
ALIP'TA, Aliptes, from at^ticpce, <I anoint.' 
He who anointed the Athletas after bathinrr. 
The place where this was done was called 
Aliptcrium. 

ALIP'TICA, same etymon. The part of 
ancient medicine, which treated of inunction, 
as a means of preserving health. 
ALISIER BLANC, Crataegus aria. 
ALISMA, Arnica montana. 
Alis'ma Planta'go, Water Plantain, 
Plantain d'Eau. Nat. Ord. Alismaceae, 
Syst. Hexandria Polygynia. The fresh 
is acrid, and the dried leaves will vesicate. 
The leaves have been proposed as substitutes 
for the Uva Ursi. 

AL1TURA, Nutrition. 
AL'KALE, O'leum Galli'jiaz; a 
pharmaceutical name for pullets' fat 
ALKALESCENCE, Alcalescence. 
ALKALI, see Alcali — n. Ammoniacum caus- 
ticum, Ammonia— a. Ammoniacum spirituo- 



(F) 
Sex. 
root 



an ancient 



ALKANET 



33 



ALMOND 



sum, Sj>iritus ammonias — a. Minerale nitraturn, 
•Soda, nitrate of — a. Minerale phosphoratum, 
Soda, phosphate of— a. Minerale salinum. Soda, 
muriate of— a. Vegetable, Potash — a. Vegeta- 
bile cum aceto, Potassse acetas — a. Vegetabile 
fixum causticum, Potassa fusa — a. Volatile, 
Ammonia — a. Volatile causticum, Ammonia — 
a. Volatile, concrete, Ammonia; carbonas — a. 
Volatile nitratuin, Ammonias nitras — a. Volatile 
tartiii i/.atum, Ammonia; tartras — a. Volatile 
vitriolatum, Ammonia; sulphas. 

ALKANET, bastard, Lithospermum offici- 
nale — a. Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Garden, 
Anchusa officinalis — a. Officinal, Anchusa offi- 
cinalis. 

ALKAR. Medicament. 

ALKEKENG1, Physalis. 

ALKER'MES, Confec'tio Alkcr'mes, Mcher'- 
mes. A celebrated electuary, composed of a 
multitude of substances. It was so called from 
the grains of kermes contained in it. It was 
used as a stimulant. 

ALKERVA, see Ricinus communis. 

ALKITFtAN, Cedria. 

ALKOOL, Alcohol. 

ALLAITEMEJYT, Lactation. 

ALLAITER, To suckle. 

ALLAMAJN'DA, A ('alhar'tica,Orc'lia gran- 
diflora, GaV drips, Echi'nus scandcns,Apoe" ynnm 
scan' dens : a shrub, native of Guiana, the in- 
fusion of whose leaves is said by Linnaeus to 
be useful in colica pictonum. 

ALLANTOIC ACID, Ac" 'idum allantoicum . 
a peculiar acid, found in the liquor of the allan- 
tois of the cow. 

ALLANTOIS, Allantoi'des, Membra'na uri- 
nal ria, M. Farcimina'lis, M. Intestinalis, the 
Allantoid Vesicle, from axxac, ' a sausage,' and 
s/cfac, ' shape.' A sort of elongated bladder, be- 
tween the chorion and amnion of the foetus, 
and communicating with the bladder by the 
urachus. It is very apparent in quadrupeds, 
but not in the human species. The fluid of 
the allantoid has been considered inservient to 
the nutrition of the foetus, but our ideas, in 
regard to the vesicle, in man, are far from 
being determinate. 

ALLANTOTOX'ICUM, from *xa*c, < a sau- 
sage,' and T5|;jtov, 'a poison.' The Germans 
have given this name to a poison developed in 
sausages formed of blood and liver. 

ALLELUIA, Oxalis acetosella. 

ALLGOOD, Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 

ALLHEAL, Heracleum spondylium. 

ALLIA'CEOUS, allia'ccus, from allium, t gar- 
lic. ' Belonging to garlic, as alliaceous odour. 

ALLIAIRE, Alliaria. 

ALLIA'RIA, Eri/s'imum alha'ria, Jack-in thc- 
hedge, Stinking hedge mustard, Sauce-alone, 
ll<s' /it ris alha'ria, (F) Alliaire. This plant has 
been sometimes given in humid asthma and 
dyspnoea. It is reputed to be diaphoretic, diu- 
retic, and antiscorbutic. 

The Parisian Codex has a compound syrup 
of alliaria, Shop d' erysimum compost, which is 
used in hoarseness. 

ALLIGATURA, Fascia, Ligature. 

AL'LIUM, from oleo, ' I smell.' A. sati'vum, 

Thcriaca rustico'rum, Amp clop 'rasum, Scor'o- 

don, Garlic, (F) Ail. Mat. Ord. Asphodelese, 

Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. A native of 

5 



Sicily, but cultivated for use. The bulbs or 
cloves, Ag'li.thes, have a strong, offensive, and 
penetrating odour; and a sweetish, biting, and 
caustic taste. Internally, garlic is stimulant, 
diuretic, expectorant, emrnenagogue (?), dia- 
phoretic, and anthelmintic. Externally, it is 
rubefacient, maturative, and repellent. 

Dose, one to six cloves, swallowed whole, or 
from ^ss to gij of the juice. 

Tavlor's Remedy for Deafness, a nostrum, 
appears to consist of garlic, infused in oil of 
almonds, and coloured by alkanet root. 

Allium Ascalonicum, Echalotte. 

Al'lium Cepa, Common Onion, Cepul'la, 
Crom'myon. (F.) Oignon. Acrid and stimu- 
lating, and possessing very little nutriment. 
Onions have been used as stimulants, diure- 
tics, and anthelmintics. The boiled or roasted 
onion, as a cataplasm, is emollient and matu- 
rating. The fresh root is rubefacient. The ex- 
pressed juice is sometimes used in otalgia and 
in rheumatism. 

Allium Gallicum, Portulaca. 

Al'lium Porrum, Porrum, Prasum, ?rp*irov, 
the Leek or Porret; (F) Poircau, Porreau. Pos- 
sesses the same properties as the onion. 

The virtues of the genus Allium depend upon 
an acrid principle, soluble in water, alcohol, 
acids, and alkalies. 

Allium, Redolens, Teucrium scordium. 

Al'lium Victoria'le, Victoria' lis longa. 
The root, which, when dried, loses its allia- 
ceous smell and taste, is said to be efficacious 
in allaying the abdominal spasms of pregnant 
women (?). 

ALLOCHOOS, Delirious. 

ALLOCHROMA'SIA, from *\xcc, ' another,' 
and ^ay.i., 'colour.' A change of colour. 

ALLOIOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLOIOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLOPATH'IC, Allopath' kits , Hcteropath'ic, 
fiom diKKoc, 'another,' and 5r«6of, 'affection.' 
Relating to the ordinary method of medical 
practice, in contradistinction to Homoeopa- 
thic. 

ALLOPATHY, Allopathia, from awoc, ' ano- 
ther, 'different,' and ttx&os, disease. The op- 
posite to Homeopathy. The ordinary medi- 
cal practice. 

ALLOPHASIS, Delirium. 

ALLOTRIODON'TIA, from aixxcrptoc, 'fo- 
reign,' and oSovs, ' a tooth.' Transplantation of 
teeth. 

ALLOTRIOPHAGIA, Malacia. 

ALLOTRIU'RIA, from ax^oTpis;, * foreign,' 
and cupiv, ' urine.' Admixture of foreign mat- 
ters with the urine. 

ALLSPICE, see Myrtns pimenta. 

ALLUCINATIO, Hallucination. 

A1J.URE. Influenza. 

ALMA, Water. 

ALMARIAB, see Plumbi oxydum semivi- 
treum. 

ALMEZERION, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ALMOND, Amygdala. 

Ai Moup Bloom. A liquid cosmetic : formed 
of Brazil dust, gi, water Ibiij ; boil and strain ; 
and add isinglass ,^vj, grand sylvestria §ij, or 
cochineal gij, alum's,], borax giij ; boil again, and 
strain through a fine cloth. 
Almond Cake, see Amygdala — a. of the Ear, 



ALNUS NIGRA 



34 



ALUMEN 



Tonsil — a. Paste, see Amygdala — a. Powder, 
see Amygdala — a. of the Throat, Tonsil. 
ALNUS NIGRA, Rhamnus frangula. 
ALOEDA'RIUM, axontTa/xcv ; a compound 
medicine, containing aloes. — Gorrseus. 

ALOES, Al'oe, Eel Nutu'rcz; the inspissated 
juice of the aloe. J\at. Ord. Asphodelese, Sex. 
Syst. Hexandria Monoffynia. 

The Soc'otrine Aloes, A. Succotori'na, 
Turkey aloes, East India aloes, Aloes lu'cida, 
A. Zoctorinia, A. spica'ta, A. spica'ta. ex- 
trac'tum, A. extractum, An'ima Aides, is the 
best species. Its odour is not unpleasant, taste 
very bitter, and slightly aromatic ; colour red- 
dish-brown, with a shade of purple ; mass hard, 
friable; fracture conchoidal and glossy ; soluble 
in dilute alcohol. Powder of a bright cinna- 
mon-yellow colour. It is cathartic, warm, and 
stimulating; emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and 
stomachic. As a cathartic, it affects the rec- 
tum chiefly. Dose, as a cathartic, gr. v to ^j 
in pill. 

Aloes Hepat'jca, A. vulga'ris, A. Barba- 
den'sis. Hepatic aloes, Bombay aloes, Barba- 
does aloes, A. vulgaris extractum, (F) Aloes 
en caUbasscs, A. des Barbadocs. This species 
has a very disagreeable odour, and an intensely 
bitter and nauseous taste. Properties the same 
as the last. 

Aloes Caballi'na, A. Guinien'sis, Horse- 
aloes; used chiefly for horses. It is collected 
in Spain and Portugal, and is very coarse. 
Aloes Wood, Agallochum. 
ALOET'IC, Aloct'icus. A preparation, which 
contains aloes. 

ALOGOTRO'PHIA, from ttxoyoi, < dispro- 
portionate,' and tptxpti, ' nutrition.' Irregular 
nutrition. Used particularly to designate the 
irregular manner in which the nutrition of 
bones is operated in rickety individuals. 
ALOPECES, Psoeb. 

ALOPE'CIA, from axea-af, 'a fox;' (this 
animal being said to be subject to the affec- 
tion.) Capillo'rum deftu'vivm, Atlirix depi'l/s, 
Phalacro'tis, A'rea, Dcpila'tio, Tricho'sis Atlt'- 
rix, Gangrai'na Alopc'cia ; falling off of the 
hair; loss of the hair. When this is confined 
to the crown of the head, it is called calvities 
(q. v.), although the terms are often used sy- 
nonymously. 

Alopecia Areata, Porrigo decalvans. 
ALOUCHE, Crataegus aria. 
ALOUCH'I. The name of a gum procured 
from the canella alba tree. 

ALOUCHIER, Crataegus aria. 
ALl'AM. A shrub which grows on the 
coast of Malabar. Certain parts of this, in- 
fused in oil, form an antipsoric ointment. The 
juice of the leaves, mixed with that of the 
calamus, is employed against the bites of ser- 
pents. 

ALPHENIC, Saccharum candidum. 
ALPHITEDON, see Fracture. 
ALPHITON, axvncv, Polen'ta, Fari'na. 
Any kind of meal. Toasted barley-meal. — 
Hippocrates. Polenta means also a food com- 
posed of Indian meal, cheese, &c. See Fa- 
rina. 

ALPHON'SIN, Alphonsi'num; a kind of 
bullet forceps, similar to a Porte-Crayon, so 



called from the inventor, Alphonso Fern, of 
Naples.— Scultetus. 

ALPHOS, Lepra alphoides. 
ALPHOSIS iETHIOPICA, See Albino. 
ALPINIA CARDAMOMUM, Amomum Car- 
damomum. 

ALPISTE, Phalaris Canadiensis. 
ALSINE ME'DIA, Morsus Galh'nic, Ho- 
los'teum Alsinc, Mouse-ear, Chichwced, (F) 
Mouron des Oiseaux, Morgelinc. This plant, 
if boiled tender, may be eaten like spinach, 
and forms an excellent emollient poultice. It 
was formerly regarded as a vulnerary and 
detergent. 

ALTAFOR, Camphor. 
ALTERANS, Alterative. 

ALTERANT, Alterative. 

ALTERA'TION, Altera'tio, from alter, 
'other,' Alloio'sis. This word is used in 
France to express a morbid change which su- 
pervenes in the expression of the countenance 
(alteration de la face), or in the structure of an 
organ (altiiation organique), or in the nature 
of fluids excreted {alteration de Vurine, des 
larmcs, du (ait, <^c.) 

Alteration is also used in an entirely dif- 
ferent sense, to express intense thirst in dis- 
ease. In this case its etymology is different. 
It comes from haletcr, and was formerly written 
haletiration. 

AL'TERATIVE, Alter ans, Alloiot'icus, a 
medicine considered to be capable of producing 
a salutary change in a disease, but without 
exciting any sensible evacuation. As Me- 
dicine improves, this uncertain class of re- 
medies becomes, of necessity, diminished in 
number. 

(F) Altirant. (The French term likewise 
means, that which causes thirst. Siticulo'sus, 
Dipscl'icus, as Altirer means both to change 
and to cause thirst. S'altdrer, is, to experience 
a chano-e for the worse, — corrum'pi.) 

ALTERCANGENON, Hyoscyamus. 

ALTERCUM, Hyosc V amus. 

ALTHyE'A, from *k&uv, 'to heal;' A. offi- 
cinalis, Malvavis 1 'cum, Aristalthaa, Hibis'cus, 
Ibis'cha mismal'va, Bismol' va, Marsh-mallow. 
(F) Guimauve. Nat. Ord. Malvaceae. Sex. 
Syst. Monodelphia Polyandria. The leaves 
and root contain much mucilage. They are 
emollient and demulcent, and are employed 
wherever medicines, possessing such proper- 
ties, are required. 

ALTHANAIHA, Orpiment. 

ALTHEUS, Physician. 

ALTHEXIS, Curation. 

ALTILIBAT, Terebinthina. 

ALU'DEL, Alu'tel, Vitrum sublimato'rium; 
a hollow sphere of stone, glass, or earthenware. 



with a short neck projecting at each end, by 
means of which one glass might be set upon 
the other. The uppermost had no aperture at 
the top. Aludels were formerly used in the 
sublimation of various substances. 

ALUM, Symphytum— a. Egyptian, JEa-yntxa 
styptena— a. Root, Heuchera cortusa— a. So- 
lution of, compound, Liq. aluminis. compos. 

ALU'MEN, (an Arabic term, alum) Alum, 
Hypcrsul'phas Alu'mince et Potas'sa, Sul'phas 



COMMON ALUM 



35 



AMASESIS 



Alumina Acid'ulus cum rotas' set, Sulphas 
Alu' mince, Sul'phas Kal'ico-alumin'icum, Super- 
sul'phas alu'mina ct potas'sa, Argil' la sulphu'- 
rica alcuiisa'ta, A. vilriula'ta, Styptc'ria, Super- 
sul'phas Argil'la ale at is a' turn, Argilla Kali- 
sulphurica. (F) Alun. 

Common Alum, English alum, Rock alum, 
Alu'mcn facti'tium, Alu'men commu'ne, A. 
crystal I' inum, A. ru'peum, (F) Alun iV Angle- 
tcrre, is the variety usually employed. It is in 
octahedral crystals, but generally in laroe, 
white, semitransparent masses; has a sweetish, 
styptic taste; effloresces in the air, and is solu- 
ble in 10 parts of water at (i()°. It is tonic and 
astringent, and as such is used internally and 
externally. Dose, gr. v. to xv. 

Roman Alum, Mu'men Roma'num, A. 
Ru'titum, A. Rubrum. (F) Alun de Rome. 
In crystals, which are of a pale red when 
broken, and covered with a reddish efflores- 
cence. 

Roche Alum, Alu'mcn de Rochi, (F) Alun de 
Roche, so called from Roccha in Syria, where 
there was a manufactory. It is in pieces of the 
size of an almond, covered with a reddish efflo- 
rescence. 

Common Roche Alum, A. Rochi Gallis. 
Fragments of common alum, moistened and 
shaken with prepared bole. It is white when 
broken. 

Alu'men Exsicca'tum, Alu'mcn ustum, A- 
calcina'tum, Sulphas alu'mina: fusus, Argil' la 
sulphu'rica usta, Burnt alum, dried alum. (F) 
Alun calcine' , (alum melted in an earthen vessel 
until ebullition ceases.) Escharotic. 

Alumen Catinum, Potash of commerce — a. 
Fixum : see Potash. — a. Kinosatum, Pulvis 
sulphatis aluminrc compositus. 

ALUMINA PURA, Argilla pura. 

ALUMINA ET POTASS^] HYPERSUL- 
PHAS, Alumen — a. et Potassae supersulphas, 
Alumen — a. sulphas, Alumen — a. Sulphas acid- 
ulus cum potassa, Alumen — a. Sulphas fusus, 
Alumen exsiccatum. 

ALU MINE FACTICE, Argilla pura. 

ALUN, Alumen. 

ALUNSEL, Gutta. 

ALUS, Symphytum. 

ALUSIA, Hallucination — a. Hypochondrias, 
Hypochondriasis. 

ALUTEL, Aludel. 

ALVAQUILLA, Psoralea glandulosa. 

ALVEARIUM, Auditory canal, external. 

ALVE'OLAR. Alveola'ris, from al'veus,'a. 
cavity.' (F) Alv6olaire. That which relates 
to the alveoli. 

The Alve'olar Arches. (F) Arcades al- 
vivlaires, are formed by the margins of the 
two jaws, which are hollowed by the Alveoli 
(q. v.) 

The Alve'olar Artery, Supra-max'illary A. 
(Artere sus-maxillairc) of Chaussier, arises 
from the internal maxillary, descends behind 
the tuberosity of the upper jaw, and gives 
branches to the upper molar teeth, gums, pe- 
riosteum, membrane of the maxillary sinus, and 
buccinator muscle. 

The Alve'olar Vein has a similar distribu- 
tion . 

The Alve'olar Membranes, are very fine 



membranes, situate between the teeth and 
alveoli, and formed by a portion of the sac or 
follicle which enclosed the tooth before it 
pierced the gum. By some this membrane 
has been called the alceolo-dcntal periosteum. 

AL VKOLE, Alveolus. 

ALVEOLO -LABIAL, Buccinator. 

ALVE'OLUS, same etymon. Botrion, 
Bothrion, Frena, Mortariolum, Hol'micos, 
Prascpiolum, Phatfnion, Pncsc'pium, Putne, 
Pathne. (F) Alveole. The alveoli are the 
socliets of the teeth, into which they are, as it 
were, driven. Their size and shape are de- 
termined by the teeth which they receive, and 
they are piereed, at the apex, by small holes, 
which give passage to the dental vessels and 
nerves. 

ALVEUS, Auge — a. Ampullosus, Recepta- 
cultun chyli — a. Ampullescens, thoracic duct — 
a. Communis: see Semicircular canals — a. 
Utriculosus : see Semicircular canals. 

ALVI EXCRETIO, Defecation— a. Fluxus 
Aquosus, Diarrhoea — a. Profluvium, Diarrhoea. 

ALVIDUCUS, Laxative. 

ALVINE. Alvi'nus, from alvvs, ' the abdo- 
men.' That which relates to the lower belly, 
as a/vine dejections, alvincfiux, &c. 

ALVUS, Abdomen — a. Adstricta, Constipa- 
tion — a. Renum, Pelvis of the kidney. 

ALYCE, Anxiety. 

AL'YPON,from u. privative, and xi/jrw/pain.' 
An acrid, purging plant, described by Matthio- 
lus. By some it has been supposed to be the 
Globula'ria alypum of botanists. 

ALYSIS, Anxiety. 

ALYSMUS, Anxiety. 

ALYSSUM PLINn, Galium Mollugo. 

AL'ZILAT. In some of the Arabian wri- 
ters, a weight of three grains. — Ruland and 
Johnson. 

AMADOU, Boletus igniarius. 

ANADOUVIER, Boletus igniarius. 

AMAIGRISSEMEJVT, Emaciation. 

AMAJYDES, See Amygdala. 

AMANI'TiE from a. priv. and y.avtx, ' mad- 
ness :' i. e. not poisonous. A name given, by 
the Greeks and Romans, to the edible cham- 
pignons. Amanita forms, at the present day, 
a genus, some of which are edible, others 
poisonous. Amongst others, it contains the 
Agaricus aurantiacus and A. pscudo-auran- 
tiacus. 

AMARA DULCIS, Solanum dulcamara. 

AMARACI'JNUM, an ancient and esteemed 
plaster, containing several aromatics, the mar- 
joram, a^^ajtoc, in particular. 

AMARACUS, Origanum majorana. 

AMARITIES, Bitterness. 

AMARITUDO, Bitterness. 

AMAROR, Bitterness. 

AMA'RUS, Picros, bitter. (F) Amir. The 
bitter principle of vegetables is the great na- 
tural tonic, and hence bitters, as they are 
termed collectively, belong to the class of to- 
nics. Several are'usod in medicine; the chief 
are, gentian, quassia, cinchona, calumba, dog- 
wood, &c. 

AMASE'SIS, Amassc'sis, from a., privative, 
and fj.*7»<ru, ' mastication.' Mastication when 
impeded or impracticable. 



AMATOR1UM VENEFICIUM 



3G 



AMENORRHCEA 



AMATORIUM VENEFICIUM, Philter. 
AMATORIUS MUSCULUS, Obliquus su- 
perior oculi. 

AMAURO'SIS, Obfusca'lio, offusca'tio, 
from a/uxu^s, ' obscure.' Drop serene, Gutta 
serc'na, Catarac'la nigra, Parop'sis amauro'- 
sis, lmmobil'itas pupil'ke, Black cat! ar act. 
(F) Goutte-sereine, Cataracte noire. Dimi- 
nution, or complete loss of sight, without any 
perceptible alteration in the organization of 
the eye ; generally, perhaps, owing to loss of 
power of the optic nerve or retina. Counter- 
irritants are the most successful remedial 
agents, although the disease is always very 
difficult of removal, and generally totally in- 
curable. 

AMBARUM,Ambergris — a. Cineritium, Am- 
bergris. 

AMBER, Succinum — a. Liquid: see Liquid- 
ambar styraciflua. 

AMBE, from ajufi*iva>, 'I ascend;' Ambi. 
A superficial eminence on a bone. Also, an 
old surgical machine for reducing dislocations 
of the shoulder ; the invention of which is as- 
cribed to Hippocrates. It is no longer used. — 
Hippocr., Scultetus. 

AM'BERGRIS.- Ambra gri'sea, Ambor, 
Ambra cincra'cea, A. ambrosiaca, Am' bar a in , 
Suc'cinum cine'reum, S. gri'seum, Am'ba- 
rum cineri"tium. A concrete substance, of 
the consistence of wax, cineritious colour, 
studded with yellow and blackish spots, and 
exhaling a very pleasant odour. It seems 
highly probable that ambergris is formed in 
the intestines of the whale, and voided with 
its excrements. Like all aromatic substances, 
ambergris is slightly antispasmodic and exci- 
tant ; but it is oftener employed as a perfume 
than as a medicine. 

AMBIA. A liquid, yellow bitumen, the 
smell and virtues of which are similar to those 
of the resin tacamahaca. It is obtained from a 
sprinc in India. 

AMBIDEX'TER, Amphidex'ios, from ambo, 
' both,' and dexter, ' right.' One who uses both 
hands with equal facility. Celsus says the 
surgeon ought to be ' non minus sinistra quam 
dextra promplus.' One of the aphorisms of 
Hippocrates says, that a woman is never ambi- 
dexter. This is a mistake. 

AMB1LJSVUS, Ampharisteros. 

AMBLOMA, Abortion. 

AMBLOS1S, Abortion. 

AM BLOTHRIDION, Abortion. 

AMBLOTICUS, Abortive. 

AMBLUS, uf*8\v;, 'obscure.' Hence. 

AMBLYOGMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBLYOTIA,from x.fji@\uc, 1 obscure,' and 
a>4-, ' the eye.' Amblyos'mos, Amblyog'mos, 
Amplio'pea (so called by some, according to 
Castelli. ob ignorantiam Grazca. lingua,) Hebe- 
tu'do visits. Feebleness of sight. (F)Vucfaiblc. 
First degree of amaurosis. — Hippocr. 

Amblyopia Crepuscularis, Hemeralopia — 
a. Dissitorum, Myopia — a. Meridiana, Nyctalo- 
pin — a. Proxiinorum, Presbytia. 

AMBLYOSMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBON, *f*@a>v, ' the raised rim of a shield 
or dish,' from A/u0a.tyu, ' I ascend.' The fibro- 
cartilaginous rings or bourrehts, which sur- 
round the articular cavities, as the glenoid 



cavity of the scapula, the acetabulum, &c, ; 
have been so called. — Galen. 

AMBOR, Ambergris. 

AM BRA, Wuccinum— a. Ambrosiaca, Amber- 
gris — a. Cineracca, Ambergris. 

AMBRAGR1SEA, Ambergris. 

AMBRE BLANC, Succinum (album)— a. 
Jaune, Succinum. 

AMBRETTE, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

AMBRO'SIA, Irom * privative, and fiporoc, 
' mortal.' Food which makes immortal, or the 
food of immortals. The food of the gods.— 
Homer. See, also, Chenopodium Botrys. 

Ambro'sia Marit'ima. A plant which grows 
on the shores of the Levant, and has a pleasant, 
bitter, and aromatic taste. It is given, in infu- 
sion, as a tonic and antispasmodic. 

AMBROS1E DU MEXIQUE, Chenopodium 
Ambrosioides. 

AMBULANCE, (F) from ambula'rc, 'to 
walk.' A military hospital attached to an 
army, and moving along with it. Also called 
Hopital ambulant. 

AMBULANT, (F) Am'bulans, Ambulati'vus, 
Am'bulative. A morbid affection is said to be 
ambulanle, when it leaves one part and goes to 
another; as Erisypeles ambulant s, &c. When 
blisters are applied successively on different 
parts of the body, they are called Vdsicatoircs 
ambulants. 

AMBULATIO, Walking. 

AMBULE1A, Cichorium intybus. 

AM'BULl. The Brachmanic name for an 
Indian aquatic herb, which appears to belong 
to the family Lysimachia. The whole plant has 
a sweet smell. Its decoction has a very bitter 
taste, and is an excellent febrifuge. It is also 
taken in milk in cases of vertio-o. 

AM'BULO FLATULEN'TUS ETFURIO'- 
SUS. Flatus furio'sus, Vare'ni. Painful, mo- 
bile, and periodical tumours affecting different 
parts, which were once considered as the effect 
of very subtile vapours. — Michaelis. Their na- 
ture is by no means clear. 
AMBUSTIO, Burn. 
AMBUTUA, Pareira brava. 
AMBUYA-EMBO. A very beautiful, creep- 
ing Aristolochia of Brazil, the decoction of 
which is exhibited successfully in obstructions. 
It is also used in fumigation and in baths as ato- 
nic. 

AME, Anima. 

AM'ELI. A Malabar shrub, belonging to a 

genus unknown. The decoction of fts leaves 

is said to relieve colic. Its roots, boiled in oil, 

are used to repel tujnours. 

AMENTA, Amenorrhcea. 

AMENORRHCE'A. Paramenia obstmctU,'- 




M»v a month, and ^, ' I flow.' Suppression 
oj the menses. This suppression is most com- 
monly symptomatic, and hence the chief atten- 
tion must 1, ( , paid to the cause. Usually, there 
is an atonic state of the system generally or of 
the uterus in particular, and hence chalybeatcs 
and other tonics are advisable. 

Two great varieties of Amenorrhcea are com- 
monly reckoned 1. ,?. Emansu/nis, E m< m'sio 
men sium, Mmos'chcsis, or retention of the men- 



AMENORRHEA 



35 



AMMONITE 



scs, when the menses do not appear at the usual 
age: and, 2. Suppres'sio Men'sium, Amenorrhafa 
Sapprcssio'nis, Interrup'tio menstruatic/nis, in 
which the catamenia are obstructed in then 
regular periods of recurrence. Wee Emansio 
Mensium, and Menses. 

Amenorrhea Difficilis, Dysmenorrhea. 

AMENTIA, Dementia. See, also, Fatuitas, 
and Idiotism. 

. JM, '■'./{, Amarus. 

AMERICANUM TUBEROSUM, Solanum 
tuberosum. 

AMER Tl ME, Bitterness. 

AM'ETIIYST, Amcthijs'tus, from * priv. 
(jit$-uai, ' I am drunk.' A precious stone, to 
which the ancients attributed the property of 
preventing drunkenness, tt was also used as 
an anti-diarrhceic and absorbent. — Pliny, Al- 
bertus Magnus. 

AMETR1A, Intemperance. 

AM ICULUM, Amnios. 

AMIDUM, Amylum. 

AMIN/EA, Anime. 

AMIN.E'UM VINUM, Aminean icinc, high- 
ly esteemed as a stomachic. Virgil distinguishes 
it from the Falernian. — Pliny, Macrobius, &c. 

AMMA, Truss. 

AMMI, Ammi ma jus, Bishop's weed, A. Vul- 
ga'rc. The seeds of this plant are aromatic and 
pungent. They are said to be carminative and 
diuretic, and are tonic and stomachic. 

Ammi Vf.rum, see Sison Ammi — a, des Bou- 
tiques, see Sison ammi. 

AM M ION , H ydrargyri sulphuretum rubrum. 

AMMOCHO'SIA, from a^oc, ' sand,' and 
X ia >i ' I pour.' Arena'tio. Putting the human 
body in hot sand, for the cure of disease. 

AMMO'NIA, Ammo'nia or Ammoni' a cal gas, 
Volatile al'kali, Alfcali ammoni 'acum caus'ticum, 
A. volat'ile caus'ticum, Ammo'nia caus'tica, A. 
pura, Ammoni 'a cum , A. caus'ticum, (F) Ammo- 
niaque, Air alcalin, Gaz ammoniacal. An alcali 
so called, because obtained principally by de- 
composing sal ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) 
by lime. This gas is colourless, transparent, 
elastic, of a pungent, characteristic odour, and 
an acrid urinous taste. It turns the syrup of 
violets green, and its specific gravity is 0.59G. 
When inhaled, largely diluted with common 
air, it is a powerful irritant. When unmixed, 
it instantly induces suffocation. 

Ammonia, acetate, solution of, Liquor am- 
monias acetatis — a. Caustica liquida, Liquor am- 
monias — a. Hydriodate of, see Iodine — a. Hy- 
drochlorate of, Ammonias murias — a. Hydrosul- 
phuret of, Ammonias sulphuretum — a. Iodide 
of, see Iodine — a. Liniment of, strong, Lini- 
mentum ammonias fortius — a. Liquid, Liquor 
ammonias — a. Muriatica, Ammonias murias — a. 
Nitrata, Ammonias nitras — a. Prasparata, Am- 
monias carbonas — a. Pura liquida, Liquor am- 
monias — a. (Solution of, Liquor ammonias — a. 
Tartrate of, Ammonias tartras. 

AMMO'NIAC, GUM, Gum'mi Ammoni'- 
acum, (F) Ammoniac, Gomme ammonia que, s<> 
called from Ammonia in Libya, whence it is 
brought. A gum-resin, obtained from the Ile- 
raclc'um or Bubon gammif'erum of Barbary, 
Abyssinia, &c. It is in irregular, dry masses 
and tears, yellow externally, whitish within. 
Its odour is peculiar, and not ungrateful: taste 



nauseous, sweet, and bitter. It forms a whito 
emulsion with water: is soluble in vinegar, par- 
tially so in alcohol, ether, and solutions of the 
alcalies. 

Gum Ammoniacum is expectorant, deobstru- 
ent (?) antispasmodic, discuticnt, and resolvent. 
It is chiefly, however, used in the first capacity, 
and in the formation of certain plasters. 

Two varieties are met with in the market, the 
GuttcB ammoni' iiri , the best; and the Lapis am- 
moni' aci, the more impure. 

AMMON1AC/E NITRAS, Ammonias nitras 
— a. Sulphas, Ammonias sulphas. 

AMMONIACUM, Ammonia— a. Suecina- 
tum, Spiritus ammonias foetidus — a. Volatile 
mite, Ammonias carbonas. 

AMMONITE ACETAS, Liquor ammonias 
acetatis. 

Ammoni* Car'bonas. A. Sabcar'bonas, Salt 
of bones, Sal Os'sium, Salt of wood-soot, Sal Fu- 
lig"inis, Salt of urine, Vol aide Sal Ammoniac, 
Barker's salt, Al'cali volatile air a' turn, .1. vo- 
latile ammoniaca! Ic, A. volat'ile ex sale ammo- 
ni' aco, Ammoni 'aoam volatile mile, Ammo' n'/iiin 
carbon' icum, A. subcarbo'neum, Car'bonas am- 
mo'nia: alkali'nus scu incomple'tus seu super- 
ammoni'acus, Ilijpocar'bonas ammo'nia:, Flares 
salis ammoni' act, Sal cornu cervi volat'ile, Sal 
volat'ilis salis ammoni' aci, Concrete volatile al- 
kali, Carbonate or subcarbonate of ammonia, 
Ammo'nia, prapara'ta, Sat volat'ile, Smelling 
salt. (F) Carbonate d' ammo niaque, Set volatil 
d'Anglctcrre. A white, striated, crystalline 
mass: odour and taste pungent and ammonia- 
cal: soluble in two parts of water: insoluble in 
alcohol: effloresces in the air. It is stimulant, 
antacid, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose, 
gr. v to xv. 

Ammonite et Ferri Murias, Ferrum ammo- 
niatum. — a. Hydrosulphuretum, Liquor fumans 
Boylii. — a. Hy pocarbonas, Ammoniae Carbonas. 

Ammo'nia Mu'rias, Muriate of Ammonia, 
Hijdroch'lorate of Ammo'nia, Sal Ammoni' acum, 
Sal Ammo'niac, S. Ammoni' acus, Ammo'nia Mu- 
riatica, Ammo'nium Muria'tu.m, Hadroch'loras 
Ammo'nia:, Sal Armoni'acum, Salmiac, Full' go 
Al'ba Philosopho'rum, (F) Muriate d'Ammoni- 
aque. A saline concrete, formed by the com- 
bination of the muriatic acid with ammonia. 
In Egypt it is manufactured in large quantities 
by subliming the soot formed by burning ca- 
mels' dung — 20 pounds of the soot yielding G 
pounds. It is also prepared, in great quanti- 
ties, by adding sulphuric acid to the volatile 
alkali obtained from soot, bones, &c, mixing 
this with common salt, and subliming. 

Muriate of ammonia is inodorous, but has an 
acrid, pungent, bitterish, and urinous taste. 
Three parts of cold water dissolve one. Solu- 
ble also in 4.5 parts of alcohol. It is aperient 
and diuretic, but seldom used internally. Ex- 
ternally, it is employed, producing cold during 
its solution, in inflammations, &c. 

Ammo'nitf. Nitras, Nitrate of Ammonia, Al'- 
kali volat'ile nil i a' in m, Sal ammoni' acus nitro'- 
sus, Ammo'nia nitra'ta, Nitras ammoni'aca, Ni- 
t-rum jiammans. (F) Nitrate d'.lmntoniaque. A 
salt composed of nitric acid and ammonia. It 
is diuretic ami deobstruent.(?) Externally, it is 
discutient and sialagogue. 

Ammo'nia Sulphas, Sulphate of Ammo'nia, 



AMMONLE 



38 



A MP El. OS 



Sulphas ammoni'acte, Ammo' nium sulphu'ricum, 
Alkali volat'ile vitriola'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum 
secrelum Glauberi, Sal secretins Glauberi, 
Vitriolum ammniaoca'lc, (F) Sulfate d'Ammo- 
niaque. Formed by adding sulphuric acid either 
to sal ammoniac or to ammoniacal liquor. Jts 
properties are like those of the muriate of am- 
monia. 

Ammo'nia Sui.phure'tum, Sul'phuret of Am- 
mo'nla, Ih/drosul'phuret of Ammo'nia, Hydro- 
sul'phas Ammo'nice, Spir'itus Begui'ni, Sp. fu- 
mans Bf.gui'ni, Sulphure'tum ammoni'aca, Sp. 
sails amnion i'aci suiphura'tus, Liquor ammo' ail 
hydrothiodis, Hydrosulphure'tum Ammou'icum, 
Htjdrartr. aaimoniaca'le aquo'sum, llydrog" cuo- 
sulphure'tum ammoni'acee li'quidum, Spir'itus 
sul'phuris volat'ilis, Hepar salphuris volal'ile, 
Bovle's or Beguine's fuming spirit. (F) Hy- 
drosulfatc sulfuri d 'Amnio aiaque, Liqueur fu- 
mante de Boyee. Sulfure hydrogene, d?Ammo- 
niaque. Hijdrosulfure d' Ammonia que. Odour 
very foetid; taste nauseous and styptic; colour 
dark yellowish green. It is reputed to be se- 
dative, nauseating, emetic, disoxygenizing,(?) 
and has been given in diabetes and diseases of 
increased excitement. Dose, gtt. viij to gtt. xx. 

Ammo'ni.e Tartras, Al'kali volatfilc tartari- 
za'tum, Sal ammoni'acum tarta'reum, Tar'tarus 
ammo' nice, Tartrate of Ammo'nia, (F) Tartrate 
a" Ammonia que. A salt composed of tartaric 
acid and ammonia. It is diaphoretic and diu- 
retic; but not much used. 

AMMONIAQUE, Ammonia — a. Hydrosul- 
fure d', Ammonia? sulphuretum — a Hydrosul- 
fate sulfure' d' , Ammonia? sulphuretum — a. Li- 
quide, Liquor ammonia? — a. Sulfure hydrogen^ 
d\ Ammonia? sulphuretum. 

AMMONIO-CUPRICUS SUBSULPHAS, 
Cuprum ammoniatum. 

AMMO' iMON, from <tf/.juot, ' sand.' An an- 
cient collyrium of great virtues in many dis- 
eases of the eye, and which was said to remove 
sand from that organ. 

AMMONIUM ARSENICUM, Arseniate of 
ammonia — a. Carbonicum, Ammoniac carbo- 
nas — a. Iodide of, see Iodine — a. Muriaticum 
martiatum seu martiale, Ferrum ammoniatum 
— a. Muriatum, Ammonia? murias — a. Sub 
carboneum, Ammonia? carbonas — a. Sulphuri- 
cum, Ammonia? sulphas. 

AMNA ALCAL1ZATA, Water, mineral sa- 
line. 

AMNE'SIA, Amnes'tia, from * priv. and 
juviktk, ' memory.' Moria imbed'i/is amne'sia, 
Ob/iv'io, Rccollcctio'nis jactu'ra, Dysccsthc'sia in- 
terna, Debit itas memo' ria:, memo' ria de/e'ta, (F) 
Pertc de Mimoire, ' loss of memory.' By some 
Nosologists, Amnesia constitutes a genus of 
diseases. By most it is considered only as a 
symptom, which may occur in many diseases. 

AMNESTIA, Amnesia. 

AMOME FAUX, Sison amomum. 

AMNIOCLEP'SIS, from Amnion, and x.\i?r- 
Tce, ' 1 steal or take away clandestinely.' Pre- 
mature escape of the liquor amnii. 

AM'NIOS, Am'nion, Am'nium, Charta vir- 
gin! ca, Armatu'ra, Agni'na membra'na, Pcllu'ci- 
da membra'na, Galea, Indu'sium,, Amic'ahtm, 
Membra'na. factum invol'vens. The innermost 
of the enveloping membranes of the foetus. So 
called because first observed in the sheep. (?) 



2/xvcr, 'a sheep." It is thin, transparent, per- 
spirable, and possesses many delicate, colour- 
less vessels, which have not been injected. It 
sends a prolongation, which serves as a sheath 
to the umbilical cord. Its external surface is 
feebly united to the chorion by cellular and 
vascular filaments. Its inner surface is po- 
lished, and is in contact with the body of the 
foetus and the liquor amnii, (q. v.) 

AMNIOTIC ACID, Ad'idum Am'mcum vel 
amniot'icum. A peculiar acid, found, by Vau- 
quelin and Buniva, in the liquor amnii of the cow. 

AMNl'TIS or AMNTPT1S, from Amnion 
and itis, Inflammation. Inflammation of the 
Amnion. 

AMO'MUM CARDAMO'MUM, A. racemo'- 
sum, A. verum, Alpin'ia cardamo'mum, Caro'pi, 
Mato'nia' Cardamo'mum, Eletta' ria Cardamo'- 
mum, Cardamo'mum Minus, Lesser or officinal 
Car' damo'in, Amo'mum rcpens. (F) Cardumome 
de la Cote de Malabar, Cardamome. The seeds 
of this East India plant have an agreeable, 
aromatic odour; and a pungent, grateful taste. 
They are carminative and stomachic: but are 
chiefly used to give warmth to other remedies. 
The fruit is called Amomis. Dose, gr. v. to^j- 

Amomum Galanga, Maranta G. 

Amomum Granum Paradi'si, Cardamo'mum 
majus, Melcgueifta, Maniguet'ta, Cardamo' mum 
pipera'tum, A. max'imurn, (F) Graines de Pa- 
radis. Greater cardamom seeds resemble the 
last in properties. They are extremely hot, and 
are not much used. 

Amomum Pimenta: see Myrtus pimenta — a. 
Zedoaria, Ka?mpferia rotunda. 

Amomum Zin'giber, Zin' giber officinale, Zin!- 
gibfir album, Z. nigrum, Z. commu'ne, Zin'ziber, 
Ginger, (F) Gingcrnbre. The white and black 
ginger, Zin'ziber fuscum and album, are the 
produce of the same plant, the difference de- 
pending upon the mode of preparing them. 

The odour of ginger is aromatic ; taste warm, 
aromatic, and acrid. It yields its virtues to 
alcohol, and in a great degree to water. It is 
carminative, stimulant, and sialogogue. 

The Preserved Ginger, Zingib'eris Radix 
Condi' ta, Radix Zingib'eris condi'ta ex India 
alla'ta is a condiment, which possesses all the 
virtues of ginger. 

Ginger-Beer Powders may be formed of 
white sugar, £j and J}ij. zingil). gr. v, soda; sub- 
carb. gr. xxxvj in each blue paper: acid of 
tartar, "^iss in each white paper,— for half "a 
pint of water. 

Oxeey's Concentrated Essence of Jamaica 
Ginger is a mere solution of ginger in rectified 
spirit. 

AMOR, Love. 

AMORGE. Amurca. 

AMOSTEUS, Osteocolla. 

AMOUR, Love. 

AMOUREUX (muscle,) Obliquus superior 
oculi. L 

AMPACAmpacus; an East India tree, the 
leaves of which have a strong odour, and are 
used in baths as detergents. A very odoriferous 
resin is obtained from it 

AMPAR.Succinum. 

AMPELOCARPUS, Galium aparine 

^"'ELOPRASUM, Allium. 

AMPELOS, Vitis vinifera-a. Agria, Bryonia 



AM PH AMPIIOTERODIOPSI A 



39 



AMYLUM 



alba — a. Idjea, Vaccinium vitis idsea — a. Oino- 
phoros, Vitis vinifera. 

AMPHAMPHOTERODIOPSIA, Diplopia. 

AMPHARIS'TEROS, Ambilm'cus, awkward, 
from a/*<pi, and upiarnpcs, 'the left;' opposed to 
ambidexter. 

AMPHEMERINOS, Quotidian. 

AMPHI, a/u<pi, ' both, around, on all sides.' 
Hence. 

AMPHIAM, Opium. 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS, from *ju<pi, 'both,' 
and ct^d-^aori;, 'articulation.' A mixed articu- 
lation, in which the corresponding surfaces of 
bones are united in an intimate manner by an 
intermediate body, which allows, however, of 
some slight motion. Such is the junction of 
the bodies of the vertebra by means of the in- 
tervertebral cartilages. This articulation has 
also been called Diarthrosc de Continuiti. The 
motion it permits is but slight. 

AMPHIBLESTROIDES, Reticular. 

AMPHIBRAN'CHIA, from */u<f,t, 'around,' 
and fi^ty^m, 'the throat.' Amphibron'clua. 
The tonsils and neighbouring parts. — Hippoc. 

AMPHICAUSTIS, Vulva. 

AMPHIDEXIOS, Ambidexter. 

AMPHIDIARTHRO'SIS, from *M<pi ' about,' 
and cf^S-gaxr/c, ' a movable joint.' A name 
given by Winslow to the temporo-maxillary ar- 
ticulation, because, according to that anatomist, 
it partakes both of ginjrlymus and arthrodia. 

AMPHION,Maslach. 

AMP HIM ERIN OS, Quotidian. 

AMPHIPLEX, Perimcum. 

AMPHISMELA, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISMILE, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISPHAL'SIS, Circumacftio, Circum- 
duc'tio, from a/*<pi, 'around,' and <r<p*xx&>, 'I 
wander.' The movement of circumduction 
used in reducing luxations. — Hippoc. 

AMPHRODIPLOPIA, Diplopia. 

AM'PHORA, per syncop. for atjuQKpcgivc, 
from a/u<pi, 'on both sides,' and <pe^m, ' I bear :' 
because it had two handles. A liquid measure 
among the ancients, containing above 7 gallons. 
Also called Quadrantal, Cera'mium, Ceramf- 
ium, Cadus. 

AMPHORIC RESPIRATION. See Caver- 
nous Respiration. 

AMPLEXATIO, Coition. 

AMPLIOPEA, Amblyopia. 

AMPOSIS, Anaposis. 

AMPOULES, Essera. 

AMPULLA, Cavitas elliptica — a. Chylifera 
sen chyli, Receptaculum chyli. 

AMPULLAE, Phlyctsena. 

AMPUTA'TION, Amputa'tio, from ampu- 
ta'rc, ' to cut off.' Apot'ome, Apotom'ia. The 
operation of separating, by means of a cutting 
instrument, a limb or a part of a limb, or a pro- 
jecting part, as the mamma, penis, &c, from 
the rest of the body. In the case of a tumour, 
the term excision, removal , or extirpation, (F) 
Resection, is more commonly used. 

Circular Amputation is that, in which the 
integuments and muscles are divided circularly. 

The Flap Amputation, (F) A. a lambeauz, 
is when one or two flaps are left so as to cover 
the stump, when the limb has been removed. 

Joint Amputation, (F) A. dans Vartick ou 



^41 



dans la contiguity des membres, is when the 
limb is removed at an articulation. 

Each amputation requires a different process, 
which is described in works on operative surgery . 

AMULETTE, Amuletum. 

AMULE'TUM, from Amoli'ri, ' to remove.' 
An Amulet, — Periam'ma, Apotropai'um, Periap'- 
ton, Phylacte'rion, Ap oleics' ma, Exartc'ma, 
Alexica'cum, (F) Amulette. Any image or sub- 
stance worn about the person for the purpose 
of preventing disease or danger. 

AMURCA, et/mo^yn. The marc or grounds 
remaining after olives have been crushed and 
deprived of their oil. It has been used as an 
application to ulcers. 

AMUSA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

AMYCHE, Excoriation, Scarification. 

AMYC'TICA, from a/mua-a-te, ' 1 lacerate.' 
Medicines, which stimulate and vellicate the 
skin. — Crelius Aurelianus. 

AMYDRIASIS, Mydriasis. 

AMYh/LIA, from a. privative, and /uuexoe, 
' marrow.' A monstrous formation, in which 
there is an absence of spinal marrow. 

AMYG'DALA, same etymon as Amyctica; 
because there seem to be fissures on the shell. 
The almond, of which there are two kinds ; the 
Amyg'dala ama'ree and A. dulces, (F) Aman- 
des douccs, A. amtres, obtained from two va- 
rieties of the Amyg'dalus commu'nis ; or A. 
sati'va, a native of Barbary. Nat. Ord. Amyg- 
daleae. Sex. Syst. Icosandria Monogynia. 

The taste of the Amyg'dala dulcis is soft and 
sweet; that of the A. amara, bitter. Both, yield, 
by expression, a sweet, bland oil. The bitter 
almond contains Prussic acid. They are chiefly 
used for forming emulsions. 

Almond Cake, Amyg'dala Placenta, is the 
cake left after the expression of the oil. The 
ground Almond Cake, Almond Powder, Fari'na 
Amygdala'rum, is used instead of soap for 
washing the hands. 

Almond Paste, a cosmetic for softening the 
skin and preventing chaps, is made of bitter al- 
monds, blanched, 3 iv, white of one egg ; rose 
water, and rectified spirit, equal parts, or as 
much as is sufficient. 

Amygdala, Tonsil. 

AMYGDALE, Tonsil. 

AMYGDALAE PLACENTA.See Amygdala. 

AMYGDALATUM, Emulsio Amygdala?. 

AMYGDALITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

AMYG'DALUS PER'SICA. The common 
peach-tree, (F) Peches. The leaves and flowers 
have been considered laxative. They are bit- 
ter and aromatic, and have been given in hse- 
maturia, nephritis, &c. The fruit is one of 
the pleasant and wholesome summer fruits, 
when ripe. The kernels, Amyg'dala?. Per'sica, 
contain prussic acid, as well as the flowers. 

Peach Brandy is distilled from the fruit, 
and is much used in the United States. 

Amygdalus. See Amygdala. 

AMYGMOS, Scarification. 

AMYLEON, Amylum. 

AM'YLUM, Am'idum, Fec'ula, Amyl'eon, 
Jlmyl'ion, from a priv., and /uvhn, 'a mill,' be- 
cause made without a mill. Starch. (F) Ami- 
don. Amydon. The Starch of Wheat, Fari'na, 
Tr it' ici fari'na, Fec'ula amyla'cca, is inodorous 



AMYON 



40 



ANAESTHESIA 



and insipid, white and friable. It is insoluble 
in cold water and alcohol ; but forms with 
boiling water a strong, semi-transparent jelly. 
It is demulcent, and is used as an emollient 
glyster, and as the vehicle for opium, when 
given per anum. Starch is met with abundantly 
in all the cereal grains, in the stalks of many of 
the palms, in some lichens, and in many tube- 
rous roots, particularly in the bulbs of the orchis. 

Amylum Iodatum. See Iodine. 

A'MYON, from a. priv. and //u*«, 'a muscle.' 
Emuscula'tus, without muscle. Applied to the 
limbs, when so extenuated that the muscles 
cannot be distinguished. 

AMYOS1S, Synezizis. 

AM'YRIS ELEMIF'ERA, (F) Balsamicr 
EWimiferc. Nat. Ord. Terebinthaceas, Sex. Syst. 
Octandria Monogynia. The plant whence, it 
is supposed, the gum ei/emi is obtained. This 
gum or resin is brought from the Spanish West 
Indies. It is soflish, transparent, of a pale whi- 
tish colour, inclining a little to green, and of a 
strong, though not unpleasant smell. It is only 
used in ointments andplasters, and is a digestive. 

Am'yris Opobal'samum, (F) Balsamier tic 
la Mcccjuc, Bal'scm, Bal'samum. The plant 
from which is obtained the balsam of mecca, 
Bal'samum genui'num antiquo'rum, Balsame- 
la'on, JEgyptiacum Bal'samum, Bal'samum 
Asiat'icum, B- Juda'icum, B. Syriacum, B. e 
Mecca, Cpccobal'samum, B. Alpi'ni, Oleum BaV- 
sami, Opobal'samum, Xylobal' samum, Balsam 
or Balm of Gilead. (F) Baume blanc, B. de 
Constantinople Mane, B. de Galaad, B. du 
Grand Cuire, B. Vrai, Tir'ebinthine dc Gilead, 
T. d'Egypte, T. du Grand Kaire, T. dc Judde. 
A resinous juice obtained by making incisions 
into the j'hpyris Gileadensis of Linnseus. The 
juice of the fruit is called CarpobaV samum ; 
that of the wood and branches Xylobal 'samum. 
It has the general properties of the milder Tere- 
binthinates. 

AMY RON, Carthamus tinctorius. 

AMYXIS, Scarification. 

ANA, uva, a word which signifies ' of each.' 
It is used in prescriptions as well as a and aa, 
its abbreviations. As a prefix to words, it 
means 'in,' 'through,' 'upwards,' ' above,' in 
opposition to Cata, (q. v.) ; also ' repetition,' 
like the English re. Hence, — 

ANAB'ASIS, from ctv*fi*i»a>, <I ascend.' The 
first period of a disease, or that, of increase. — 
Galen. See Augmentation. 

ANABEXIS, Expectoration. 

ANABLEP'SIS, from av=t, ' again,' and 
Bxcra. ' I see.' Restoration to sight. 

AN ABOLJE' ON, Jlnaboleus, from ava/2**x&>, 
'I cast up.' An ointment for extracting darts 
or other extraneous bodies. 

ANAB'OLE, from *v*, ' upwards,' and 
@*xxa>, 'I cast.' Anagofge, Anaph'ora. An 
evacuation upwards. An act by which certain 
matters are rejected by the mouth. In common 
acceptation it includes, Expuition, expectoration, 
regurgitation, and vomiting. 

ANABROCHIS'MUS..^Hrt/;roHr///V7»i/.9,from 
ava, ' with,' and /Sg'^-c, ' a running knot." An 
operation for removing the eye-lashes when 
they irritate the eye. by means of a hair knotted 
around them. — Hippocr., Galen, Celsus, &c. 



ANABRONCIIISMUS, Anabrochismus. 

ANABROSIS, Corrosion, Erosion. 

ANACAMPSERQS, Sedum telephiam. 

ANACAR'DIUM OCCIDENTA'LE, Cas- 
su'vium pornif ervm, (F) Ac'ajou, Cashew (IV. 
Indies ) Nat Ord. Terebinthace®, Sex. Syst. 
Enneandria Monogynia. The Oil of the Cashew 
Nut, O' learn Anaai'r'dii, (F) Hu/le d.'lcajou, is 
an active caustic, and used as such in the coun- 
tries where it grows, especially for destroying 
warts, &.C. 

Anacardium Orientale, Avicennia tomen- 

tosa. 

ANACATHAR'SIS, from stvet, 'upwards,' 
and xaS-=t/g6<v, ' to purge.' Purgation upwards. 
Expectoration, (q. v.) See, also, Repurgatio. 

Anacatharsis Catarrhalis simplex, Ca- 
tarrh. 

ANACATHARTICUS, Expectorant. 

ANACHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 

ANACHRON, Soda. 

ANACLASIS, Repercussion. 

ANACLINTE'RIUM, Recubito'rium, from 
om'jlkxivo!, ' I recline.' A long chair or seat, so 
formed, that the person can rest in a reclining 
posture. 

' ANACOLLE'MA, from *va, 'together,' and 
x. r jK\'xco, 'I glue.' A healing medicine. 

ANACOLLEMATA, Frontal bandages. 

ANACOLUPTA, a creeping plant of Mala- 
bar, the juice of which, mixed with powdered 
pepper, passes in India as a cure for epilepsy, 
and as the only remedy for the bite of the naja. 
It is supposed to be the Zapania Nodiftora. 

ANACOMIDE, Restauratio. 

ANACONC11YLISMOS, Gargarism. 

ANACTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANACTIRION, Artemisia. 

ANACYCLEON, Charlatan. 

ANADESM US, Fascia. 

ANADIPLO'SIS, from *v«, 'again,' and 
S'lTrKcce, 'I double.' Epanadiplo'sis, Epana- 
lep'sis, Reduplica'tio. The redoubling which 
occurs in a paroxysm of an intermittent, when 
its type is double.— Galen, Alexander of Tralles. 

ANADORA, Ecdora. 

ANAD'OSIS, from etvufiftgfu, ' I distribute.'^ 
Purgation upwards, as by vomiting. AnadosiW 
seems also to have meant, occasionally, chylifi- 
cation, whilst diadosis meant capillary nutri- 
tion — Hippocr., Galen. 

ANAD'ROME, from avct, ' upwards,' and 
$gtt*ie, < I run.' The transport of a humour or 
pain from a lower to an upper part.— Hiuoocr 

ANAEMASIS, Anamiia hippocr. 

_ AN,EMATOPOE'SIS, from «, «,, privative 
xif**, 'blood,' and vot,a,,<I make.' Impeded or 
obstructed hsematosis. 

AN.E'MIA, Anccmasis, Anaha'mia, Polyan- 
ha. mm, Anamo'sis, Oligemia, Anc'mia uvai- 
m* , from * priv. and *V», ' blood.' Privation 
of blood. The opposite to plethora (q. v ) It 
is characterized by every sign of debility. Also, 
diminished quantity of fluids in the capillary 

J££ . ST ? E ; SI , A .' rnsensibil'itas, Anaph'ia, 
Anha P hm,Analge'sia, from * priv. and Lb*- 
vopu, I feel.' p r i vation f sensation, and 
pecially of that of touch, according to some. It 



AN.ESTHISIA 



41 



ANASTASIS 



may be general or partial, and is almost always 
symptomatic. 

AN.ESTHIS1A, Insensibility. 
ANAGAL'LIS, from *y* and y<t\a., ' milk,' 
from its power of coagulating milk. A. Phce- 
nic"ea, Red Pimpernel. Nat. Ord. Primula- 
ceae. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Monogynia. (F) 
Mouron rouge. A common European plant; 
a reputed antispasmodic and stomachic. 

Anagallis Aquatica, Veronica Becca- 
bunga. 

ANAGARGALICTA, Gargarism. 
ANAGARGAR1STON, Gargarism. 
ANAGLYPI1E, Calamus scriptorius. 
ANAGOGE, Anabole, Rejection. 
ANAGRAPHE, Prescription. 
ANAG'YRIS, Ac'opon, Anag'yris fmt'ida, 
Stinking Bean Trefoil. Native of Italy. The 
leaves are powerfully purgative. The juice is 
said to be diuretic, and the seeds emetic. — 
Dioscorides, Paulus. 

ANAL, Ana' lis. That which refers to the 
anus ; — as Anal region, &c. 
ANALEMSIA, Analepsia. 
ANALENTIA, Analepsia. 
ANALEP'SIA, Analep'sis, Analcn'tia, Ana- 
lem'sia, from ara, ' afresh,' and kxpfixvetv, ' to 
take.' Restoration to strength after disease. — 
Galen. A kind of sympathetic epilepsy, origi- 
nating from gastric disorder. See Epilepsy. 

Also, the support given to a fractured extre- 
mity. Appensio. — Hippocr. 
ANALEPSIS, Restauratio. 
ANALEP'TICA, same etymon ; Analeptics. 
Restorative medicines or food ; such as are 
adapted to recruit the strength during con- 
valescence : — as sago, salep, tapioca, jelly, 
&c. 

James's Analeptic Pills consist of James's 
Powder, Gum, Ammoniacum, and Pill of Aloes 
and Myrrh, equal parts, with Tincture of Cas- 
tor sufficient to form a mass. 

ANALGESIA, from a priv. and itxyot ' pain.' 
Absence of pain both in health and disease. 
See Anaesthesia. 
ANALOGOUS TISSUES, see Tissues. 
ANALOSIS, Atrophy. 
ANALTESIS, Restauratio. 
ANAMNES'TIC, from «va, ' again,' and 
fxvuc/um, 'I remember.' A medicine for im- 
proving the memory. See, also, Commemora- 
tive. 

ANANAS, Bromelia ananas — a. Acostse ova- 
tae, &c, Bromelia ananas — a. Americana, Bro- 
melia pinguin — a. wild, broad-leaved, Bromelia 
pinguin. 

ANANAZIP'TA, a word formerly scrawled 
on amulets to charm away disease. 

ANAPETFA, Expan'sio mea'tuum, from ava, 
and virtue, 'I dilate.' A state opposite to the 
closure of vessels — Galen. 

ANAPHALANTFASIS, from «va<j>axai><r/a<:, 
1 bald.' Loss of the hair of the eyebrows. Also, 
baldness in general. 

ANAPHIA, see Anaesthesia. 
ANAPIIONE'SIS, from ava, ' high,' and <j>«v», 
' the voice.' Exercise of the voice : vociferation : 
— the act of crying out. Vocifera'tio, Clamor. 
ANAPHORA, Anabole. 
ANAPHRODIS'IA, from * priv. and A<j>{o- 
<f/T», 'Venus.' Absence of the venereal appe- 
6 



tite. Sometimes used for Impotence and Steri- 
lily. 

ANAPHROMELI, Mel despumatum. 

ANAP'LASIS, from avaTrxaa-cra), ' I restore.' 
Confirmatio. Union or consolidation of a frac- 
tured bone. — Hippocr. 

ANAPLERO'SIS, from avcwxxgoa, ' I fill up.' 
Repletion. That part of Surgical Therapeutics 
whose object is to supply p:irts that are wanting. 
Also, Apposition or Pros' thesis, Tr^oa-Saric. 

ANAPLEROTICUS, Incarnans. 

ANAPLEU'SIS, Fluctua'tio. lnnata'tio, from 
avxTTMtv, ' to swim above.' The looseness or 
shaking of an exfoliated bone; or of a carious 
or other tooth, <&c. — Hippocr., Paulus. 

ANAPNEUSIS, Respiration. 

ANAP'OSIS, Amposis, from ava, 'again, and 
ttq^k, 'drink.' A recession of humours from 
the circumference to the centre of the body. — 
Hippocr. 

ANAPSE, Auante. 

ANAPSIA, Caecitas. 

ANAPTYSIS, Expectoration. 

ANARRHEGNU'MINA, from avagg^vt/^ai, 
' I break out again.' Fractures are so called 
when they become disunited ; as well as ulcers 
when they break out afresh. 

ANARRHFNON, from «va, ' upwards,' and 
g/v, ' the nose.' That which returns by the 
nose. — Gorraeus. 

According to others, that which issues by the 
skin, from clvol, and pivoc, ' the skin.' 

ANARRHQVA, Anarrlio'pia, Anas'tasis, 
from ava, ' upwards,' and giu, ' I flow. 'Afflux of 
fluid towards the upper parts of the body. 

ANARRHOPIA, Anarrhcea. 

ANAR'THROS, wigd-pcc, from a. priv. and 
3g&pov, ' a joint.' One who is so fat, that his 
joints are scarcely perceptible. — Hippocrates. 

ANASAR'CA, from ava, 'through,' and 
a-agl, ' the flesh.' Anasarch'a, Aqua inter 
cutem, Hyposar'ca, Hydrops cellula'ris totius 
cor'poris, General dropsy, Katasar'ca, Episar- 
cid'ium, Hy'deros, Hydrosar'ca, Sarci'tcs, Poly- 
lym'phia, Hyposarcid'ios, Leucophlegma'tia, 
Dropsy of the cellular membrane. (F) Ana- 
sarque. Commonly, it begins to manifest itself 
by swelling around the ancles : and is charac- 
terized by tumefaction of the limbs and of the 
soft parts covering the abdomen, thorax, and 
even the face, with paleness and dryness of the 
skin, and pitting when any of these (especially 
the ancles) are pressed upon. Like dropsy in 
general, Anasarca may be active or passive; 
and its treatment must be regulated by the 
rules that are applicable to general dropsy. 
See Hydrops. 

Anasarca Hystericum, Anathymiasis — a. 
Serosa, Phlegmalia dolens. 

ANASARCHA, Anasarca. 

ANASARQUE, Anasarca. 

ANASPADI^E'US, Anaspadias, from ava, 
' upwards,' and tr-mtu*, '1 draw.' One whose 
urethra opens on the upper surface of the 
penis. 

ANASTASIS, from avac;raa>, 'I contract.' 
Contraction, Retraclio, especially of the sto- 
mach. — Hippocrates. 

AN ASS A, Bromelia ananas. 
ANASTALTICA, Styptics. 

ANASTASIS, Anarrhcea. 



ANASTCECHEIOSIS 



42 



jhXCOUF. 



ANASTGECHEIO'SIS, from <tva, 'again,' 
and o-to/^s/ov, 'element.' Re-elementa'tio. Re- 
solution of a body or its parts into their ele- 
ments. — Galen. 

ANASTOMO'SIS, from av*, ' with,' and 
o-tojux, ' a mouth.' Inoscula'tio, Ezanastomo'- 
sis, Concur'sus. (F) Abouchemcnt. Commu- 
nication between two vessels. By considering 
the nerves to be channels, in which a nervous 
fluid circulates, their communication has like- 
wise been called Anastomosis. By means of 
anastomoses, if the course of a fluid be arrested 
in one vessel, it can proceed along others. 

Anastomosis, Jacobson's, see Petrosal gan- 
glion. 

ANASTOMOT'ICS, Anastomot'ica. Cer- 
tain medicines were so called, which were 
formerly believed to be capable of opening the 
mouths ofvessels : — as aperients, diuretics, &c 
ANASTOMOT'ICUS MAGNUS, RA- 
MUS, (F) Arterc collatcralc interne, A. colla- 
ferale du coude, is a branch of the brachial ar- 
tery which comes off a little above the elbow, 
and bestows branches to the brachialis internus, 
to the under edge of the triceps, and to the mus- 
cles, ligaments, &.c. about the elbow-joint. 
ANATASIS, Extension. 
ANATHYM1ASIS, from &vz, ' upwards,' 
and Su^a, ' fumigation.' CEde'mafugax,ccde'- 
ma spas'ticum. adc'ma hyster'icum, Anasar'ca 
hyster'icum.. An uncertain and transient swell- 
ing, said to have been at times observed in 
nervous. and hysterical persons. It also means 
Exhalation, Fumigation, and Hypochondriasis, 
(which see.) 
ANATOME ANIMATA, Physiology. 
ANATOMIE, Anatomy. 
ANATOMIA VIVA, Physiology. 
ANAT'OMIST, Anatom'icus. One who oc- 
cupies himself with anatomy. One versed in 
Anatomy. 

ANAT'OMY, Anal'ome, Anato'mia, from 
avct, and Ti/mvitv, ' to cut.' (F) Anatomic. 

The word Anatomy properly signifies dissec- 
tion : but it has been appropriated to the study 
and knowledge of the number, shape, situation, 
structure, and connexion, in a word, of all the 
apparent properties of organized bodies. Ana- 
tomy is the science of organization. Some have 
given the term a still more extended accepta- 
tion, applying it to every mechanical decom- 
position, even of extra-organic bodies. Thus, 
Crystallography has been termed the Anatomy 
of crystallized minerals. Anatomy has also 
been called Morphol'ogy, Somatology, Somatol'- 
omy, Organology &c. It assumes different 
names according as the study is confined to one 
organized being, or to a species or class of be- 
ings. Thus Androt'omy, or Anthropol'omy, or 
Anthropog'raphy, or Anthroposomatol'ogy, is 
the Anatomy of man : — Zoot'omy, that of the 
other species of the animal kingdom : and Vet'- 
erinary Anat'omy, is the anatomy of domestic 
animals : but when the word is used abstracted- 
ly, it means human Anatomy, and particularly 
the study of the organs in a physiological or 
healthy state. The Anatomy of the diseased 
human body is called Patholog"ical or Morbid 
Anatomy, and when applied to Medical Juris- 
prudence, Foren'sic Anatomy. Several of the 
organs possessing a similarity of structure, and 



being formed of the same tissues, they have been 
o-rouped into Systems or Genera of Organs; 
and the study of, or acquaintance with, such 
systems, has been called Gcn'cral Anatomy, 
Histol'ogy, or Morphot'omy, whilst the study of 
each organ, in particular, has been termed De- 
scriptive Anat'omy. Descriptive Anatomy has 
been divided into Skcktol'ogy,wh\ch comprises 




dico-Chirurgical Anatomy, (F.) Anatomic chi- 
rurgicale, A. des Regions, Topograph' ica I Anat'- 
omy, Regional (!) Anatomy, is the particular 
study of" the bones, muscles, nerves, vessels, 
&c, with which it is indispensable to be ac- 
quainted before performing operations. Com- 
parative Anat'omy is the comparative study of 
each organ, with a view to an acquaintance 
with the modifications of its structure in diffe- 
rent animals or in the different classes of ani- 
mals. Transcendental or Philosophical Ana- 
tomy inquires into the mode, plan, or model 
upon which the animal frame or organs are 
formed ; and Artifid'ial Anat'omy is the art of 
modelling and representing, in wax or other 
substance, the different organs or different parts 
of the human body, in the sound or diseased state. 

Anatomy, practical, see Dissection. 

ANATON, Soda. 

ANATREPSIS, Restauratio. 

ANATRESIS, Perforation, Trepanning. 

ANATRIBE, Friction. 

AN ATR1PSIS, Friction. 

ANATRIPSOL'OGY, Anatripsolo' gia, from 
tvzrgt-^tq , 'friction,' and Koyos, ' a discourse.' 
A treatise on friction as a remedy. 

ANATRON, Soda. 

ANAT'ROPE, from av*, 'upwards,' and 
TgiTce, ' I turn.' A subversion. A turning or 
subversion or inverted action of the stomach, 
characterized by nausea, vomiting, &.c. — Ga- 
len. We still speak of the stomach turning 
against any thing. 

ANAUDIA, Catalepsy, Mutitas. 

ANAXYRIS, Rumex acetosa. 

ANAZESIS, Ebullition. 

ANAZOTURIA, see Urine. 

ANCHA, Haunch. 

ANCHILOPS, ^o-ilops. 

ANCHORALIS PROCESSUS, Coracoid. 

ANCHU'SA OFFICINALIS, Alca'na, Lin- 
gua Bovis, Buglos'sum sylves'tre, Offic"inal or 
Garden AL'kanet or Bugloss ; Kat. Ord. Bora<ri- 
neaj Sex. Syst. Pentandria Monojrynia, (F) 
Buglose; a native of Great Britain/ The herb 
was formerly esteemed as a cordial in melan- 
cholia and hypochondriasis ; but it is now rare- 
ly used. It is also called Buglos'sa, Bu<rlos'- 
snm angustifo'lium majus, B. vulga're ma jus, 
tt. sativum. J 

AnchVsa tincto'ria, Alcan'na, spu'ria, Du- 
rs Bugloss, Ane'bium, Buglos'sum Tincto'rum, 
.ithosper mum vil/o'sum. Dyer's APkanet (V) 



(•0 



cr \ 

Lithospcr mum vil/o'sum. Dyer, 
Orcanelte ; a European plant. The medical pro- 
perties are equivocal. It is used to 
beautiful red colour to ointments 

ANCHYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANChSTRON, Hamulus. 

ANCOL1E, Aquilegia vulgaris. 



give 



AN CON 



43 



ANE1TTHYMIA 



ANCON, Elbow, Olecranon. 

AJYCONE, Anconeus. 

ANCONE'US, from ttyxan, ' the elbow.' A 
term once applied to every muscle attached to 
the olecranon. Winslovv distinguished four: 
— the great, external, internal, and small; the 
three first being portions of the same muscle, 
the triceps brachialis. The last has, alone, re- 
tained the name. It is the Ancone'vs minor of 
Winslow : the Anconc'us vcl Cubita'lis Riola'ni 
of Douglass: the Epicon'dylo- Cubita'lis of 
Chaussier: the Brevis Cu'liiti (F) Ancone, and is 
situate at the upper and back part of the fore- 
arm. It arises from the external condyle of 
the os humeri, and is inserted into the poste- 
rior edge of the upper third of the ulna. 
Its use is to aid in the extension of the fore-arm. 

Anconeus exteknus, see Triceps extensor 
cubiti — a. Interims, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 
— a. Major, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 

ANCTE'RES, Fibula or Clasps, by which 
the lips of wounds were formerly kept together. 
— Celsus, Galen. 

ANCTERIASMUS, lnfibulation. 

ANCU'BITUS, Petrifac'tio. An affection 
of the eye, in which there is a sensation as if 
sand was irritating the organ. 

ANCUNULENT.E. A name formerly 
given, according to James, to females during 
menstruation, who were regarded as unclean. 

ANCUS. Ankus, from ayxcev, ' the elbow.' 
One who cannot extend his arms completely. 

Also, the deformity resulting from a luxation 
of the humerus or fore-arm. — Hippocr. 

ANCYLE, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOBLEPHARON,Ankyloblepharon. 

ANCYLOGLOSSUM, Ankyloglossrum. 

ANCYLOMELE, Ankylomele. 

ANCYLOMERISMUS, Ankylomerismus. 

ANCYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOTOMUS, Ankylotomus. 

ANCYRA, Hook. 

ANCYROIDES PROCESSUS, Coracoid. 

ANDA. A tree of Brazil. Anda Gomcsii, 
Joannesia princeps. J\at. Order, Euphorbiaceae. 
Sex. Syst. Moncccia Monadelphia. An oil is 
obtained from the seeds by pressure, 50 to GO 
drops of which act as a cathartic. The fruit is 
an oval nut, containing two seeds. These have 
the taste of the chestnut; but are strongly ca- 
thartic, and even emetic. The shell is astrin- 
gent, and used as such in diarrhoea, &c. 

ANDELY, MINERAL WATERS OF. A. 
is in France, near Gysore, and 8 leagues from 
Rouen. The water is a cold and weak chaly- 
beate. It is used in chlorosis and abdominal 
obstructions. 

ANDIRA 1NERM1S, GeofTraa inermis— a. 
Surinamensis, Geoffraea surinamensis. 

ANDRACHAHARA, Sempervivum tecto- 
rum. 

ANDRACHNE, Arbutus unedo, Portulaca. 

ANDRANATO'MIA. Andranat'omg, An- 
droto'mia, Androt'ome, Anthropot'omy, from 
avhg, genitive «v<fyoc, ' a man,' and tifxtiiv, ' to 
cut.' The anatomy of man. 

ANDRl'A, Adult age. 

ANDRl'A MU'LIER. Mu'licr Hcrmaphro- 
dit'ica. A female hermaphrodite. 

ANDROGENl'A, from uvug, 'man,' and 
xwtnt, ' generation.' The procreation of males. 
— Hippocr. 



ANDROG'YNUS, from «v»g, ' a man,' and 
yuv», 'a woman.' An hermaphrodite. An 
effeminate person. — Hippocr. 

ANDROMANIA, Nymphomania. 

ANDROM'EDA MARIA'NA. Broad-leaved 
Moorioort. A decoction of this American 
plant is said to have been successfully employ- 
ed as a wash, in a disagreeable affection, — not 
uncommon amongst the slaves in the southern 
parts of the United States, — called the Toe 
Itch, and Ground Itch — Barton. 

ANDROPOGON CHCENANTHUS, Jun- 
cus odoratus — a. Nardus, Calamus Alexandri- 
nus, Nardus Indica. 

ANDROSACE, Umbilicus marinus— a. Mat- 
thioli, Umbilicus marinus. 

ANDROS.EMUM, Hypericum perforatum. 

ANDROTOMY, Andranatomia. 

AN DRUM. An Indian word, latinized by 
Kasmpfer, signifying a kind of elephantiasis 
of the scrotum, endemic in southern Asia. 

ANEAJYTISSEMEJYT, (F) Virium extinc'tio. 
This word is often employed hyperbolically by 
patients, in France, to signify excessive fatigue, 
debility, or syncope. 

ANEB1UM, Anchusa Tinctoria. 

ANEBUS, Impuber. 

ANECPYE'TUS, from av,foravsa>, 'without,' 
and 7rvia>, ' 1 promote suppuration.' That which 
does not suppurate, or is not likely to suppu- 
rate. 

ANEGER'TICE, from aviyupce, ' I awaken.' 
The art of resuscitating the apparently dead. 

ANEILE' MA, Aneile'sis, from civut.urBai, 'to 
be rolled upwards.' Applied particularly to 
the motion of air in the intestines and the tor- 
mina accompanying it. — -Hippocr. 

ANEILESIS, Aneilema. 

ANEMIA. Anaemia. 

ANEMO'NE. The Wind Flotcer, from ave- 
/uoc, 'the wind,' because it does not open its 
flowers till blown upon by the wind. 

ANEMONE DES BOIS, Anemone nemo- 
rosa. 

Anemo'ne H ep at' ic a, H epatHcanoVilis, Her- 
ba Trinita'tis, Hcpal'ica or Herb Trinity, Hepatf- 
icus Flos, Trifo'lium Hepat'icum, Ancm'ony. 
The plant is a mild astringent and tonic. Dose, 
zj of the powder. It may be given in infu- 
sion. 

Anemo'ne Nemoro'sa, Ranun'culus albiis; 
Wood anem'ony. (F) Anemone des bois. The 
herb and flowers are poisonous, acrid, and cor- 
rosive. They have been used as rubefacients. 

Anemo'ne Praten'sis, Pulsatilla nigricans. 
This plant has similar properties with the last. 
It is also called Meadow Ancmony. (F) Pulsa- 
tille noire, P. des pris. 

The Anemo'ne Pulsatilla, Pulsatilla vul- 
fra'ris, Herba ventis, Nola culinaria, Pasque 
flower, (F) Coquelourde, possesses like properties. 

ANEMONY, Anemone hepatica— a. Mea- 
dow, Anemone pratensis— a. Wood, Anemone 
nemorosa. 

ANEMOS, Wind. 

ANENCEPH'ALUS, from * priv. and tyKt- 
<px\oc, 'brain.' A monster devoid of brain. — 
Bonetus. Also, one that has a part only of the 
brain. Paraceph'alus. A weak, silly person. — 
Hippocr. 

ANEPITII YM'IA, from * priv. and arid-v/uin, 
'desire.' Many Nosologists have used this 



ANERETHISIA 



44 



ANEURISMAL 



word for a loss of the appetites ; as of those 
of hunger, thirst, venery, &c. 

Anetithymia chlorosis, Chlorosis. 
ANERETHIS'IA, Inirritahil'itas, from * 
priv. and sg€d-«r/?, 'irritability.' Defect of 
irritability. — Swediaur. 
ANESIS, Remission. 
AMESON, Anethum. 
ANESUM, Pimpinellaanisum. 
ANET, Anethum. 
AKETH, Anethum graveolens. 
ANE'THUM. Aneson,Aneton, Ane'thum Fce- 
nii'ulum, Famic'ulum, F. Dulce, Ligus'ticum 
fcenic'ulum, Fennel or Finchlc, Mar'athrum, 
Anet, Sweet Fennel, (F) Fcnouil ou Anis doux. 
Nat. Ord. Umbellif'ene. Sex. Syst. Pentandria. 
Digynia. The seeds have an aromatic odour, 
and warm, sweetish taste. They are carmina- 
tive. The root is said to be pectoral and diu- 
retic. 

Anethum fcenicui.cm, Anethum. 
Ane'thum Grav'eolens, A. hortcn'se, Dill, 
Anethum. (F) Anet/i, Fenouil puant. A native 
of the south of Europe. The seeds are stimu- 
lant and carminative. Dose, gr. xv to gj. 

The Oleum Ane'thi, or Oil of Dill, (F) 
Huile d'Aneth, possesses the carminative pro- 
perties of the plant. 
ANETICUS, Anodyne. 
ANETON, Anethum. 

ANETUS, Intermittent fever— a. Quartanus, 
Quartan — a. Quotidianus, Quotidian — a. Tertia- 
nus, Tertian lever. 

AN'EURiSM, An'curysm, Ancuris'ma, from 
avtu^uvuv, 'to dilate or distend.' Dilata'tio 
Arleria'rum, Ecta'sia, Emboris'ma, Exangi'a 
aneuris'ma, Absces'sus spirituo'sus, Arteriec'- 
tasis, (F) Anivrysme, Aneurysme. Properly, 
Aneurism signifies a tumour, produced by the 
dilatation of an artery ; but it has been extend- 
ed to various lesions of arteries, as well as to 
dilatations of the heart. 

There are various kinds of aneurism. The 
following are the chief. 

I. When the blood, which forms the tumour, 
is enclosed within the dilated coats of the arte- 
ry. This is the true aneurism, Ancuris'ma 
verum, Hernia Arteria 'rum. (F) Anivrysme 
vrai. 

II. When the blood has escaped from the 
opened artery, it is called spurious or false 
aneurism, Aneuris'ma spu'rium, Ruptura Arte'- 
ria, Arteriorrhex'is, Artc'riodial'ysis, Ecchymo'- 
ma artcrio'sum. (F) Anivrysme faux. The 
latter is divided into three varieties. 

1. The diffused false aneurism, (F) Anlv- 
rysme faux, primitif, diffus, noncirconscrit, ou 
par infiltration, which occurs immediately after 
the division or rupture of an artery, and consists 
of an extravasation of blood into the cellular 
texture of the part. 

2. The circumscribed false aneurism, (F) A. 
faux consecutif, circonscrit ou par 6panchement, 
enkysti ou sacciforme, tumeur hemorrhagiale 
circonscrite, in which the blood issues from the 
vessel, sometime after the receipt of the wound, 
and forms itself a sac in the neighbouring cel- 
lular membrane. 

3. The An'eurism by Anastomo' sis , or Var 1 - 
icose An'eurism, Phlebarteriodial'ysis, Ancury 1 - 
sma venoso-arteriosum, A varico'sum, (F) .471- 



tvrusme par Anastomose ou variqucux, A. par 
Eriion,A. de Pott, A. des plus pctUcsartercs, 
is that which arises from the simultaneous 
wounding of an artery and vem : the arterial 
blood passing into the vein, and producing a 
varicose state of it. _ 

HI Mixed Aneurism, (F) Anevrysme mixte, 
is that which arises from the dilatation of one 
or two of the coats, with division or rupture of 
the other. Some authors have made two varie- 
ties of this. . . 

1 . Mixed external Aneurism, where the inter- 
nal and middle coats are ruptured, and the cel- 
lular is dilated. . - 

2. Mixed internal Aneurism, in which the 
internal coat is dilated, and protrudes, like a 
hernial sac, through the ruptured middle and 
outer coats. This variety has been called Ancu- 
ris'ma Her'niam Arte' ria. sis' tens. 

Aneurisms have been likewise termed Trau- 
mat'ic and Spontaneous, according as they may 
have been caused by a wound, or have origi- 
nated spontaneously. They have also been 
divided into internal and external. 

The internal aneurisms are situate in the 
great splanchnic cavities, and occur in the 
heart and great vessels of the chest, abdomen, 
&c. Their diagnosis is difficult, and they are 
often inaccessible to surgical treatment. 

The external aneurisms are situate at the 
exterior of the head, neck, and limbs, and are 
distinctly pulsatory. 

Aneurisms, especially the internal, may be 
combated by a debilitant treatment, on the plan 
of Valsalva, which consists in repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support 
life. In external aneurfsm the artery can be 
obliterated. This is usually done by applying 
a ligature above the aneurismal tumour. 

A Dissecting Aneurism is one in which 
owing to rupture of the inner coat of an artery, 
the blood makes itself a channel between the 
coats or between the laminae composing them. 
Aneurisms of the Heart, Cardion'chi, Cardicu- 
rys'ma, (F) An&vrysmes du ccrur, have been di- 
vided into active and passive. The former can 
scarcely be esteemed aneurisms, as they most 
commonly consist of increased thickness of the 
parietes of the heart, which diminishes its cavi- 
ty instead of increasing it. The term, Hyper- 
trophy of the heart, (q. v.) better indicates their 
character. Passive aneurisms, on the contrary, 
are attended with extenuation of the parietes 
of the organ, and enlargement of the cavities. 
The physical signs of dilatation of the heart are 
the following. — The action of the heart is not 
visible, .and no impulse is conveyed to the 
hand. On percussion, there is a loss of reso- 
nance over a larger surface than usual, but the 
dulness is much less intense than that which 
accompanies hypertrophy. On auscultation, 
the action of the heart is only slightly felt, and 
communicates at once the impression of its di- 
minished power. The impulse is feebler than 
usual. Both sounds are widely transmitted 
oyer the thorax, and are not much fainter at a 
distance from their point of orio-in 

ANEURIS'MAL, Aneurysmal, Aneurismatf- 
ic, Aueurisma'lis. That which belono-s to 
Aneurism. b 

The Aneurism.vl Sac or Cyst, (F) Sac ou 



ANEURISMATIC 



45 



ANGINA 



Kyste andvrysmal, is a sort of pouch, formed by 
the dilatation of the coats of an artery, in which 
the blood, forming the aneurismal tumour, is 
contained. 

ANEURISMATIC, Aneurismal. 

ANEURYSME, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMUS, Dilatation. 

ANEVRYSME, Aneurism. 

ANFION, Maslach. 

ANFRACTUOSITES CEREBRALES, An- 
fractuosities, cerebral — a. Ethmoidales, see An- 
fractuosity. 

ANrtlACTUOS'ITY, Anfradtus, Gyrus, a 
groove or furrow. Used in anatomy to signify 
sinuous depressions, of greater or less depth, 
like those which separate the convolutions of 
the brain from each other. 

These Cerebral Anfractuositif.s, Anfrac'- 
tus Cer'ebri, Gyri Ccr'ebri, Intestin'ula Cer'e- 
bri, (F) Ajifractuositis Ciribrales, are always 
narrow, and deeper at the upper surface of the 
brain than at its base ; and are lined by a pro- 
longation of the pia mater. 

The Ethmoid Cells are, sometimes, called 
Anfractuosites ethmoidales. 

ANFRACTUS, Anfractuosity— a. Cerebri, 
Anfractuosities (cerebral). 

AN GEIOG'RAPHY or ANGIOGRAPHY, 
Angeiographia, from ayyetov, ' a vessel,' and 
>§*<?», 'a description.' The anatomy of the 
vessels. 

ANGEIOHYDROG'RAFHY,.^oA?yro/- 
raphy, Angeiondrog'raphy, Angeiohydrogra'- 
phia, from *-)ynov, 'a vessel,' i/JVg, 'water,' 
and ygoKpoi, ' 1 describe.' A treatise on the 
lymphatics. 

ANGEIOHYDROT'OMY, Angiohydrot'o- 
my, Angeiondrot'omy, Angciohydrotomia, from 
ayyttov, ' a vessel,' viag, 'water,' and ti/uhiv, 
'to cut.' Dissection of the lymphatics. 

AN GEIOLEUCI'TIS, Lymphangci'tis, from 
ayyttov, 'a vessel,' t^ivkoq, ' white,' and itis, in- 
flammation, (F) Inflammation des tissus blancs. 
Inflammation of the lymphatics: lymphatic or 
scrofulous inflammation. 

ANGEIOL'OGY, AngioVogy, Angeiolo'gia, 
from ayytnv, 'a vessel,' and >, oyo;, 'a dis- 
course.' A description of the vessels. The 
anatomy of the vessels. It includes Artcriol'- 
ogi/, Pltlebol'otry. and Angeiohydrol'ogy. 

ANGEION, Vessel. 

ANGEIONDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydro- 
graphy. 

ANGEIONDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGEIOPATHI'A, from ayyuo,, ' a vessel,' 
and Ti-aGoc, < a disease.' Disease of the vessels. 

ANGEIORRHAGIA, Haemorrhagia activa. 

ANGEIOSTEO'SIS, Angioslo'sis, from ay- 
yetov, 'a vessel,' and o<riia>7n, 'ossification.' 
Ossification of vessels. 

AN GEIOT'OM Y, Angiot'omy, Angeioto'mia, 
from ttyy^icv, 'a vessel,' and Tt[j.vav, 'to cut.' 
Dissection of the vessels. 

ANGEL'ICA. So called from its supposed 
ano-elic virtues. Angel'ica Archangel' ica, Nat. 
Ord. Umbelliferse, Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digy- 
nia. Native of Lapland. Garden Angelica. 
(F) Angi-liquc, Racine de Saint Esprit. The 
roots, stalk, leaves, and seed are aromatic and 
carminative. A sweetmeat is made of the root, 
which is agreeable. 



Angel'ica Sylves'tris, A sati'va. Wild 
Angcl'ica, (F) Angelique sauvage. It possesses 
similar properties to the last, but in an inferior 
degree. The seeds, powdered and put into the 
hair, are used to destroy lice. 

Angelica Tree, Aralia spinosa — a. Sylves- 
tris, Ligfusticum podao-raria. 

ANGELl'N.E CORTEX. The bark of a 
Grenada tree, which has been recommended 
as an anthelmintic and cathartic. 

ANGELIQUE, Angelica — a. Sauvage, An- 
gelica sylvestris. 

ANGELOCACOS, Myrobalanus. 

ANGIECTASIA VENOSA, Varix. 

ANGIEC'TASIS, from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 
and 6jct*o-(,c, 'dilatation.' Any dilatation of 
vessels. — Griife and Alibert. 

ANGI'NA, Febris Angino'sa, from angere, 
' to suffocate.' Quinsey or Sore throat, Isthmi'- 
tis. Inflammation of the supra-diaphragmatic 
portion of the alimentary canal, and of the air- 
passages. The Latin writers applied the term 
to every disease in which deglutition or respi- 
ration, separately or united, was affected, pro- 
vided that such affection was above the sto- 
mach and lungs. — Boerhaave speaks of the an- 
gina of the moribund, which is nothing more 
than the dysphagia or difficult deglutition pre- 
ceding death. — See Cynanche. 

Angina Aphthosa, Aphthae — a. Bronchialis, 
Bronchitis — a. Canina, Cynanche trachealis — 
a. Epidemica, Cynanche maligna — a. Epiglot- 
tidea, Epiglottitis — a. Exudatoria, Cynanche 
trachealis — a. Externa, Cynanche parotidoea — 
a. Gangraenosa, Cynanche maligna — a. Inflam- 
matoria, Cynanche, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Laryngea, Laryngitis — a. Linguaria, Glossitis 
— a. Maligna, Cynanche maligna — a. Maxilla- 
ris, Cynanche parotidaea. 

Angi'na Nasa'lis, Nasi'tis posti'ca. An in- 
flammation of the posterior portion of the 
Schneiderian membrane lining the nose. 

The Angi'na Q2demato'sa, (F) Anginc azdi- 
mateusc, (Edeme dc la Glotte, is an cedematoua 
swelling of the glottis; the effect of chronic cy- 
nanche laryngea. 

Angina Parotidaea Externa, Cynanche pa- 
rotidaea — a. Perniciosa, Cynanche trachealis — 
a. Polyposa seu membranacea, Cynanche tra- 
chealis. 

The Angi'na Sicca, (F) Anginc seche, is a 
chronic inflammation of the pharynx, with a 
distressing sense of dryness and heat, in chro- 
nic diseases of the stomach and lungs. See 
Paedanehone. 

The Angi'na Squirro'sa, (F) Anginc squir- 
rheuse, consists in difficulty of deglutition, 
caused by scirrhous disorganization of the pha- 
rynx or oesophagus. 

Angi'na Pec'toris, Sternal' gia, Asthma spas' - 
tico-arthrit'icum incon' stuns , Stcrnodyn'iu syn- 
coptica ct palpitans, Cardiog'mus Cordis sinis- 
tri, Astheni'a pectoralis, Angor pec'toris, Stcno- 
car'dia, Diaphragmatic gout, Asthma convulsi'- 
vum, Asthma arthrit'icum, A. dolorif'icum f 
Syn' cope angino'sa, (F) Anginc de Poitrine. A 
disease, the precise pathology of which is not 
well known. The principal symptoms are, vi- 
olent pain about the sternum, extending to- 
wards the arms; anxiety, dyspnoea, and sense 
of suffocation. It is an affection of great dan- 



ANGINA 



46 



ANGUSTVRE 



gor, being usually dependent upon ossification, 
or other morbid affection of* the heart. The 
most powerful stimulating and narcotic anti- 
spasmodics are required during the paroxysm. 

Angi'na Pkllicula'ris, Diptheri'tis, Diph- 
theritic Inflammation. A name recently given 
to those inflammations about the throat and 
elsewhere, in which exudations or false mem- 
branes are thrown out, during the phlogosis of 
mucous membranes. Aphtha, Tracheitis, when 
accompanied with the membraniform exuda- 
tion, and Diarrhoea tubularis are, with some, 
specimens of diphtheritic inflammation. 

Angina Suffocatoria, Cynanche trachealis 
— a. Trachealis, Cynanche trachealis — a Ulce- 
rosa, Cynanche maligna — a. Uvularis, Staphy- 
ledema, Uvulitis. 

ENGINE GUTTURALE, Cynanche tonsil- 
laris — a . Laryng6c, Laryngitis — a. Pharyngic 



predating the size of the brain is very inexact, 
and cannot be depended upon. _ 

The following is a table of the angle in man 
and certain animals. 



FACIAL ANGLES. 



Man 

Sapajou 

Orarig-Utang 

(iiionon 

Mandrill 

Coati 

Pole-cat 

Pug dog 

Mastiff - 

Hare - 

Ram 

Horse 



from G5° to 85° 
65 

50' to 58 
57 

30 to 42 
28 
31 
35 
41 
30 
30 
23 



Cynanche parotideea — a. de Poitrine, Angina of the pupil 



The Optic Angle, (F) Angle optique, is the 
angle formed by two lines, which shave the ex- 
tremities of an object, and meet at the centre 



pectoris — a. Seche, Angina sicca — a. Squir- 
rheuse, Angina squirrosa — a. Tonsillaire, Cy- 
nanche tonsillaris. 

ANGINEUX. Anginosa. 
ANGINO'SA, (F) Angineux. That which 
is accompanied with angina; as the Scarlati'na 
angino'sa. 

ANGIOGRAPHY, Angiography. 
ANGIOHYDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydro- 
graphy. 

ANGIOHYDROTOMY,Angeiohydrotomy. 
ANGIOLOGY, Angeiolocy. 
ANGIOPYRA, Synocha. 
ANGIOSTOSIS, Angeiostosis. 
ANGIO'SIS, from ayyuov, ' a vessel.' Un- 
der this term, Alibert includes every disease of 
the blood-vessels. 

ANGIOTEN'IC, Angeiotcnic, Angiotcn'icvs 
seu Angeiutcnicus. From ayjinv, 'a vessel,' 
and tuvuv, ' to extend.' An epithet given to 
inflammatory fever, owing to its action seeming 
to be chiefly exerted on the vascular system. 
ANGIOTOMY, Angeiotomy. 
ANGLE, An'gulus, from uyx.v\o;, ' a hook.' 
The space between two lines which meet in a 
point. 

The Fa'cial Angle, pointed out by Camper, 
is formed by the union of two lines, one of 
which is drawn from the most prominent part 
of the forehead to the alveolar edge of the up- 
per jaw, opposite the incisor teeth, and the 
other from the meatus auditorius externus to 
the same point of the jaw. According to the 
size of this angle it has been attempted to ap- 
preciate the respective proportions of the cra- 
nium and face, and, to a certain extent, the de- 
gree of intelligence of individuals and of ani- 
mals. In the white varieties of the species, 
this angle is generally 80°; in the negro not 
more than 70°, and sometimes only C5°. As 
we descend the scale of animals, the angle be- 
comes less and less; until, in fishes, it nearly or 
entirely disappears. Animals, which have the 
snout long and facial angle small, are prover- 
bially foolish; at least they are so esteemed, 
such as the snipe, crane, stork, &c, whilst in- 
telligence is ascribed to those in which the an- 
gle is more largely developed, as the elephant 
and the owl. In these last animals, however, 
the large facial angle is caused by the size of 



ANGOISSE, Angor. 

ANGOLAM, a very tall Malabar tree, which 
possesses vermifuge properties. 

AN'GONE, Prafoca'tio Fau'cium, Globus 
hystericus, Orthopnea hysterica, Dyspha'gia 
globo'sa, D. hysterica, Nervous Quinsey. A 
feeling of strangulation, with dread of suffoca- 
tion. It is common in hysterical females, and 
is accompanied with a sensation as if a ball 
arose from the abdomen to the throat. 

ANGOR, Anguish, (F) Angoissc. Extreme 
anxiety, accompanied with painful constriction 
at the epigastrium, and often with palpitation 
and oppression. It is frequently an unfavoura- 
ble symptom. 

Angor, Agony, also, Orthopncea — a. Pecto- 
ris, Angina pectoris. 

ANGOS, Bubo, Uterus, Vessel. 
ANGOURION, Cucumis sativus. 
ANGUIS, Serpent. 
ANGUISH, Angor. 

AJYGULAIRE DE L'OMOPLATE, Levator 
scapula?. 

AN'GULAR, Angu/a'ris, from angulus, ' an 
angle.' (F) Angulaire. That which relates to 
an angle. 

The Angular Processes of the frontal bone 
are seated near the angles of the eyes. See 
Orbitar. 

Angular Artery and Vein. A name given, 
1. to the termination of the facial artery and 
vein, because they pass by the greater angle of 
the eye; and, 2. to the facial artery and vein 
themselves, because they pass under the angle 
of the jaw. See Facial. 

The Angular Nerve is a filament furnished 
by the inferior maxillary, which passes near 
the greater angle of the eye. 

ANGULAR1S, Levator scapulae. 
AJYG ULI-SCAPULO-HUMERAL, Teres ma- 
jor. 

ANGULUS OCULARIS, Canthus. 
ANGURIA, Cucurbita citrullus 
ANGUSTATIO CORDIS. Systole. 
ANGUST1A ABDOMINAL1S, Pelvis, 
(Brim)— a Perinaealis, Pelvis (Outlet.) 

AN GUSTURA, Cusparia febrifuga— a. Spu- 
ria, Brucea antidysenterica. 
AjYGUSTURE, FAUSSE, Brucea antidysen- 



the frontal sinuses : — so that this mode of ap- 1 rica- 



za.— a. Fcrrugincusc, Brucea anti-dysente- 
— a. Vraic, Cusparia febrifuga. 



ANGUSTIA 



47 



ANIMALIZATION 



ANGUS'TIA, Augusta' tio,Stcnocho f via. Anx- 
iety or constriction. 

ANH/EMATOSIA, Asphyxia. 

AN H.EM I A, Aiuemia. 

ANHELA'TIO, from anhelo, ' I pant.' An- 
hcl'itus, Panting. (F) Essouflcmcnt. Anima- 
tion. Short and rapid breathing. See Dyspnoea. 

Anhela'tio is sometimes employed synony- 
mously with Asthma. 

ANHELITUS, Breath. 

ANHIS'TOUS, from «, uv, 'privative,' and 
'/o-Toc, 'organic texture,' 'anorganic. The tu- 
nica decidua uteri is termed by Velpeau the 
anhistous membrane. 

ANHUIBA, Laurus sassafras. 

ANICE'TON, Mesia'mum, from a privative, 
and vikh, ' victory,' ' invincible.' A plaster much 
extolled by the ancients in cases of achores. It 
was formed of litharge, cerusse, thus, alum, tur- 
pentine, white pepper, and oil. 

ANIDRO'SIS, from * priv. and 'tigm, 
'sweat.' Svdo'ris nul'litas vel priva'tio. Ab- 
sence of sweat. Deficiency of perspiration. — 
Hippocr. 

AMLITAS. See Dementia. 

AN'IMA, Ani'mus, Mens, Psyche, the mind, 
breath, &c, from xvijuoe, ' wind or breath.' (F) 
Ame. The principle of the intellectual and mo- 
ral manifestations. Also, the principle of life: 
the life of plants being termed An'ima vegctati'- 
va, (F) Ame vegetative; that of man, An'ima 
sensiti'va, (F) Ame sensitive. 

Under the term Anima Mundi, the ancient 
philosophers meant a universal Spirit, which 
they supposed spread over every part of the 
universe. 

The precise seat of the mind in the brain has 
given rise to many speculations. The point is 
unsettled. 

Anima Aloes: see Aloes — a. Articulorum, 
Hermodactylus — a. Hepatis, Ferri sulphas — a. 
Pulmonum, Crocus. 

AN'IMAL, guov, from an'ima, 'the mind.' A 
name given to every animated being provided 
with digestive organs; even if such be merely 
a simple tube, as in the polypi. The greater 
part of animals have the power of locomo- 
tion ; some can merely execute partial move- 
ments, such as contraction and dilatation. 
In other respects it is often a matter of dif- 
ficulty to determine what is an animal cha- 
racteristic. The study of animals is called 
Zoology. 

An'imal, (adjective,) Anima'lis. That which 
concerns, or belongs to, an animal. 

The Animal Kingdom, (F) Regne Animal, 
comprises all animated beings. 

Animal Heat, Calor anima'lis, Cal'idum an- 
ima' le, C. inna'tum, Biolych'nion, (F) Chaleur 
animate, is the caloric constantly secreted by 
the body of a living animal, by virtue of 
which it preserves nearly the same tempera- 
ture, whatever may be that of the medium in 
which it is placed. This secretion seems to 
take place in the capillary system over the 
whole of the body, and to be connected with 
the action of nutrition. 

The following are the natural temperatures 
of certain animals; that of man being 98° or 
J 00°. 



Animals. 
Arctic fox, - 

Arctic wolf, ---.__ 
Squirrel, ----.__ 
Hare, -----.. 

Whale, 

Arctomys citillus, tizil — in summer, 
Do. when torpid, 

Goat, 

Bat, in summer, - 

Musk, - - 

Marmota bohac, — Bobac, - 

House mouse, - 

Arctomys marmota, marmot, — in summer, 

Do. when torpid, - 

Rabbit, 

Polar bear, ---... 
Dog, ....... 

Cat, 

Swine, ....... 

Sheep, ....... 

Ox, 

Guinea-pig, ...... 

Arctomys glis, ..... 

Shrew, ---.... 

Young wolf, ---... 
Fringilla arctica, Arctic finch, 
Rubecola, redbreast, - - - - 

Fringilla linaria, lesser red poll, 
Falco palumbanus, goshawk, 
Caprimulgus Europajus, European goat- 
sucker, .-.-.. 
Emberiza nivalis, snow-bunting, - 
Falco lanarius, tanner, - - - - 

Fringilla carduelis, goldfinch, 

Corvus corax, raven, .... 

Turdus, thrush, (of Ceylon,) - 

Tetrao perdrix, partridge, - - - 

Anas clypeata, shoveler, - 

Tringa pugnax, ruffe, - 

Scolopax limosa, lesser godwit, 

Tetrao tetrix, grouse, - - - - 

Fringilla brumalis, winterfinch, 

Loxia pyrrhula, - 

Falco nisus, sparrowhawk, ... 

Vultur Barbatus, - 

Anser pulchricollis, .... 

Colymbus Auritus, dusky grebe, 

Tringa vanellus, lapwing, (wounded,) 

Tetrao lagopus, ptarmigan, - 

Fringilla domestica, house sparrow, 

Strix passerina, little owl, - 

Ha?matopus ostralegus, sea-pie, 

Anas penelope, widgeon, 

Anas strepera, gadwall, ... 

Pelecanus carbo, - 

Falco os (ifragus, sea-eagle, - 

Fulica atra, coot, - - - - - 

Anas acuta, pintail-duck, ... 
Falco milvus, kite, (wounded,) 
Merops apiaster, beeeater, ... 
Goose, ------- 

Hen, - - 

Dove, .----.. 

Duck, ------- 

Ardea stellaris, - 
Falco albicollis, - 
Picus major, ------ 

Cossus ligniperda, - 

Shark, ------- 

Torpedo Marmorata, - - - - 



Temperatures. 
107 
J 105 

104 

103 

- 80 to 84 

103 

| 102 

- 101 or 102 
101 

101 or 102 

43 
100 to 104 

100 



5- 100 to 103 

J 

- 100 to 102 

90 
98 
96 

J m 

- 110 or 111 



100 
109 to 110 



107 
107 to 111 

10G 

105 
104 



103 

89 to 91 
83 
74 



AISIMAL'CU LE, Animal'culum, a diminutive 
of animal. A small animal. An animal per- 
ceptible only by means of the microscrope. 

ANIMAL/CULIST, An'imalist. One who 
attempts to explain different physiological or 
pathological phenomena by means of animal- 
cules. 

ANIMALIST, Animalculist. 

ANIM AL'ITY, Animal 1 itas. Qualities which 
distinguish that which is animated. That 
which constitutes the animal. 

ANIMALIZA'TION, Animalisa'tio. The 
transformation of the nutritive parts of food 



ANIMATION 



48 



ANNUITIO 



into the living substance of the body to be I 
nourished. 

ANIMA'TION, Zoo'sis, Jlnima'lio, from 
anima, ' the soul or mind.' The act of ani- 
mating. The state of being enlivened. 

Animation, Suspended, Asphyxia. 

To AN'IMATE, Anima'rc. To unite the 
living principle with an organized body. The 
French use it in the sense of, — to excite or ren- 
der active ; as, animer un vdsicatoire : to excite 
a blister tr^suppurate. 

AN'IME, Gum an'ime, Amina/a, Can'camy, 
Gummi an'ime, Can'camum. A resin obtained 
from the trunk of the Hymena' a cour'baril. It 
has been given as a cephalic and uterine. It 
is not used. The plant is also called Cour'- 
baril. 

ANIMA, (F) an epithet applied to the coun- 
tenance, when florid, in health or disease. 

ANIMELL^E, Parotid. 

ANIMI CASUS SUBITUS, Syncope— a. 
Deliqnium, Syncope — a. Pathemata, Passions. 

AiVIMIST, from an'ima, 'the soul.' The 
Animists are those who, following the exam- 
ple of Stahl, refer all the phenomena of the 
animal economy to the soul. 

The soul, according to Stahl, is the imme- 
diate and intelligent agent of every movement, 
and of every material change in the body. 
Stahl therefore concluded, that disease was 
nothing more than a disturbance or disorder 
in the government of the economy, or an effort 
by which the soul, attentive to every morbific 
cause, endeavoured to expel whatever might 
be deranging the habitual order of health. 

AiNIMUS, Anima, Breath. 

ANIS, Pimpinella anisum — a. Aigre, Cumi- 
num cyminum — a. de la Chine, Illicium ani- 
satum — a. doux, Anethum — a. etoiM, Illicium 
anisatum. 

ANISA'TUM, from Anisum, Anise. A sort 
of medicated wine, formerly prepared with 
honey, wine of Ascalon, and aniseed. 

ANISCALPTOR, Latissimus dorsi. 

ANISE PLANT, Pimpinella anisum. 

ANISEED: see Pimpinella anisum — a. Tree, 
yellow flowered, Illicium anisatum. 

ANISI SEMINA. See Pimpinella anisum. 

ANTSOS'THENES, Inaqua'li rob' ore pol'- 
lens. That which is unequal in strength : from 
a. priv. <3-;c, ' equal,' and o-S-evoc, ' strength.' An 
epithet applied particularly to the muscular 
contractility, which, in the sick, is sometimes 
augmented in certain muscles only : in the 
flexors, for example. 

ANISOT'ACHYS,from a priv. /croc, ' equal,' 
and t*^u<, ' quick.' An epithet for the pulse 
when at the same time quick and unequal. — 
Gorrceus. 

ANISUM, Pimpinella anisum — a. Africanum 
frutescens, Bubon Galbanum — a. Fruticosum 
Galbaniferum, Bubon galbanum — a. Sinensc 
Illicium anisatum — a. Stellatum, Illicium ani- 
satum. 

ANKLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 

ANKUS, Ancus. 

ANKYLOBLEPHARON, Ancyloblcph'aron, 
Palpebrarum coal'itus, from axituxw, ' contrac 
tion,' and 0K«pa^cy, 'eyelid.' A preternatural 
union between the free edges of the eyelids. 



Also called Sijmbkph'aron,Symblcpliaro'sis,and 

P AIM, anion between the eyelids and globe of 
the eve. — Aetius. 

ANK YLOGLOS'SUM, Ancyhglos'sum, Con- 
cre'tio lintrutejrom ayx.v\o<, ' crooked,' or ' con- 
tracted,' and yxaxro-d, ' the tongue.' Impeded 
motion of the tongue in consequence of adhe- 
sion between its margins and the gums ; or in 
consequence of the shortness of the framum : 
the latter affection constituting the Tongue- 
lie, Olopho'nia lin'gum frana'ta. It merely re- 
quires the fraenum to be divided with a pair of 
scissors. _ 

ANK YLOME'LE, Ancyhme'le, from etyKvxo;, 
' crooked,' and wjiak, ' a probe.' A curved probe. 
— Galen. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS, Ancylomcris'mits, 
from cryx.vh», ' a contraction,' and /ui^o^, ' a 
part.' Morbid adhesion between parts. 

ANKYLOPS, ^Egilops. 

ANKYLO'SIS, Ancylo'sis, Anchylo'sis, Or- 
thoco'lon, Orthocy/lo'sis, An'cyle, Stiff Joint, f roin 
ayauxoc, 'crooked.' An affection, in which 
there is great difficulty or even impossibility 
of moving a diarthrodial articulation. It is so 
called, because the limb remains, commonly, 
in a constant state of flexion. Anchylosis is 
said to be complete or true, when there is an 
intimate adhesion between the synovial sur- 
faces and union of the articular extremities of 
the bones. In the incomplete or false anchylosis, 
there is obscure motion, but the fibrous parts 
around the joint are more or less stiff and 
thickened. In the treatment of this last state, 
the joint must be gently and gradually exer- 
cised ; and oily, relaxing applications be as- 
siduously employed. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS, Ancylot'omus, <ty*v- 
\oto[ao(, from uyKUhcc, l crooked,' and n/uvnv, 
' to cut.' Any kind of curved knife. — Paulus. 
An instrument for dividing the fraenum lingua;. 
— Scultetus. 

ANNEAU, Ring — a Crural, Crural canal — a. 
Diaphragmatiquc, Diaphragmatic ring — a. Fe- 
moral, Crural canal — a. Inguinal, Inguinal ring 
— a. Ombilical, Umbilical ring. 

ANNEXE, Accessory, Appendix. 

ANNI CRITICI, Climacterici (anni)— a. De- 
cretorii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Fatales, Cli- 
macterici (anni) — a. Genethliaci, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Gradarii, Climacterici (anni)— a. 
Hebdomadici, Climacterici (anni) — a. Heroici, 
Climacterici (anni)— a. Natalitii, Climacterici 
(anni)— a. Scalares, Climacterici (anni.)— a. 
Scansiles, Climacterici (anni.) 

ANNOTA'TIO, Episema'sia. Under this 
term some have included the preludes to an 
attack of intermittent fever— as yawning, 
stretching, somnolency, chilliness, &c. 

ANNOTTO. See Terra Orleana. 

ANNUAL DISEASES, Morbi an'nui, M. 
anniversa'rii. (F) Maladies annuelles. A 
name given, by some, to diseases which recur, 
every year, about the same period. Febris 
annua is a term used for a fancied intermittent 
ot this type. (F) Fievre annuelle. 

f S2Hi^MA Rectus ca P' tis inte mus minor. 
ANNmT"lO,Nod'ding. A gesture denoting 
assent in most countries. Also, the state of 



ANNULAR 



49 



ANOSIA 



somnolency, (when the individual is in the 
erect or sitting posture, with the head unsup- 
ported.) in which the power of volition over 
the extensor muscles of the head is lost, and 
the head drops forward. 

AN'NULAR, Jlnnula'ris, Cricoi'des. Any 
thing relating to a ring, or which has the shape 
or fulfils the functions of a ring ; from annulus, 
' a ring.' 

The Annular Finger, or Ring Finger, 
Dig''Hus annula'ris, Param'rsos, is the fourth 
finger; so called from the wedding-ring being 
worn there. 

The An'nular lig'ament of the ra'dius, 
is a very strong fibro-cartilaffinous band, which 
forms, with the lesser sigmoid cavity of the 
cubitus, a kind of ring in which the head of 
the radius turns with facility. 

The An'nular lig'aments of the carpus, 
Armil'la. manvs membrano'sce, are two in num- 
ber. The one, anterior, is a broad, fibrous, 
quadrilateral band, extending transversely be- 
fore the carpus, and forming the gutter, made 
by the wrist, into a canal. It is attached, 
externally, to the trapezium and scapho'ides ; 
and internally to the os pisiforme and pro- 
cess of the unciforme. It keeps the tendons 
of the flexor muscles, median nerve, &c, ap- 
plied against the carpus. The posterior liga- 
ment is situate transversely behind the joint 
of the hand, and covers the sheaths of the 
tendons, which pass to the back of the hand. 
Its fibres are white and shining, and are at- 
tached, externally, to the inferior and outer 
part of the radius ; internally, to the ulna and 
os pisiforme 

The An'nular lig'aments of the tarsus 
are two in number. The anterior is quadri- 
lateral, and extends transversely above the in- 
step. It is attached to the superior depression 
of the os calcis, and to the malleolus internus. 
It embraces the tendons of the extensor mus- 
cles of the toes, the tibialis u.nticus, and pcro- 
neus anticus. The internal is broader than the 
last. It descends from the malleolus internus 
to the posterior and inner part of the os calcis, 
with which it forms a kind of canal, enclosing 
the sheaths of the tendons of the tibialis posti- 
cus, flexor longus digitorum pedis, and F. longus 
pollicis jjedis, as well as the plantar vessels and 
nerves. 

The Annular vein, Vena annula'ris, is situ- 
ate between the annular finger and the little 
finger. Aetius recommends it to be opened in 
diseases of the spleen. 

A NNUL ARIS, Cricoid : see Digitus— a. Ani, 
Sphincter ani. 

ANNUL I-TEND IN O-PHALANGIENS, 
Lumbricales manus. 

ANNULUS ABDOMINIS, Inguinal ring— 
a. Fossa; ovalis : see Ovalis fossa. — a. Repens, 
Herpes circinatus — a. Umbilicalis, Umbilical 
ring — a. Ventriculi, Pylorus. 

ANO, ava>, a prefix denoting ' above, up.' 

ANOCCELFA, Stomach. 

ANO'DIA, from *v priv. and aft,, 'song.' 
An unconnected or dissonant mode of speech. 

.LYODLV, Anodyne. 

ANODOS, Edentulus. 



Anct'icus, Antal'gicus, (F) Anodin or Anodyn, 
from a., av, priv. and oJuy», ' pain.' Anodynes axe 
those medicines which relieve pain, or cause it 
to cease; as opium, belladonna, &c. They 
act by blunting the sensibility of the brain, 
so that it does not appreciate the morbid sen- 
sation. 

ANODY'NIA, Indolen'tia. Cessation or ab- 
sence of pain. Vogel has given this name to a 
genus of diseases, characterized by a cessation 
of pain, and the exasperation of other symp- 
toms ; as we see in gangrene. 

ANODYNUM M1NERALE, Potassre nitras 
sulphatis paucillo mixtus. 

ANCEA, from a. privative, and voo?, 'mind.' 
Delirium, imbecility. See Dementia and Idiot- 
ism. 

ANOMAL, Anomalous. 

ANOM A/L1A, from etv priv. and o/**aoc, ' re- 
gular.' Abnor'mitas,Alicna l tio. Anomaly, irre- 
gularity. In Pathology, anomaly means some- 
thing unusual in the symptoms proper to a dis- 
ease. 

Anomalia Nervorum. Nervous diathesis. 
ANOMALOTROPHIES, from a.v, privative, 
o/uaKoc, ' regular,' and rpo<pn, ' nourishment.' A 
class of diseases, which consist in modifications 
in the nutrition of organs. — Gendrin. 

ANOM' ALO\JS,Jlno'malus; the same etymon. 
Irregular, contrary to rule. (F) Anomal. In 
Medicine, a disease is called anomalous, in 
whose symptoms or progress there is something 
unusual. Affections are also called anomalous, 
which cannot be referred to any known species. 
ANOMALUS, Irregular. 
ANOMOCEPH'ALUS, from a priv. vc/uoc, 
'rule,' and KKpaxn, 'head.' An individual, 
whose head is deformed. — Geoffroi Saint-Hi- 
laire. 

ANOM'PHALOS, from uv privative, and 
o/u<pst,Ko;, ' the navel.' Devoid of navel. 
Many writers have endeavoured to show that 
Adam and Eve must have been avo/u<pct\oi, as 
they could not have been nourished by umbi- 
lical vessels. 

ANONYME, Innominatum. 
ANON'YMOUS, Anon'ymus, innomina'tus, 
(F) Anonymc, from av priv. and ovopa,, 'name.' 
That which has no name. 

The word has been applied to many parts of 
the body : — to the Anonymous bone or Os inno- 
minatum : — the Anonymous foramen or Fora- 
men innominatum, fyc. 

ANOPS'IA, from *v priv. and a-^ ' the eye.' 
A case of monstrosity in which the eye and 
orbit are wanting-. 

ANOR'CHIDES, from *v priv. and og^/c, 
'a testicle.' Those born without testicles. — 
Fortunatus Fidelis. 

ANOREX'IA, from av priv. and o§e|-/c, 'ap- 
petite.' Inappctcn'tia, Limo'sis cxpers. (F) 
Perte d'appctit. Absence of appetite, without 
loathing. Anorexia or want of appetite is symp- 
tomatic of most diseases. Indigestion, Dyspep- 
sia (q. v.) 

Anorexia Exhaustorum, Frigidity of the 
stomach — a. Mirabilis, Fasting. 
ANORGANIC. See Inorganic. 
ANORMAL, Abnormous. 
ANO'SIA, from a. priv. and yoeref , ' disease.' 



AN'ODYNE, Anod'ynus, Antod'ynus, Antid'- 
ynous, (improperly) Paregor'icus, Hypnot?icus,\ Health. Freedom from disease 
7 



ANOSMIA 



50 



ANTHEMIS COTULA 



ANOS'MIA, from a. privative, and ca-ux, 
'odour.' Loss of smell. Diminution of the 
sense of smell. Called, also, Anosphre'sia, Pa- 
ros'mis, Olfac'tus, amis' sio, Dysasthc'sia olfac- 
to'ria, Odora'tus dcper'ditus, Caco'dia. 
ANOSPHRESIA, Anosmia. 
AJVSE (F), Ansa (L), signifies, properly, the 
handle of certain vessels, usually of an arched 
form. By analogy, it has been applied to that 
which is curved in the form of such handle. 
Thus, the French speak of — Arise intestinale, 
to signify a portion of intestine, supported by 
its mesentery, and describing a curved line : — 
also, Arise nerveuse, Arise Anastomotiquc, fyr,. 

Anse defd is used, in Surgery, to designate a 
thread, curved in form of an Anse. 
ANSER1NA, Potentilla anserina. 
ANSERINE, Chenopodium ambrosioides — a. 
Antkclmintique, Chenopodium anthelminticum 
— a. Bon Henri, Chenopodium Bonus Henricus 
— a. Botrys, Chenopodium Botrys — a. Fitidc, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ANSERINE VERMIFUGE, Chenopodium 
anthelminticum. 

ANTACIDS or ANTI-ACIDS, Anti- 
ac"ida. Remedies, which obviate acidity in 
the stomach. They are chemical agents, and 
act by neutralizing the acid. Those chiefly 
used are ammonia, calcis carbonas, calx, mag- 
nesia, magnesia; carbonas, potassa, potassa? bi- 
carbonas, p. carbonas, soda; bicarbonas, and s. 
carbonas. They are, of course, only palliatives, 
removing that which exists, not preventing the 
formation of more. 

ANTAG'ONISM, Antagonis'mus, from 
ctvrt, ' against,' and a.juvi£u\, ' to act.' Action 
in an opposite direction. It applies to the ac- 
tion of muscles which act in a contrary direction 
to others. In estimating the force of the mus- 
cles, this antagonism must be attended to. 

ANTAG'ONIST, Anlugonis'ta. A muscle, 
whose action produces an effect contrary to that 
of another muscle. Every muscle has its an- 
tagonist, because there is no motion in one di- 
rection without a capability of it in another. 
ANTALGICUS, Anodyne. 
ANTAPHRODIS'IAC and ANTAPHRO- 
DIT'IC, Antaphrodisiacus, from avrt, ' against,' 
and apgcJV/attic. 'aphrodisiac,' Antcroticus. A 
substance capable of blunting the venereal ap- 
petite. 

ANTAPOD'OSIS, from avraW/JV/, ' I 
return in exchange.' The succession and re- 
turn of febrile periods. — Hippocr. 

ANTATROPHTC, Antatroph'icus, Antia- 
troph'icus, from avti, ' against,' and arpoqix, 
' atrophy.' A remedy opposed to atrophy or 
consumption. 

ANTEBRACHIAL. See Antebrachial. 
ANTECENDEN'TIA. The precursory or 
warning symptoms of a disease. 

ANTELA'BIA, Prochei'la, from ante, 'be- 
fore,' and labia, ' the lips.' The extremity of 
the lips. 

ANTELOPE, Antilopus. 
ANTEMBALLOMENOS, Succedaneum. 
ANTEM'BASIS, from «vt<, mutually, and 
tjufixtvai, ' 1 enter.' Mu'tuus ingres'sus. The 
mutual reception of bones. — Galen. 
ANTEMETIC, Antiemetic. 
ANTENDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 



ANTENEAS'MUS, from *vt/, 'against, 
and h*v, 'audacious.' One furious against 
himself. Mania, in which the patient attempts 
his own life. — Zacchias. 

ANTENNA'RIA DIOICA, Calsfoot, Gna- 
pha'lium Dioicum, Hispid'ula, Pes'cati, Elich'- 
rysum monta'num (F) Pied de chat. A com- 
mon European plant, which has been advised 
in hemorrhage, diarrhoea, &c. 

ANTEPHIALTIC, Antiephialtic. 

ANTEP1LEPT1C, Antiepileptic. 

ANTEREIS1S, from a.vri, ' against,' and 
i^uSus, ' I support.' The resistance — the soli- 
dity — of bones. — Hippocr. 

ANTERIEUR DU MARTEAU. Laxator 
tympani — a. de V Oreille, Anterior auris. 

ANTE'RIOR, Ante'rior, And'cus. Situate 
before. Great confusion has prevailed with 
Anatomists in the use of the terms leforc, be- 
hind, &c. Generally, the word anterior is ap- 
plied to parts situate before the median line, 
the body being in the erect posture, with the 
face and palms of the hands turned forwards; 
and the feet applied longitudinally together. 

Ante'rior Au'ris Muscle, Auricula'ris ante'- 
rior, (F) Auriculaire anttrieur, Anttrieur de 
Vorcillc, Zygomato-07 iculaire. A small muscle, 
passing from the posterior part of the zygoma 
to the helix. Use. To draw the ear forwards 
and upwards. 

Antkrior Mallei, Laxator tympani. 

ANTEROTICUS, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTEUPHORB1UM, Cacalia anteuphor- 
bium. 

ANTEVER'SION, Antever'sio, from ante, 
' before,' and ver'terc, ' to turn.' Displacement 
of the uterus, in which the fundus is turned 
towards the pubes, whilst its orifice is towards 
the sacrum. It may be caused by extraordina- 
ry size of the pelvis, the pressure of the visce- 
ra on the uterus, &c; and is recognised by ex- 
amination per vaginam. See Retroversio uteri. 

ANTHEL1TRAGUS, (F) AntMlitragien, 
one of the proper muscles of the pavilion of the 
ear. 

ANT'HELIX or ANTI-HELIX, from * V t/, 
'before,' and s*/|. 'the helix.' An eminence 
on the cartilage of the ear, in front of the helix, 
and extending from the concha to the groove of 
the helix, where it bifurcates. 

ANTHELMIA, Spigelia Marilandica. 

ANTHELMINTIC. Antihclmin'ticus, An- 
liscvl'icus, Antivermino' sus , Vermif'vgus, Vei'- 
mifuge, from «»«, ' against,' and tx/uiv;, ' a 
worm.' A remedy which destroys or expels 
worms, or prevents their formation and deve- 
lopment. The chief anthelmintics are, the 
Chenopodium, Dolichos, Oleum animate Dip- 
pelu, Oleum Terebinthinae, Sodii Chloridum, 
Spigelia, and Pulvis Stanni. See Worms and 
Helminthagogues. 




C'ota, 

Mayweed., Stinking Chamomile. JYat. Ord. 

Composites Corymbiferce, Sex. Syst. Synsrene- 




aflect' ePUted l ° haVC bCen USeful in h y sterical 



ANTHEMIS NOBILIS 



51 



ANTHYPOCHONDRIAC 



An'themis No'bieis, Chamamdlum, Cha- 
mcrna'lum No'bilc, Chamomil'la Romu'na, Eu- 
an' tlicmon, An'themis, Chamame'lum odora'tum, 
Lcucan'themum, Matricaria, civSt/uin, avQ-iuh, 
(i" 1 ) Camomille Romaine. The leaves and 
flowers have a strong smell, and bitter, nau- 
seous taste. The flowers are chiefly used. 
They possess tonic and stomachic properties, 
and are much given as a pleasant and cheap 
bitter. A simple infusion is taken to produce 
or to assist vomiting. Externally, they are of- 
ten used in fomentations. 

The O'lf.um Anthem'idis possesses the aro- 
matic properties of the plant, but not the bitter 
and tonic. Consequently, the ' Chamomile 
Drops,' as sold by the druggists, must be devoid 
of the latter qualities. They are made by add- 
ing 01. anthem. §j. to Sp. 'cini rectif. Ibj. 

An'themis Pyke'thrum, Pyre'thrum, Pyrc'- 
thrum vcrum, Buphthal'mum crct'icum, Dcnta'- 
ria, Herba saliva'ris, Pes Alcxandri' nus , Span- 
ish Chamomile, Pellitory of Spain, (F) Pijr'ethre, 
Racine salivaire, Pied d' Alexandre. The root 
is hot and aciid ; its acrimony residing in a re- 
sinous principle. It is never used except as a 
masticatory in toothache, rheumatism of the 
face, paralysis of the tongue, &.c. It acts as a 
powerful sialagogue. 

An'themis Tincto'ria, Buphthalmi Herba, 
Dyer's Chamomile. A European plant. Has a 
bitter and astringent taste, and has been re- 
garded stomachic and vulnerary, (F) Camo- 
mille des Teinturiers, CEil de Bauf. 

AlNTHE'RA, *v3-»gs. A remedy com- 
pounded of several substances, myrrh, sanda- 
rac, alum, saffron. &c. It was used under the 
form of liniment, collyrium, electuary, and 
powder. — Celsus, Galen. 

ANTHEREON, Mentum. 

A1NTHORA VULGARIS, Aconitum an- 
thora. 

ANTHOS: see Rosmarinus — a. Sylvestris, 
Ledum sylvestre. 

AJNTHRA'CIA, from *v3-g«£, 'coal.' Car- 
bun' eular Exan'thtm. An eruption of tumours, 
imperfectly suppurating, with indurated edges, 
and, for the most part, a sordid and sanious core. 
A genus in the order Exanthematica; class Ha,- 
maticaof Good, and including Plague and Yaws. 

Anthracia, Anthracosis — a. Pestis, Plague 
— a. Rubula, Frarnboesia. 

ANTHRACION, see Anthrax. 

AN'THRACOlD,Jnthraco'des,rvom^3-^, 
'coal,' and etJos, 'resemblance,' (F) Churbon- 
neux. That which is black as a coal. That 
which is accompanied by, or resembles anthrax. 

ANTHROCOMA, Anthrax. 

ANTHRACOSiA, Anthrax. 

ANTHRACO'SIS, Anthra'cia, Carbo Pa/pe- 
bra'rum, from av3-g*£, 'a coal.' A species of 
carbuncle, which attacks the eyelids and globe 
of the eye. — Paulus of iEgina. Also carbuncle 
in ireneral. It has been used recently for the 
black lung of coal miners. 

ANTHRAKOK'ALI,fromavfip*£, 'coal,' and 
kali ' potassa,' an article recently introduced as 
a remedy in cutaneous diseases. It is formed by 
dissolving carbonate of potassa in 10 or 12 parts 
of boiling water, and adding as much slacked 
lime as will separate the potassa. The filtered 
liquor is placed on the fire in an iron vessel, and 



suffered to evaporate, until neither froth nor 
effervescence occurs, and the liquid presents a 
smooth surface like oil. To this, levigated coal 
is added in the proportion of 100 grammes to 193 
grammes of potassa. The mixture is stirred, 
and removed from the fire, and the stirrincr is 
continued, until a black homogeneous powder 
results. A sul phurctted anthrakohali is made by 
mixing accurately 16 grammes of sulphur with 
the coal, and dissolving the mixture in the potas- 
sa as directed above. The dose of the simple and 
sulphuretted preparations is about two grains 
three times a day. 

ANTHRAX, An'trax, Carbo, Rubinus vervs, 
Codescl'la, Eryt.he'ma gangrenosum, Grantris'- 
tum, Pruna, Per'sicus Ignis, Granatris'tum, 
Phyma anthrax, Erythc'ma anthrax, Carbun' cu- 
ius, Anthroco'sia, Anthrocoma, Absccs'sus gan- 
gramascens, A. gangrano'sus, Furun' cuius ma- 
lig'nus, F. gangranosus , Carbuncle, (F) Char- 
bon. An inflammation, essentially gangrenous, 
of the cellular membrane and skin, which may 
arise from an internal or external cause. In 
the latter case it is called by the French patho- 
logists, Pustule maligne, Anthra'cion, Ronton 
d'Alep, and is characterized at the outset by a 
vesication or bleb filled with a sero-sanguino- 
lent fluid, under which a small induration is 
formed, surrounded by an areolar inflammation, 
which becomes gangrenous. It has been 
thought by some to be induced altogether by 
contact with the matter of the carbuncle of ani- 
mals, or of the exuviae of bodies of such as had 
died with the disease. But it is now known to 
arise primarily in the human subject. 

Anthrax is a malignant boil, and its treat- 
ment is similar to that which is required in 
cases of gangrene attacking a part. 

ANTHROPE, Cutis. 

ANTHROPOCHYMY,Chymistry (human.) 

ANTHROPOGE'NIA, from ayS-gas-or, 
' man,' and ytveeri;, ' generation.' Knowledge 
or study of human generation. 

ANTHROPOL'OGY, Jinthropolo' gia, from 
av3-g»7rof, ' man,' and \oyo;, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on man. By some, this word is used 
for the science of the structure and functions 
of the human body. Frequently , it is employed 
synonymously with, — Natural History, and 
Physiology of man. 

ANTHROPOMANCY, Anthropomanti'a, 
from *y3-ga>;rt>c, ' a man,' and juaLvriix, ' divina- 
tion.' Divination by inspecting the entrails of 
a dead man. 

ANTHROPOM'ETRY, from a.v& t »iros, 'a 
man,' and /un^v, ' measure.' An acquaintance 
with the dimensions of the different parts of 
the human body. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGUS, from «o9-g*:rof f < a 
man,' and <p*yu>, ' I eat.' A name given to one 
who eats his own species. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGY, A nthropopha! gia , 
same etymon. The custom of eating human 
flesh. A disease in which there is a desire to 
eat it. 

ANTHROFOSCOPIA, Physiognomy. 

ANTHROPOTOMY, Andranatomia*. 

ANTHYPNOT'IC, Anthypnot'icus, from 
et\ti, ' against,' and t/a-va>T/fc<;c, ' stupefying.' A 
remedy for stupor. 

ANTIIYPOCHON'DRIAC, Avthypochon- 



ANTHYSTERIC 



52 



ANTI-ICTERIC 



dri'acus, from ctvn, 'against,' and uo-o^ovcty*- |A periodical phenomenon recurring at progres- 
»„. 'hypochondriac' A remedy for hypo- 1 sively shorter intervals. An anticipating tntet- 



chondriasis 

ANTHYST~ER'IC,Antihyster / ic,Anlihyster'- 
icus, from ctvrt, ' against,' and t/o-TSga, ' the ute- 
rus.' A remedy for hysteria. 

ANTI, a.\ni, as a prefix, in composition, gene- 
rally means ' opposition.' 

ANTIADES, Tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANTIADON'CUS, from *vrt*Stt, ' the ton- 
sils,' and oyitoc, ' tumour.' A swelling of the 
tonsils. — Swediaur. Anti'ager has a similar 



meaning. 

ANTIAPOPLEC'TIC, Antiapoplcc' ticus, 
from ctvri, ' against,' and ctirozrAx^/a, ' apoplexy.' 
A remedy for apoplexy. 

ANTIARIS TOXICARIA. See Upas. 
ANTIARTHRIT'IC, Antarthrit'ic, Antiar- 
thrit'icvs, Antipodagric, from avri, ' against,' 
and ag$-£tric, ' the gout,' (F) Antigoutteux. A 
remedy for gout. 

ANTIASTHMATIC, Antiasthmat'iais, from 
av<ri, ' against,' and aar^/mct, ' asthma.' A reme- 
dy for asthma. 

ANTIATROPHICUS, Antatrophic. 
ANTIBRA'CHIAL, Antibrachia'lis. That 
which concerns the fore-arm. Bichat. J. Clo- 
quet suggests that the word should be written 
antebrachial from ante, ' before,' and brachium, 
' the arm :' — as antebrachial region, antebrachial 
aponeurosis, &c. 

The Antebrachial Aponeurosis, (F) Apo- 
ndvrose, antebrachiale, is a portion of the aponeu- 
rotic sheath which envelops the whole of the 
upper limb. It arises from the brachial aponeu- 
rosis, from a fibrous expansion of the tendon of 
the biceps muscle, from the epicondyle, epi- 
trochlea, and, behind, from the tendon of the 
triceps brachialis. Within, it is inserted into 
the cubitus, &c ; and, below, is confounded 
with the two annular ligaments of the carpus. 
It is covered by the skin, by veins, lymphatics, 
and by filaments of superficial nerves; covers 
the muscles of the fore-arm, adheres to them, 
and sends between them several fibrous septa, 
which serve them for points of insertion. 

ANTIC ACH£C'TI<J,Anti-cachec'ticus,Anti- 
cacochym'ic, from mti, ' against,' and xap^eSist, 
'cachexy.' A remedy against cachexy. 
ANTICACOCHYMIC, Anticachectic. 
ANTICANCROSUS, Anticancerous. 
ANTICAN'CEROUS, Anti-cancer osus, An- 
ti-cancro'sus, Anti-carcinom'atous, from avTi. 
'against,' and KHQxivcepx, ' cancer,' carcinoma.' 
Opposed to cancer. 

ANTICARDIUM, Fossette du emir, Scrobi- 
culus cordis. 

ANTICARCINOMATOUS, Anticancerous 
ANTICATAR'RH AL, Anticatarrha' lis , from 
civri, ' against,' and x*<r«ggc?, 'catarrh.' A re- 
medy for catarrh. 

ANTICAUSOD'IC, Anti-causot'ic, Anti-cau- 
sodic2is, from avri, ' against,' and xuve-os , ' a 
burning fever.' A remedy for Causvs or in- 
flammatory fever. Jiinken speaks of a Sijru'- 
pus Anticausoficus. 

ANT1CAUSOTIC, Anticausodic. 
ANTICHE1R, Pollex. See Digitus. 
ANTICHOLERICA, Sophora heptaphylla. 



mittent is one in which the intervals between 
the paroxysms become progressively less. 
ANTICMEMION, Shin. 
AJVTICaiUU, Scrobiculus cordis. 
ANTICOL'IC, Anticol'icus, from avri, 
'against,' and aaAix-o;, ' the colic' That which 
is opposed to colic. 
ANTICUS, Anterior. 
AJVTIDARTREUX, Antiherpetic. 
ANTIDIARRHCE'IC, Anti-diurrhaficus. A 
remedy for diarrhoea. Opposed to diarrhoea. 

ANTIDIN'IC, Antidin'icus, from avrt, 
'against,' and Sivo;, 'vertigo.' Opposed to 
vertigo. 

ANTIDOTA'RIUM, from nvrtJorov, 'an an- 
tidote.' A Dispensatory. A Pharmacopoeia or 
Formulary, a Dispensatory, (q. v.) 

AN'TIDOTE.Antid'otnm, from *»ri, 'against,' 
and SiJa/ut, 'I give.' Originally this word sig- 
nified an internal remedy. It is now used sy- 
nonymously with counter-poison, and signifies 
any remedy capable of combating the effect of 
poisons, by decomposing them. 

ANTIDOTUM MITHRIDATICUM, Mith- 
ridate. 

ANTIDOTUM HERACLIDIS, Enneaphar- 
macos. 

ANT1DYNOUS, Anodyne. 
ANTIDYSENTER'IC, Anti-dysenier'icus, 
from avri, 'against,' Juc, ' with difficulty,' and 
ivn^ov, ' intestine.' Opposed to dysentery. 

ANTIEMETIC or ANTEMET'IC, Anti- 
cmel'icus, from civti, ' against,' and iy.ntx.o;, 
' emetic' A remedy for vomiting. 

ANTIEPHIAL'TIC or ANTEPHIAL'TIC, 
AnticphiaV ticus, from «xt/, ' against,' and t<pi- 
aKt«!, 'nightmare.' A remedy for nightmare. 
ANTIEPILEP'TIC or ANTEPILEP'TIC, 
Antiepilep' ticus, from avti, ' against,' and tnt- 
\x-\.ia, ' epilepsy.' A remedy for epilepsy. 
ANTIFEBR1L1S, Febrifuge. 
ANTIGALAC'TIC, Anti gal ac! ticus, Antilac'- 
tcus, from olvti, 'against,' and yx\ct, 'milk.' 
(F) Antilailcux. Opposed to the secretion of 
milk, or to diseases caused by the milk. 

ANTIG'ONI COLLYIVIUM NIGRUM, 
Black collyrium of Antig'onus. It was coin- 
posed of cadmia, antimony, pepper, verdioris, 
gum arabic, and water. 

ANTIHEC'TIC, Ardithcc'ticus, from «vt/, 
' against,' and i£tc, ' habit of bod v.' The Anti- 
hec'ticum Pote'rii is the white oxyd of antimo- 
ny : also called Diaphoret'icum Joria'le. 
ANT1HELM1NTICUS, Anthelmintic 
ANTIHEMORRHOID'AL, Antihcemorrhoi- 
dahs, from an;, ' against,' and *'/«op ? o/<fs?, 
' hemorrhoids.' A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

ANTIHERPET'lC.^/i^7/cr7>c/ / /c?/5fromavT<, 
'against,' and i § 7r« f , 'herpes.' (F) Antidar- 
trcux. A remedy for herpes. 



edy for hvdroph 
ANTIHYDROP'IC, Antihydroj/icus, fiom 
■jvti, against,' and vf^,' dropsy.' A reme- 
dy for dropsy. 

ANTIHYSTERIC, Antihysteric 
ANTI-ICTERIC, from *vt/, 'against,' and 



ANTICIPATING, Antic" ipans,Prolcpt'icus. urigoc, 'jaundice' ' A remedy for jaundice! 



ANTI-IMPETI GENES, &c. 



53 



ANTIMON1UM MURIATUM 



ANTI-1MPETIGENES, SOLOMON'S. See 
Liquor hydrargyri oxymuriatis. 

ANTILACTEUS, Antigalactic. 

AJXTI LA I TE UX, A n tigalac tic . 

ANTILEP'SIS, Apprehcn'sio, from avrixx/u- 
fiitvai, ' I take hold of.' The mode of attaching 
a bandage over a diseased part, by fixing it 
upon the sound parts. — Hippocrates. The 
mode of securing bandages. &c. from slipping 

ANTILITH'ICS, Antilith'ica, from *vt/, 
'against,' and xiQoc, 'a stone.' A substance 
that prevents the formation of calculi in the 
urinary organs. 

The chief antilithics — according as the calculi 
are lithic acid or phosphatic — are alkalies or 
acids; with revellents, especially change of 
air; tonics, especially the diosma crenata, (?) 
and uva ursi. (?) 

ANTILLY, MINERAL WATERS OF. A 
celebrated French medicinal spring, near 
Mcaux in France. The waters have not been 
analyzed ; but astonishing and chimerical ef- 
fects have been ascribed to them. 

A NT1 LOBIUM , Tiagus. 

ANTILOI'MIC, Antiloi' 'micus, Antipestilen- 
tia'lis, from *vt/, 'against,' and xajuoc, 'the 
plague.' A remedy for the plague. 

ANTIL'OPUS. The An'telope. (F) Gazelle. 
An African animal, whose hoofs and horns 
were formerly given in hysteric and epileptic 
cases. 

ANTILYSSUS. Antihydrophobic. 

A NTI M E LA NC HOL'I V,Antimclanchol'icus, 
from tati, 'against,' and /juMy^cKi-t, 'melan- 
choly.' A remedy for melancholy. 

AJYTIMOUYE, Antimonium— a. Bevrre d', 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Chlorure d', Anti- 
monium muriatum — a. Oxide blanc d\ Antimo- 
nium diaphoreticum — a. Soufre dori, d' , Anti- 
monii sulphuretum praecipitatum — a. Sulfure, 
hydrosulphure rouge d', Antimonii sulphuretum 
rubrum — a. Verve d 1 , Antimonii vitruin. 

ANTIMO'NIAL, Antimonia'lis, Stibia'lis, 
from Jlntimo'nium, ' antimony.' A composition 
into which antimony enters. A preparation of 
antimony. 

The Antimo'njal Powder, Pulvis antimo- 
nia'lis, Ox'idum antimo'nii cum phos'phate culcis, 
Plwsphas cakis stibia'tus, P. Cal'cicum stibia'- 
tum, Pulvis Jame'sii, Pulvis stibia'tus, Pulvis de 
phos'phate calcis ct stib'ii compos' itus , Factitious 
James's Powder, Schwanberg's Fever Powder, 
Chenevix's Antimonial Potcder. (F) Puudrc 
antimoniale composie ou de James. A peroxide 
of antimony combined with phosphate of lime. 
{Take of common sulphur et of antimony , Ibj ; 
hartshorn shavings, Ibij. Roast in an iron pot, 
until they form a gray powder. Put this into 
a long pot, with a small hole in the cover. 
Keep it in a red heat for two hours, and grind 
to a fine powder.) This preparation has long 
been esteemed as a febrifuge : but it is extremely 
uncertain in its action. The ordinary dose is 
G or 8 grains. 

ANTIMONIALE CAUST1CUM, Antimo- 
nium muriatum. 

ANTIMONIATUM SULPHUR. Antimonii 
sulphuretum praecipitatum — a. Tartar, Antimo- 
nium tartarizatum. 

ANTIMONII BUTYRUM, Antimonium 
muriatum — a. Calx, Antimonium diaphoreti- 



cum — a. Cerussa, Antimonium diaphoreticum 
— a. Murias, Antimonium muriatum — a. Oleum, 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Oxydulum hydro- 
sulphuratum aurantiacum, Antimonii sulphure- 
tum prcecipitatum — a. Oxydum, Algaroth — a. 
Oxydum auratum, Antimonii sulphuratum 
prajcipitatum — a. Oxidum nitro-muriaticum, 
Algaroth — Oxydum cum sulphure vitrifactum, 
Antimonii vitrum — a. Oxydum sulphuretum 
vitrifactum, Antimonii vitrum — a. Regulus 
medicinalis, Antimonium medicinale — a. Sal. 
Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Sulphur aura- 
tum, Antimonii sulphuretum praecipitatum — a. 
Sulphur proecipitatum, Antimonii sulphuretum 
prcecipitatum — a. Sulphuretum, Antimonium 
— a. Tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Tar- 
tras et Potassae, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. 
Vitrum hyacynthinum, Antimonii vitrum. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum PrjEcipita'tum, 
Sulphur antimonidtum, Hydrosulphure'tum sti- 
bio'sum cum sul'phurc, Oxo'des stib'ii sulphura'- 
tum, Oxyd'ulum antimo'nii hydrosulphura' turn 
aurantiacum, Ox'ijdum aura! turn antimo'nii, Sul- 
phure'tum stib'ii oxydula'ti, Hydro- sulfure' turn 
lu'teum ox'ydi stib'ii su.Jfura'ti, Sulphur antimo'- 
nii prmcipita'tum, Sulphur aura' turn antimo'nii, 
Golden Sulphur of Antimony. 

The Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Praicipita'tum, 
(Y) Soufre dori d Antimoinc, of the London 
Pharmacopoeia is nearly the same as the old 
Kcrmes Mineral. It is a powder of an ornnge 
colour, and of a metallic, styptic taste. It is 
emetic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, according to 
the dose, and has been chiefly used in chro- 
nic rheumatism and in cutaneous affections. 
Dose, gr. j to gr. iv. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Rubrum, Red 
Sul'phuret of An'timony, Hydrosul fur e' turn stib'ii 
rubrum, Sub-hydrosul'fas stib' ii , Hydrosulphure'- 
tum rubrum stib'ii sulphura'ti, Pulvis Carthu- 
siano'rum, Kcrmes mineral. (F) Hydrosulfure 
rouge d'Antimoine sulfure", Vermilion dc Pro- 
vence. Properties the same as the last. Dose, 
gr. j to gr. iv. 

Antimo'nii Vitrum, Glass of Antimony, An- 
timo'nii ox'ydum . sulphure'tum vitrifac' turn, 
Ox.'ydum stib'ii semivit'reum, Jlntimo'nium vitri- 
fac' turn, Ox'idum antimonii cum sul'phurc vitri- 
fac' turn, Vitrum stib'ii, Antimo'nii vitrum hyririn'- 
thinum, Oxyd'ulum stib'ii vitrcatum. (F) Vcrre 
d'Anlimoine. (Formed by roasting powdered 
common antimony in a shallow vessel over a 
gentle fire, till it is of a whitish gray colour, and 
emits no fumes in a red heat; then melting it, 
in a quick fire, into a clean, brownish-red 
glass.) It is used for preparing the tartarized 
antimony and antimonial wine. 

ANTIMONIOUS ACID, Antimonium dia- 
phoreticum. 

ANTIMO'NIUM, from avri, 'against,' and 
uovos, ' alone :' i. e. not found alone : or accord- 
ing to others, from uvri, 'against,' and moine, 
' a monk :' because, it is asserted, certain monks 
suffered much from it. Stibi, Stib'ium, Kcg'u- 
lus Antimo'nii, Miner a' Hum, Gyncecdum, Mag- 
nefsia Satur'ni, Marcasi'ta plum'bea, Plati/oph- 
thal'mon, Stim'mi, Aurum lepro'sum, Common 
Antimony, Sulpkuret of Antimony, Antimo'nium 
crudum, Antimo'nii sulphure'tum, Sulphure'tum 
stib'ii nigrum. (F) Antimoine. The sulphuret 
of antimony is the ore from which all the pre- 



ANTIMONIUM SALITUM 



54 



ANTIPHARMACON 



parations of antimony are formed. When pre- 
pared for medical use, by trituration and levi- 
gation, it forms a powder of a black, or bluish 
gray colour, which is insoluble. It is slightly 
diaphoretic and alterative, and has been used in 
chronic rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, &c. 

Antimonium Calcinatum, Antimonium dia- 
phoreticum. 

Antimo'nium Diaphorf.t'icum, Diaphorct'ic 
■Antimony, Antimo'nious Acid, Min'eral Bcz'oard, 
Anti mo' nium Calcina' 'turn , Mineral Diaphorct'ic, 
Mutiere perUe de kerkring, Peroxide of Anti- 
mony, Calx Antimo'nii, Antimo'nium diaphorct'- 
icum latum, Cerus'sa Antimo'nii calx, Anti mo' nil, 
elo'ta, Oxo'des stibii album, Ox'idum stibio'sum, 
Deutoxide of An' timony, Ox'idum stib'ii album me- 
dian'te nitro confectum. (F) Oxide blunc d'Anti- 
moine prepare par le moyen du nitre. (Common 
antimony, Ibj ; purified nitre, Ibiij. — Throw it by 
spoonfuls into a red-hot crucible ; powder and 
wash. The flowers that stick to the side of the 
crucible must be carefully separated, otherwise 
they render it emetic. Dose, gr. x to xxx. 

Antimo'nium Medicika'le, Reg'ulus Anti- 
mo'nii Medicina'lis, Medicinal Reg'ulus of Anti- 
mony. (Common Antimony, %v, Kali ppt. §i, 
Soda muriat. ffiv. Powder, mix, and melt. 
When cold, separate the scoriae at top, powder 
the mass, and wash it well.) It is conceived to 
be more active than common antimony. 

Antimo'nium Muria'tum, Antimo'nii Mu'- 
rias, Chlor'uret of An'timony, Chlorurc'tum 
stib' ii, Spuma trium draco' num, Dcuto-mu'rias 
stib'ii sublima'tus, Butter of Antimony, Muriate 
of Antimony, Chloride of Antimony, Buty'rum 
Antimo'nii, O'leum Antimo'nii, Buty'rum stib'ii, 
Caus'ticum antimonia' le ; Antimonium sali'tum. 
(F) Chlorure d' 'Anlimoine, Beurre d ' Antimoinc. 
('Common antimony and corrosive sublimate, 
of each equal parts : grind together, and distil 
in a wide-necked retort, and let the butyraceous 
matter that comes over, run, in a moist place, 
to a liquid o'\\.) A caustic, but not much used 
as such. Sometimes taken as poison. 

Antimonium Salitum, Antimonium muria- 
tum. 

Antimo'nium Tartariza'tum, Tartris Anti- 
mo'nii, Tartar Antimonia! turn, Sal Antimo'nii, 
Tartrus Potas'sa stibio'sus seu stibia'lis, Tartris 
lixiv'ia stibia'tus, Dcuto-tartras potas'sa et stib'ii, 
Tartarizcd Antimony, Emetic Tartar, Tartar 
Emetic. (F) Tartrc stibie' , Turtrc Emitiquc, Rmi- 
tique. In some parts of the United States, vul- 
garly and improperly called Tartar: Tur'turus 
cmct'icus, Tur'turum emet'icum, Turtr us antimo'- 
nii, Tartras Antimo'nii et Potassa. (Glass of 
Antimony, Cream of Tartar, each Ibj ; water, one 
gallon. Boil, filter, and crystallize. — Ph. L. 
1824.) 

Tartarized antimony is emetic, sometimes 
cathartic and diaphoretic. Externally, it is 
rubefacient. Dose, as an emetic, gr. j to gr. iv. 
in solution: — as a diaphoretic, gr. one sixteenth 
to gr. one-quarter. 

The empirical preparation, called Norris's 
Drops, consists of a solution of tartarizcd anti- 
mony in rectified spirit, disguised by the addi- 
tion of some vegetable colouring matter. 

Antimonium Vitrifactum, Antimonii vi- 
trum. 

ANTIMONY, BUTTER OF, Antimonium 



muriatum— a. Chloride of, Antimonium muria- 
tum— a. Chloruret of, Antimonium muriatum— 
a. Deutoxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum— a. 
Glass of, Antimonii vitrum— a. Golden sulphur 
of, Antimonii sulphuretum pra?cipitatum— a. 
Medicinal, regulus of, Antimonium medicinale 
— a. Muriate of, Antimonium muriatum — a. 
Peroxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Submuriate of protoxide of, Algaroth — a. Sul- 
phuret of, red, Antimonii sulphuretum rubrum 
— a. Tartarized, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. 
Vegetable, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

ANTINEPHRIT'IC, Antinephret'ic, Antinc 
phretficus, from a.vri, ' against,' and v£<?g/T/c, ' ne- 
phritis.' A remedy for inflammation or pain of 
the kidney. 

ANTINEUROPATHIC, Nervine. 

ANT1 NEUROTIC, Nervine. 

ANTI'OCril HI'ERA. A preparation ex- 
tolled by the ancients in melancholy, hydro- 
phobia, epilepsy, &c. It was formed of ger- 
mander, agaric, pulp of colocynth, Arabian 
stcechas, opoponax, sagapenum, parsley, aristo- 
lochia, white pepper, cinnamon, lavender, 
myrrh, honey, &c. 

Anti'ochi Theriaca. A theriac employed 
by Antiochus against every kind of poison. 
It was composed of thyme, opoponax, millet, 
trefoil, fennel, aniseed, nigella sativa, &c. 

ANTIODONTAL'GIC, Antodontal'gic, Ant- 
odontal' gicus, Odontalgic, Odonl'ic, Antiodon- 
tal'girus, from aLvn, 'against,' and oSovrax^iat., 
' toothache.' A remedy for toothache. 

ANTIORGAS'TIC, Antiorgas'licus, from 
avT/, ' against,' and o^yua>, ' I desire vehe- 
mently.' A remedy for orgasm or erethism, 
and for irritation in general. 

ANTIPARALY'TIC, Antiparalyt'icus, from 
civrt, 'against,' and ?nt£a.>>v<ri; ) 'palsy.' Op- 
posed to palsy.' 

ANTIPATHI'A, from *vt,, ' against,' and 
Trafioc, ' passion, affection.' Aversion. A na- 
tural repugnance for any person or thing. 

ANTIPATH'IC, Antipath'icus. (F) Jlnti- 
pathique. Belonging to antipathy. ' Opposite, 
contrary ;' as ' Humcurs Antipathiqucs .' Hu- 
mours opposed to each other; also, palliative, 
(q.v.) 

ANTIP'ATRI THERIACA, Theriac of An- 
tipater. A farrago of more than 40 articles: 
used as an antidote against the bites of serpents. 

ANTIPERISTALTIC, Antiperistal'ticus, 
Antivcrmic'ular, from a» T i, ' against,' and ttiput- 
jihxu,, < I contract.' An inverted action of the 
intestinal tube. 

ANTIPERIS'TASIS, from «»«, 'against,' 
and 7rf ? /crT*5-/c, 'reunion, aggregation.' A 
union of opposite circumstances: the action of 
two contrary qualities, one of which augments 
the force of the other. 

The Peripateticians asserted, that it is by 
Ant.per.stas.s^that fire is hotter in winter than 
in summer. Theophrastus attributes the cause, 
which renders men more vigorous, and makes 
them digest more readily in winter to the aug- 

ANTnVp^^ Sed b -V Antiperistasis. 
ANTIPERTUSS1S, see Zinci stilnrn* 

ANriPHAR'MACON, from „ TJ , « against,' 
and <p^«*v 'poison.' A counter-poison 
An antidote.— Dioscorides. 



ANTIPHARMACUS 



ANUS 



ANTIPHARMACUS, Alcxipharmic. 

ANTlVIlLOGlS'TlC,Antiphlogis'ticus,fiom 
ctvri, ' against,' and <p\iya>, ' 1 burn.' Opposed 
to inflammation;— as Antiphlogistic remedies, 
A . regimen, &.c. 

ANTIPHTHIS'ICAL, Antiphthis'icus, from 
*vt<, ' against,' and q>3-«r/{, < consumption.' Op- 
posed to phthisis. 

ANTIPHYSICA, Carminatives. 

AlNTIPHYS'ICAL, Antiphys'icus, from *vti, 
' against,' and <pu<rea>, ' I blow.' An expeller of 
wind : a carminative, (q. v.) 

It has also been used for any thing preter- 
natural ; here, the derivation is from a\m, 
'against,' and <pvo-it, 'nature.' The French 
sometimes say, ' Un gout untiphisiquc.' 1 

ANTI PLEURITIC, AntipkureHicus, Anti- 
plcurcl'ic, from ttvrt, 'against,' and Trteupiri;, 
' pleurisy.' Opposed to pleurisy. 

ANTI PODAGRIC, Antiarthritic. 

ANTIPRAX'IS, from ctvri, ' against,' and 
Tr^ao-o-G), 'I act.' A contrary state of different 
parts in the same patient: e. g. an increase of 
heat in one organ, and diminution in another. 

ANTIPSOR'IC, Antipso'ricus, from *vt/, 
'against,' and ^aga, 'the itch.' (F) Antiga- 
leux. Opposed to the itch. 

ANTIPUTRID, Antiseptic. 

ANTIPY'IC, Antipificus, from aviv, 'against,' 
and ?rvc,v, ' pus.' Opposed to suppuration. 

ANTIPYRETIC, Antipyret'icus, from «» T /, 
'against,' and ttu^stoc, 'fever.' A febrifuge, (q.v.) 

ANTIPYROTIC. Antipyrot'icus, from avri, 
' against,' and irvg, ' fire.' Opposed to burns. 

ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM, Antiquar' ticum. 
A remedy formerly used against? quartan fever. 

ANTIRACHITIC, Antirachit'icus, from 
avri, ' against," and rachitis. Opposed to ra- 
chitis, or rickets. 

ANTIRHI'NUM LINA'RIA, Lina'ria, Osy- 
ris, Urina'ria, Common Toad Flax. (F) Li- 
naire. The leaves have a bitterish taste. They 
are reputed to be diuretic and cathartic. An 
ointment made from them has been extolled in 
hemorrhoids. 

The Antirrhi'num Elat'ine, Elati'nc, Flu- 
ellcn or Female Speedwell, was formerly used 
against scurvy and old ulcerations. 

ANTISCOLICUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCORBU'TIC, Antiscorbu' tkus , from 
avri, 'against,' and scorbutus, 'the scurvy.' 
Opposed to scurvy. 

ANTISCROF'ULOUS, Antislrumo'sus. Op- 
posed to scrofula. 

ANTISEP'TIC, Antisepticus, Antiputrid, 
from a.vri, ' against,' and o-httto;, ' putrid.' An- 
tiputredino' sus . Opposed to putrefaction. The 
chief Antiseptics, internally or externally em- 
ployed, are the Acidum Muriaticum, Acidum 
Nitricum, Acidum Sulphuricum, Carbo Ligni, 
Calcis Chloridum, Chlorinum, Cinchona and 
its active principles, Creasote, Dauci Radix, 
Fermentum Cerevisiae, and Sodae Chloridum. 

ANT1SPASIS, Revulsion. 

ANTISPASMODIC, Antispasmodics, from 
avrt, 'against,' and irs-tmi, 'I contract.' Op- 
posed to spasm. 

The whole operation is probably revulsive. 

The following are the chief reputed anti- 
spasmodics. iEther Sulphuricus, Asafcetida, 
Castoreum, Dracontium, Galbanum, Moschus, 



Olea Essentialia, Oleum Animale Dippelii, Pe- 
troleum, Sagapenum, Spiritus JEtheris Nitrici, 
Succinum, Valeriana— with the mental anti- 
spasmodics, abstraction, powerful emotions, 
fear, &c. 

Of direct antispasmodics, we have not an 
example. 

ANTISPASTIC, Derivative. 

ANTISTERIG'MA, from *vt/, ' against,' 
and (rT-i^iy/ua, 'a support.' A fulcrum, sup- 
port, crutch. — Hippocrates. 

ANTISTER'NUMjfrom *»«, 'against,' and 
o-regvot, ' the sternum.' The back. — Rufus. 

ANTISTRUMOSUS, Antiscrofulous. 

ANTISYPHILITIC, Antisyphilit'icus, Anti- 
syphilit'ic, from avri, ' against,' and si/pliilis, 
' the venereal disease.' Opposed to the vene- 
real disease. 

ANTITAS1S, Counter-extension. 

ANTITHENAR, Opponens pollicis— a. Me- 
tatarso-sub-phalangajus pollicis, Adductor pol- 
licis pedis. 

ANTITHORA, Aconitum anthora. 

ANTITRAG'ICUS, or ANTITRA'GEUS, 
(F) Muscle de l' Antitragus, M. antitragien. — Ch. 
Belonging to the Antitragus. A small muscle 
is so called, the existence of which is not con- 
stant. It occupies the space between the anti- 
tragus and anthelix. 

AJYTlTRJlGfEJY, Antitragicus. 

ANTITRAGUS, from *vt/, 'opposite to,' 
and r%*.yc;, ' the tragus.' A conical eminence 
on the pavilion of the ear, opposite the tragus. 

ANTITYP'IA, from «vt<, 'against,' and 
Tv7na>, ' I strike.' Resistance. Hardness. 

ANTIVENE'REAL,.tfn^eneVcw<?,frornavT/, 
' against,' and Venus, 'Venus.' The same as 
Antisyphilitic. Formerly it was used synony- 
mously with Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTIVERMICULAR, Antiperistaltic. 

ANTIVERMINOSUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTODONTALGIC, Antiodontalgic. 

ANTODYNUS, Anodyne. 

ANTRAX, Anthrax. 

AJYTRE, Antrum — a. d'Hyghmore, Antrum 
of Highmore. 

ANTRUM. ' A cavern,' Cavern' a (q. v.) Bar 1 - 
athrum, (F) Autre. A name given to certain cavi- 
ties in bones, the entrance to which is smaller 
than the bottom. 

Antrum of Highmore, Antrum Highmoria'- 
num, Antrum Gentc, Antrum maxilla' re vel max- 
illa: supcrio'ris, Genyan'trum. The Maxillary 
Sinus, Sinus gena pituita' rius . (F) Antre 
d'Hyghrnorc, Sinus Mazillaire. A deep cavity 
in the substance of the superior maxillary bone 
communicating with the middle meatus of the 
nose. It is lined by a prolongation of the 
Schneiderian membrane. 

Antrum Auris, Tympanum — a. Buccino- 
sum, Cochlea, Labyrinth — a. Pylori, see Sto- 
mach. 

ANULUS, Fossette. 

ANURIA, Ischuria. 

ANUS, Podcx, Potcr, Mol'yne, Cath'edra, 
Cijr'ceon, Cys'saros, Cysthos, Hedra, Proctos, 
Archos, Sedcs, Cuius. The circular opening 
situate at the inferior extremity of the rectum, 
by which the excrement is expelled. The fun- 
dament. The scat. The body. 

Anus also signifies the anterior orifice of the 



ANUS 



56 



APEUTHYSMENOS 



Aqueduct of Sylvius. By some, this Anus, 
called also Foru'men commu'ne poste'rius, has 
been supposed to form a communication be- 
tween the back part of the third ventricle and 
the lateral ventricles. It is closed up, however, 
by the tela choroidea, and also by the fornix, 
which is intimately connected to this. The 
foramen is situate between the commissura 
mollis of the optic thalami and the pineal gland. 
Anus, Artificial. An opening made artifici- 
ally, in case of the rectum being wanting, to 
supply the natural anus. The term is often 
used to include also the following. 

Anus, Preternatural , (F) Anus contre nature 
or A. anorrnal. An accidental opening which 
gives issue to the whole or to a part of the 
faeces. It may be otving to a wound, or, which 
is most common, to gangrene attacking the 
intestine in a hernial sac. 

This term is also employed, as well as Anus 
devie, devious anus, to the case where the anus, 
instead of being in its natural situation, is in 
some neighbouring cavity, as the bladder, va- 
gina, &c. 

Anus, Imperforate. A malformation in which 
there is no natural anus. See lmperforation. 

Anus, Contracted, (F) Anus ritrici. A state 
of the anus when, from some cause, it is con- 
stricted. 

ANXI'ETY, Anxi'etas, Anxietude, Adamo'- 
nia, Dyspho'ria anxi'etas, Ahjs'mvs, Al'yce, 
Al'ysis, Ase. A state of restlessness and agita- 
tion, with general indisposition, and a distress- 
ing sense of oppression at the epigastrium. 
Inquietude, anxiety, and anguish, represent de- 
grees of the same condition. 

AOCHLE'SIA, from a. priv. and o%hoe, ' dis- 
turbance,' Tranquillity. Calmness. 

AOR'T A, Arte'ria magna, A. crassa, A. maxi- 
ma. (F) Aorte. This name was given by Aris- 
totle to the chief artery of the body. It may 
have been derived from uo^Ticjuai, ' I am sus- 
pended,' as it seems to be suspended from 
the heart: or from «ng, 'air,' and r rngta>, 'I 
keep,' because it was supposed to contain 
air. It is probable, that Hippocrates meant 
by aogTcu, the bronchia and their ramifica- 
tions. The Aorta is the common trunk of the 
arteries of the body. It arises from the left 
ventricle of the heart, about opposite the fifth 
dorsal vertebra, passes upwards (ascending 
Aorta), forms the great arch of the Aorta, and 
descends along the left of the spine (descending 
Aorta), until it reaches the middle of the fourth 
or fifth lumbar vertebra, where it bifurcates, to 
give origin to the common iliacs. The Aorta 
is sometimes divided into the Thoracic or pec- 
toral, and the Abdominal. For the arteries 
which arise from it, &c, see Artery. 

AORTEURYS'MA, from acg™, 'the aorta,' 
and et/gt/c, ' dilated.' Aneurism of the Aorta. 
By carefully ausculting over the dorsal verte- 
bras, a bellows' sound, with a deep and not al- 
ways perceptible impulse, may be detected. 

AOR'TIC, Aor'ticus. Relating to the Aorta. 
The Aortic ventricle, (F) Ventricle aortique, is 
the left ventricle. The Aortic valves are the 
sigmoid valves at the origin of the Aorta, &c 

AORTI'TIS, Inflamma'tioAor'ta, from Aorta 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of the aorta. 



AORTRA, AORTRON, aog-rg*, *ogTg*v. A 
lobe of the lungs.— Hipp- 

APAG'MA, Apoclas'ma, Apocccauhs menon, 
from a.n-0, ' from,' and *>*, ' I remove.' Separa- 
tion, abduction, (q. v.) Separation of a frac- 
tured bone— Galenus, Foesius. 

APAGOGE, Inductio. 

APALACHINE, Ilex vomitoria— a. afeuilles 
de Prunier, Prinos— a. Gallis, Ilex vomitoria. 

APAL'LAGE, from aTra^i-Tai, ' I change.' 
Mutation, change. It is generally taken in a 
good sense, and means the change from disease 
to health. — Hippocr. 

APALOTICA, from «wr<*\0TJK, 'softness, 
tenderness.' Fortuitous lesions or deformities 
affecting the soft parts. The first Order in the 
Class Tychica, of Good. 

APANTHIS'MUS, from atto, 'from,' and 
ay9e<», 'I flower.' The obliteration of parts, 
previously inservient to useful purposes, as of 
the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, 
which are essential to fostal existence, but are 
subsequently unnecessary. See, also, Stuprum. 

APANTHRO'PIA, from avo, 'from,' and 
uvS-^uttqc , ' man.' Detestation of man ; desire 
for solitude. — Hippocrates. One of the symp- 
toms of hypochondriasis. 

APAPHRISMOS, Despumation. 

APARACH'YTUM VFNUM, from * priv. 
and tra/ia^yai, ' I pour over.' The purest wine : 
that which has not been mixed with sea-water. 
— Galen. 

APARINE, Gnlium aparine. 

APARTHROS1S, Diarthrosis. 

AP'ATHY, Apathi'a, from a. priv. and m- 
9-0?, ' affection.' (F) Apathie. Accidental sus- 
pension of the moral feelings. It takes place 
in very severe diseases, particularly in malig- 
nant fevers. 

APECHE'MA, from atto, 'from,' and h^oc, 
'sound.' Properly the action of reflecting 
sound. In Medicine, it is synonymous with 
the Latin Contraftssu'ra. A counter-fissure, a 
counter-blow. — Gcrrams, Celsus. 

APECTOCEPHALUS, Acephalothorus. 

APEL'LA or APPEL' L A, Leipodermos, from 
a. priv. and pellis, ' skin.' One whose prepuce 
does not cover the glans. — Galenus, Linnaeus, 
Vogel. Retraction or smallness of any other 
soft appendage. — Sagar. 

A PEPSI A, Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIEiNT, Ape'riens, Aperiti'vus, from 
aperire, ' to open.' A laxative, (q. v.) (F) Ape- 
ritif. A medicine which gently opens the bow- 
els. The term had, formerly, a much more ex- 
tensive signification, and was given to every 
substance supposed to have the power of open- 
ing any of the passages, and even the blood- 
vessels. 

APERIS'TATON, Apcris 1 latum, from a. pri- 
vative, and mgitrTufxi, 'I surround.' An epi- 
thet for an ulcer not dangerous or considerable, 
or surrounded by inflammation. 

APAR1T1F, Aperient. 

APERITIVUS, Aperient. 

APERTOR OCULI, Levator palpebral supe- 
riors. r 

APERTO'RIUM, from aperio,' I open.' An 
instrument for dilating the os uteri during la- 

APEUTHYSMENOS, Rectum. 



APEX 



57 



APOCATHARSIS 



APEX. The point or extremity of a part: — 
as the apex of the tongue, nose, &c. 

AITLEILESIS, Apheresis, Extirpation. 

APHASSOM'ENOS, from * 9a *cru>, ' I touch, 
I feel.' The touching of the parts of generation 
of the female as a means of diagnosis. — Hip- 
poer. See Esaphe. 

APHELI'A, *<pea;k, 'simple.' Simplicity. 
The simple manners of the sect of Methodists 
in teaching and practising Medicine. 

APHELX'IA, from ^ewt*, 'I abstract.' Vo- 
luntary inactivity of the whole or the greater 
part of the external senses to the impressions 
of surrounding objects, during wakefulness. 
Rcvery, (F) Reverie. 

Dr. Good has introduced this into his Noso- 
logy, as well as Ajihd.i'ia sucors or absence of 
■mind — A. inten'ta or abstraction of mind: and A. 
otio'sa, Stu'dium inafne, brown study or listless 
musing. 

APUEPSEMA, Decoction. 

APHEPS1S, Decoction. 

APHES1S, Languor, Remission. 

APH E'RESIS or APPLE'RESIS, from *.<p*t- 
gia>, ' I take away.' An operation by which any 
part of the body is separated from the other. 
Hippocrates, according to Foesius, uses the ex- 
pression .Ip/ucrcsis Sanguinis, for excessive he- 
morrhage; and Sennertus, to express the condi- 
tion of an animal deprived both of the faculties 
of the mind and of the mind itself. 

APH'ESIS, from a.qi„ut, ' 1 relax.' A remis- 
sion. This word expresses sometimes the di- 
minution or cessalion of a disease; at others, 
languor and debility of the lower extremities. 
See Languor and Remission. 

APHILAN'THROPY, Aphilanthro'pia, from 
a. privative, qihsie, 'I love,' and *vS-»aj;ro?, 'a 
man.' Dislike to man. Love of solitude. Vogel 
lias given this name to the first degree of me- 
lancholy. 

APH1STESIS, Abscess. 

APHODOS, Excrement. 

APHONIA, Mutitas, Catalepsy— a. Surdo- 
rum, Mutitas Surdorura. 

APHORlA^Sterilitas. 

APHOR'ME, a<t>o^y.>i, 'occasion.' The ex- 
ternal and manifest cause of any thing. The 
occasional cause of a disease. — Hippocrates. 

APHRO'DES, dKfgctiSiis, ' frothy,' from aqipoe, 
' foam,' and eiSoc, ' resemblance.' Applied to 
the blood and the excrements. — Hippocrates. 

APHRODISIA, Coition, Puberty. 

APHRODISTAC, Aphrodisiacus, from Aqgo- 
J'ith, ' Venus.' (F) Aphrodisiaque. Medicine 
or food believed to be capable of exciting to the 
pleasures of love; as ginger, cantharides, &c. 
They are generally stimulants. 

APHRODISLA*CUS, Venereal. 

AP11RODISIASMUS, Coition. 

APHRODISIOG'RAPHY, from A<pg«.fm, 
' Venus,' and yg*qa>, ' 1 describe.' Etymolo- 
gically, this term means a description of the 
pleasures of love, but it has been placed at the 
head of a work describing the venereal disease. 

APHROG' ALA, from <*^oc, 'foam,' and y*Ka, 
'milk.' Lac spumosum. A name formerly given 
to milk rendered frothy by agitation. 

\ I'll RON I A. Apoplexy. 

APHRONITRUM, Soda. 

-U'llllOSYNE, Insanity. 



Aphthcux. 
with Aph- 



APHTH7E or APHT/E, Apthrn, from a*™, 
'I inflame.' The Thrush or sore mouth. Aph- 
tha lactu'eimen, Em'phlysis aphtha, Ulcera ser- 
pentia Oris, Pus'tula oris, Febris aphlho'sa, 
Angina aphtho'sa, Vcsic'ula gingiva' rum, Ty- 
phus apkthoideus, Follicular stomati'tis. It 
consists of roundish, pearl-coloured vesicles 
confined to the lips, mouth, and intestinal canal| 
and generally terminating'in curd-like sloughs. 
In France, the Aphtha; of children, Jiphthes des 
cufaus, is called Muguct, and Catarrhe buccal: 
and generally receives two divisions— the mild 
or discreet, (F) Muguct beniu ou discret, and the 
malignant. (F) Muguct malin ou confluent, the 
Black Thrush. Common Thrush is a disease of 
no consequence, requiring merely the use of ab- 
sorbent laxatives. The malignant variety, which 
is rare, is of a more serious character, and is 
accompanied with typhoid symptoms. 
Apiith/k Skkpentes, Cancer aquaticus. 
APHTHES DES EJYFANS, Aphthce. 
APTITHFUX, Aphthous. 
APHTHOUS, Aphtho'sus, (F) 
Belonging to Aphtha; complicated 
tha. As Aphthous Fever. 
APIASTRUM, Melissa. 
APICES CRURUM MEDULLA OBLON- 
GATA, Corpora striata. 
A PILEPSI A, Apoplexy. 
APIOS, Pyrus communis. 
AITS, Bee. 

AITTES, aw<TJ)f, from &7riov, ' a pear.' Perry. 
— Gorroeus. 

APIUM GRAV'EOLENS, Apium, Paluda'- 
pium, Beli'num, Smallage. (F) Ache. Nat. Ord. 
Umbelliferae. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. 
The plants, roots, and seeds are aperient and 
carminative. 

The Selery is a variety of this. 
Apium Yktrmvm, Bubon Macedonicum. 
Apium Petroseli'num, A'pium Horten'se, 
Elcosc/i'numQ'), Grielum; the Petroseli'num or 
Common Parsley. (F) Persil. The roots and 
seeds are diuretic and aperient. 

APLESTIA, Ingluvies, Intemperance. 
APLEU'KOS, from a. privative, and 7r\tveoc, 
'a rib.' One without ribs. — Hippocrates. Galen. 
APLOTOMY , Aploto'mia, from oL7r>.oos, 'sim- 
ple,' and TSitva), ' I cut.' A simple incision. 
APNEUSTIA, Apncea, Asphyxia. 
APNOS'A, from a. privative, and srvs&i, ' I re- 
spire.' Absence of respiration, or insensible 
respiration. — Asphyxia, Apneustia: also, Or- 
thopnea, (q. v.) 

APNCESPHYXIA, Asphyxia. 
APNUS, a^vocc. One devoid of respiration. 
An epithet applied by authors to cases in which 
the respiration is so small and slow, that it 
seems suspended. — Castelli. It is probable, 
however, that the word was always applied to 
the patient, not to the disease. 

APO, a.7ro, a prefix, denoting 'from, of, off, 
out.' Hence — 
APOBAINON, Eventus. 
APOBESOMENON, Eventus. 
APOBIOS1S, Death. 
APOCAPNISMUS, Fumigation. 
APOCATASTASIS, Considentia, Restau- 
ratio. 

APOCATHARSIS, Catharsis. 
APOCATHARTICUS, Cathartic. 



APOCATHARTICUS 



58 



APOPALLESIS 



APOCECAULISMENON, Apagma. 

APOCENO'SlS,from a-rro, 'out,' and xevt»<ric, 
'evacuation.' A partial evacuation, according 
to some, in opposition to Cenosis, which signi- 
fies a general evacuation. — Cullen and Swe- 
diaur apply it to morbid fluxes. 

Apocenosis, Abevacuatio — a. Diabetes melli- 
tus, see Salivation — a. Vomitus pyrosis, Pyrosis. 

APOCHOREON, Excrement. 

APOCHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 

APOCH'YMA, from a^o^sa, ' 1 P our out -' 
A sort of tar, obtained from old ships; and 
which is impregnated with muriate of soda. — 
Aetius, Paulus, Gorrteus. 

APOCIN GOBE-MOUCHE, Apocynum an- 
drossemifolium. 

APOCLASMA, Abduction, Apagma. 

APOCOPE, from cnro, and no?nttv, ' to cut.' 
Abscission, (q. v.) A wound with loss of sub- 
stance. Fracture, with loss of part of the bone. 
Amputation. 

APOCR1SIS, Contagion, Excrement, Secre- 
tion. 

APOCRUSTICA, Repellents. 

APOCYESIS, Parturition. 

APOCROUS'TIC, Apocrous'tka remedia, 
from cnro, 'out,' and x^ova, ' 1 push.' An as- 
tringent and repellent. — Galenus. 

APOCYNUM ANDROSiCMlFO'LlUM, 
Dog's Bane. (F) Apocin gobe-mouche. Nat. 
Ord. Apocynes. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Di- 
gynia. The root of this plant is found from 
Canada to Carolina. Thirty grains evacuate the 
stomach as effectually as two-thirds of the 
amount of Ipecacuanha, by which name it is 
known in various parts of the eastern states. 
It is in the secondary list of the Pharmacopeia 
of the United States. 

Apoc"ynum Cannab'inum, Indian Hemp. 
This American plant possesses emetic, cathar- 
tic, diaphoretic and diuretic properties, and 
has been strongly recommended in dropsy. 
It has been given in decoction, — ^ij of the root 
boiled in three pints of water to two. A wine- 
glassful for a dose. 

Apocynum Scandens, Allamanda. 

APODACRYT'ICUS, Deluchrymati'vus, 
from ano, ' from,' and ixxgvm, ' I weep.' A sub- 
stance, supposed to occasion a flow of the tears, 
and then to arrest them. — Columella, Pliny, 
Galenus. 

APODYTE'RIUM, Coniste'rium, Spoliato'- 
num, Spolia'rium, from an-oJW, ' I strip off.' 
The ante room, where the bathers stripped 
themselves in the ancient Gymnasia. 

APOGALACTlS.VlUS, Weaning. 

APOGALACTOS, Exuber. 

APOGEUSIS, Ageustia. 

APOGEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

APOGLAUCOSIS, Glaucosis. 

APOG'ONUM, from atto, and yivo/uut, < I 
exist.' A living fcetus in utero. — Hippocrates. 

APOLEP'SlS, from u7roKrtfx[i-x)ia), ' I retain.' 
Retention, suppression. — Hippocrates. As- 
phyxia. 

APOLEX'IS, from ctTrohvyu, ' I cease.' Old 
age, decrepitude. 

APOLINO'SIS, from htvov, ' a flaxen thread.' 
The mode of operating for Fistula in ano, by 
means of a thread of Homolinon or Linum cru- 
dum. — Hippocrates, Paulus. 



APOLLINAR'IS ALTERCUM, Ilyoscya- 

mus. 

APOLUTICA, Cicatnsantia. 

APOLYS'lA or APOI/YS1S, from a^sM/a., 
'I loosen.' Solution. Relaxation: debility of 
the limbs or looseness of bandages.— Erotian. 
Expulsion of the foetus and its dependencies. 
Termination of a disease. —Hippocrates, Galen. 

APOMATHF/MA or APOMATtlE'SIS, 
from a.7ro, and fxuvSaw, ' I learn.' Forgetful- 
ness of things taught. — Hippocr. 

APOM'ELI, from cnro, 'of,' and fAtxi, 'ho- 
ney.' An oxymel (q. v.) or decoction made of 
honey. — Galen, Aetius. Paulus, &c. 

APOMUXIS, Munctio. 

APOMYLE'.NAS,fromtf5ro,MvxAtf<v&),'l make 
a wry mouth.' One who pushes his lips for- 
wards, pressing them against each other. Occa- 
sionally a symptom of nervous fever. — Galen, 
Erotian. 

APOMYTHO'SIS, from *7rojuu<r<ru>, 'I snore.' 
A disease in which there is Stertor. — Sau- 
vages, Sagar. 

APONEUROG'RA PHY, Aponeurogra'phia, 
from oL7roviv£m<rtz, an ' aponeurosis,' and ■}§*<$», 
' a desciiption.' A description of the Aponeu- 
roses. 

APONEUROL'OGY, Aponeurolo' gia, from 
ijrovtupiDO-is , ' an aponeurosis, and hoyoc, ' a dis- 
course.' Aponeurosiology. The Anatomy of 
the Aponeuroses. 

APONEUROSIOLOGY, Aponeurology. 

APONEUROSIS orA PONE VRO'SIS, from 
cnro, ' from,' and nvgov, ' a nerve.' Pronervu'- 
tio, Exp an 1 - ' sio ncrvo'sa. (F) Aponeurose, Apo- 
nivrose. The ancients called every white part 
vivgov, and regarded the Aponeurosis as a ner- 
vous expansion. The Aponeuroses are white, 
shining membranes, very resisting, and com- 
posed of fibres interlaced. Some are continu- 
ous with the muscular fibres, and differ only 
from tendons, by their flat form. They are 
called Aponeuroses of insertion, (F) Aponiv- 
roses d? insertion, when they are at the extremi- 
ties of muscles, and attach them to the bone. — 
Aponeuroses of intersection, (F) Aponivroscs 
d 'intersection, if they interrupt the continuity 
of the muscle, and are continuous on both 
sides with muscular fibres. The others sur- 
round the muscle, and prevent its displace- 
ment: they are called Enveloping Aponeuroses, 
(F) Jlponcvroses d'cnveloppe. 

Aponeurosis, Fascia — a. Crural, Fascia lata 
— a. Femoral, Fascia lata — a. Iliac, Fascia iliaca. 

APONEUROTIC, Aponeurot'icus. What re- 
lates to Aponeuroses : — thus we say, Aponeu- 
rotic expansion, Aponeurotic muscle, &c. 

APOiNEUROT'OMY, Jlponcuroto'mia. from 
*.7rovtv£a><ris, 'aponeurosis,' and tj^vo., ' I cut.' 
Anatomy of Aponeuroses. 

It has, also, been proposed for the division, 
(debridement) of filaments, &,c. in aponeurotic 
openings. 

APUNAVROSE superficielle be 
V ABDOMEN ET BE LA CUISSE, Fascia 
superficial. 

APONEVROSIS, Aponeurosis. 

APONIA, from * privative, and ^voc, ' pain.' 
Freedom from pain. 

APONIPSIS, Ablution. 

APOPALLE'SIS or APOPAL'SIS, from 



APOPATEMA 



59 



APOSTASIS 



STjTxna, 'IthrowoiF.' Expulsion. Protru- 
sion. — Hippocr ; also, Abortion, (q. v.) 

APOPATE'MA and APOP'ATHOS. The 
excrements, and the place where they are de- 
posited. — Diosuorides, Erotian. 
APOPEDASIS, Luxation. 
APOPHLEGMATISAJNS PER NARES, 
Errhine — a. per os, Sialagogue. 

APOPHLEGMATISAiV 1'IA, Apophlegma- 
tison'ta, from ctn-o, ' out,' and <pMy/uu, ' phlegm,' 
Medicines, which facilitate the upward expul- 
sion of mucus from the mucous membrane of 
the digestive or air-passages, — as gargles, mas- 
ticatories, &c. 

APO P H L E G'M ATISM , Apophlc gmatis'mus, 
the action of Apophlegmatisantia. — Galen. 

APOPH'RADES, trom afl-&pp*c, ' unlucky,' 
an epithet applied to unlucky days (dies ne- 
fandi) Days on which a favourable change 
is not expected to occur in a disease. — A. Lau- 
rentius. 

APOPHRAXIS, Amenorrhea. 
APOPHTHORA, Abortion. 
APOP1JTHOK1US, Abortive. 
APOPHTHAR'MA and APOPHTHORA, 
from uno, and <j>5it£a>, ' I corrupt.' Abortion, as 
well as a medicine to procure abortion. 

APOPHYADES, from a^ro, 'from,' and <pua>, 
' I spring.' The ramifications of veins and ar- 
teries. — Hippocr. 

APOPHYSE BASILAIRE, Basilary process 
— a. engainante ou vaginale, Vaginal process. 

APOPHYSES EPIJs'EUSES, Spinous pro- 
cesses of the vertebra?. 

APOPH'YSIS, from a.nc, 'from,' and <$ua>, 
'I rise.' Process' us, Appendix. A process of a 
bone. When the apophysis is yet separated 
from the body of the bone by intervening car- 
tilage, it is called Epiphysis. The apophyses 
or processes are, at times, distinguished by 
epithets, expressive of their form; as A. sty- 
loid, A. coracoid, &c. Others are not preceded 
by the word apophysis ; as Trochanter, Tuber- 
osity, &c. 

Apoph'ysis of Ingras'sias, is a term applied 
to the lesser ala of the sphenoid bone. 

Apophysis of Rau, Grele apophyse du 
Marteau : see Malleus. 

APOPIES'MA, from a.iroirtiga>, ' I compress.' 
Hippocrates uses the term to signify a fancied 
expression or forcing out of humours, by the 
application of bandages in wounds and frac- 
tures. 
APOPLANESIS, Error loci. 
APOPLECTIC, Apoplec'ticus. Referring 
to Apoplexy. This word has various signifi- 
cations. It is applied, 1. To individuals la- 
bouring under apoplexy : 2. To remedies pro- 
per for combating apoplexy : 3. To the consti- 
tution, temperament, or make, Architectura 
apoplectica, which predisposes to it: and, 4. 
To the symptoms, which characterize apo- 
plexy ; as Apoplectic sleep, A. stroke, A. stertor, 
&c. The jugular veins have also, by some been 
called Apoplectic veins. — Vena apoplcc'ticce. 

APOPLEXIA CATALEPSIA, Catalepsia— 
a. Hydrocephalica, Hydrocephalus internus — a. 
Temulenta, see Temulentia. 

AP'OPLEXY, Apoplex'ia, Hamorrlut'^;,, 
Cer'cbri, Aphro'nia, Curtis Apoplex'ia, Coma 
Apoplex'ia, Pulpc'zia, Sidera'tio, Apilep'sia,\ 



Morbus atton'itus, Gutta, Thcoplc'gia, Theo- 
plcx'ia, from a.7ro7rK»TTUv, 'to strike with vio- 
lence.' (F) Apoplexie, Coup dc sang. A dis- 
ease, characterized by diminution, or loss of 
sensation and mental manifestation ; by the 
cessation, more or less complete, of motion ; 
and by a comatose state. — circulation and respi- 
ration continuing. It generally consists in 
pressure upon the brain ; either from turges» 
cence of vessels or from extravasation of blood; 
and the general prognosis is unfavourable ; es- 
pecially when it occurs after the age of 35. 
When A. is accompanied with a hard, lull pulse, 
and flushed countenance, it is called apoplexia 
sanguin'ea, cataph'ora covia; when with a feeble 
pulse and pale countenance, Apoplexia serosa, 
and A. pituitosa, serous apoplexy, catuphora hy- 
drocephalica. 
Apoplexy, Pulmonary, see Hoemoptysis. 
APOPlMXIS, Suffocation. 
APOPSYCHIA, Syncope. 
APOPTO'SIS, from an-awr*, ' I fall down.' 
A relaxation of bandages. — Erotian. 
APORRHCEA, Contagion. 
APORROZ'A, from a^sggea, ' I flow from.' 
An emanation, effluvium, contagion. — Moschi- 
on. A fallino- off of the hair, according to some. 
APOSCEM'MA, and APOSCEP'SIS, from 
a.7ro<Tx.n7rTce, ' I lie down, I direct myself to- 
wards.' Afflux of fluids towards a part. Me- 
tastasis. The first word has been applied to 
the excrements. — Hippocr., Galen. 

APOSCEPARNIS'MUS, Dcascia'tio, from 
a.7r<>, and 0-Ki-Tra.ejtjV, 1 a hatchet.' Wound of the 
cranium, by a'cutting instrument, in which a 
piece of the bone has been cut out, as with a 
hatchet. — Gorraeus. 

APOSCEPSIS, Aposcemma. 
APOS'CHASIS or APOSCHAS'MOS, from 
x.Tro<r%di£a>, ' I scarify.' Scarification. A slight 
superficial incision in the skin. Also, blood- 
letting. — Hippocr. 

APOS'IA, Sitis defcc'tus, from a. privative, 
and iroiris, ' drink,' want of thirst, absence of 
desire for liquids. 

APOSP'TIA, from a7ro, 'from,' and <t/to?, 
'food.' Aversion for food. — Galen. See Disgust. 
APOSIT'IC, Apositicus ; the same etymo- 
logy. Any substance which destroys the ap- 
petite, or suspends hunger. 

APOSPAS'MA, from *7ro<r7r*a>, ' I tear or 
lacerate.' A solution of continuity, especially 
of a ligament. Iihcgma ligamcnta're, Laccra'tio 
ligamenta'ria. Arrachcment, (q. v.) 

APOSPHACEL'ESIS, Aposphacelis'mus, 
from a. tto, and <T<p*iitK°;, ' mortification.' Gan- 
grene in wounds and fractures, owing to the 
bandages being too tight. — Hippocr. 

APOSPHINX'IS, a.7rQt?q>tyJ!;i( ; constriction, 
compression. The action of a tight bandage. — 
Hippocr. 

APOSPONGIS'MUS, ATrcrTroyyttr/uo;; the 
act of sponging for any purpose. — Gorrreus. 

APOSTALAG'MA, and APOSTAG'MA, 
from a.7ro, 1 from,' and v-ta^a^u, ' I flow.' The 
ancient name for the saccharine liquor which 
flows from grapes when not yet pressed. 

APOS'TASIS, from *7ro,and nn*pit, ' I stop.' 
The ancients had different significations for 
this word. It was most commonly used for an 
abscess. The separation of a fragment of bone 



ArOSTAXIS 



GO 



APPENDICE 



by fracture. Removal of disease by some ex- 
cretion, &c. 

APOSTAX'IS,from*s-oo-fai->, 'I distil from.' 
The derluxion of any humour, as of blood from 
the nose. — Hippocr. Staxis (q. v.) 

APOSTE'MA, from a?ro, ' from,' and to-fa/At, 
'I settle,' or from a.<pnrrnfAt, 'I recede from. 
This word is used by the ancients, somewhat 
vaguely. It meant an affection in which parts, 
previously in contact, are separated from each 
other by a fluid collected between them. The 
moderns regard it as synonymous with Abscess. 
(q. v.) Some, even of the moderns, have applied 
it to any watery tumour, and even to tumours 
in general. 

ArosTEMA Empyema, Empyema — a. Pa- 
rulis, Parulis— a. Phalangum, Fourche — a. 
Psoaticum, Lumbar abscess. 

APOSTERIG'MA, from ctTroo-ni^a,, 1 1 sup- 
port.' Any thing that supports a diseased part, 
as a cushion, a pillow, &c. — Galen. A deep- 
seated and inveterate disease of the intestines. 
— Hippocr. 

APOSTOLO'RUM UNGUEN'TUM, Do- 
decaphar'macum, Ointment of the Apostles. So 
called, because as many solid ingredients en- 
tered into its composition as there were Apos- 
tles. It contained several resins and gum resins, 
yellow wax, oil, vinegar, verdigris, &c, and 
was formerly employed as a vulnerary. 

APOS'TROPHE, from atto, and <r T gsp&>, 'I 
turn.' An aversion, disgust for food. — Paulus. 
APOSYRMA, Abrasion, Desquamation. 
APOTELES'MA, from euro, and Tsxeoy**, 
1 completion.' The result or termination of a 
disease. See, also, Amuletum. 
APOTHANASIA, see Death. 
APOTHE'CA, a.7r<.H»«.», Pkarmace'um, from 
oltto, and tSu/jh, ' to place.' Anyplace where 
things are kept, and therefore ' a shop.' A 
place where medicines are kept. See Pharma- 
copolium. 

APOTH'ECARY, Apotheca'rius, Dispensa'- 
tor, Pharmacopo'la, Pigmcnta'rius, Pharmaco- 
pa'us, Rhizot'omus, Myrop'oles, same derivation. 
(F) Apothicaire, Pharmacicn, Pharmacopolc. 
In every country, except Great Britain, it 
means one who sells drugs, makes up prescrip- 
tions, &c. In addition to these offices, which, 
indeed, they rarely exercise, except in the case 
of their own patients, the Apothecaries in En- 
gland form a privileged class of practitioners — 
a kind of sub-physician. 

APOTHECARIES' HALL; the Hall of 
the Corporation or Society of Apothecaries of 
London, where medicines are prepared and sold 
under their direction, &c. This Company ob- 
tained a charter of incorporation in the 15th 
year of James the First. Nc general practi- 
tioner can establish himself in England or 
Wales without having obtained a license from 
the Court of Examiners of the Company. 

APOTHERAPEI'A, from ttwtbtg^tvu, 'I 
cure.' A perfect cure.— Hippocr. In the an- 
cient Gymnastics, it meant the last part of the 
exercises : — the friction, inunction, and bath- 
ing, for the purpose of obviating fatigue, or 
curing disease — Galen, Gorraeus. 

APOTHER'MUM, a pickle made of mus- 
tard, oil, and vinegar. — Galen. From utto, and 
S-s^n, 'heat.' 



\POTH'ESIS, from airtxriSrupi,'* replace.' 
The position proper to be given to a fractured 
limb, after reduction. 

APOTHICAIRE, Apothecary. 

APOTH1CAIRERIE, (F), from *7o$>k», 
'.warehouse, shop.' The same as Apotheca ; 
also, a gallipot. 

APOTHLIM'MA, from w, and d-xi&u, '1 
press from.' Anciently, the dregs, and some- 
times the expressed juice of plants. — Gorraeus. 

APOTHRAU'SIS,fronia;r(;3-g-.tuai, 'I break.' 
Fracture of a bone, with spicula remaining. 
Extraction of a spiculum of bone. — Gorraus. 
Also, Abscission, (q. v.) 

Al'OT'OKOS, from a.no, and t«t&>, ' I bring 
forth.' An abortive foetus. — Hippocr. 

APOTILMOS, Evulsion. 

APOTOME, Amputation. 

APOTROPiEUM, Amuletum. 

APOTROPE, Aversion. 

APOXYSMUS, Abrasion. 

APOZEM, Decoction. 

APPARATUS, Parasccve, from pnra'rc, ' to 
prepare.' This word signifies, — a collection of 
instruments, &c. for any operation whatever. 
(F) Appareil. 

In surgery it means the methodical arrange- 
ment of all the instruments and objects neces- 
sary for an operation or dressing. By exten- 
sion, the French give the name Appareil, cajisa 
chirurgica, to the case or drawers in which the 
apparatus is arranged. 

Apfaratus, Immovable, (F.) Appareil im- 
mobile, Immovable Bandage, Permanent Ban- 
dage. An apparatus used for fractures, which 
is generally formed by wetting the bandages on 
some substance, as starch or dextrine, which 
becomes solid, and retains the parts in situ. 

Apparatus has likewise been applied to the 
different modes of operating for the stone. — See 
Lithotomy. 

In Physiology, Apparatus (Aj/paricl) is ap- 
plied to a collection of organs, all of which 
work towards the same end. A system of or- 
gans comprehends all those formed of a similar 
texture. An apparatus often comprehends or- 
gans of very different nature. In the former, 
there is analogy of structure ; in the latter, 
analogy of functions. 

Apparatus altus, see Lithotomy — a. La- 
teralis, see Lithotomy — a. Major, see Litho- 
tomy—a. Minor, see Lithotomy. 

APPAREIL, Apparatus— a. Grand, see Li- 
thotomy — a. llaut, see Lithotomy — a. Immo- 
bile, apparatus, immovable— a. Lateratisc, see 
Lithotomy — a. Petit, see Lithotomy. 

APPAREILS DE FORMATION, (F.) Gall 
admits, in the brain, two kinds of fibres: the 
one, divergent, proceeding from the cerebral 
peduncles to the convolutions, and constituting 
what he calls apparcils de formation : the other, 
convergent, and proceeding from the convolu- 
tions to the centre of the organ, constituting 
what he calls apparcils de reunion. The first, 
as a whole, form the organs of the mental facul- 
ties: the latter are commissures, which unite 
parts of the organ that are double and in pairs. 
APPAUVRl, Impoverished. 
APPEjYDICE, Appendix— a. Ccecal, Appen- 
dix vermiformis caic'i—a. Digital, Appendix 
vermiformiscceci— a. lipiplo'iqucs, Appendicular 



APPENDICULA CEREBRI 



m 



AQUA 



opiploica? — a Sons-sternal c, Xiphoid cartilage — 
a. Sus-spheno'idale du cerveau, Pituitary gland — 
a. Xipko'ide, Xiphoid cartilage. 

Appendices coli adiposje, Appendicular epi- 
ploicae. 

APPENDICULA CEREBRI, Pituitary 
gland — a. Vermiformis caici, see Appendix — a. 
Epiploica, Epiploic appendage. 

APPENDIOUL/E PINGUEDINOS^, Epi- 
ploic appendages. 

Appendic'uljs etivloic m, A ppen' dices coli 
adipo'sa: (F) Appendices Epiplo'iques. Pro- 
longations of the peritoneum beyond the sur- 
face of the great intestine, which are analogous 
in texture and arrangement to omenta. 

APPEN'DIX, jsr/^i/cr/c, from appen'dere, ' to 
hang from.' Any part that adheres to an organ, 
or is continuous with it : — seeming as if added 
to it. An appctidage, an apophysis, (q. v.) (F) 
Appendice, Annexe. 

Appen'dix or appendic'ui.a vermifor'mis 
cce'ci, Ec'phyas, ixcpuxc, Additamentum Coli, 
Appen'dix CtBci. (F) Appendice vermiforme, A. 
ceecal ou digital. A vermicular process, the size 
of a goose-quill, which hangs from the intesti- 
num ccccum. Its functions are unknown. 

Appendix cerebri, Pituitary gland — a. ad Ce- 
rebrum, Cerebellum — a. Ventriculi, Duodenum. 

APPENSIO,see Analeptia. • 

AP'PETENCE, Appeten"tia, from appctere, 
1 to desire.' An ardent, passionate desire for 
any object. 

APPETIT, PERTE D\ Anorexia. 

Ap'petite, Appeti'tus, Appeten'tia, Appeti'- 
tia, Cupi'do, Orcx'is, Orme, Same etymology as 
the last. An internal sensation, which warns 
us of the necessity of exerting certain functions, 
especially those of digestion and generation. In 
the latter case it is called venereal appetite. (F) 
Appelit re nt fit n : in the former, simply appe- 
tite, (F) Appelit ou appetition. If the desire for 
food, occasioned by a real want, be carried to a 
certain extent, it is called hanger, when solid 
food is concerned; thirst, when liquid. Appe- 
tite and hunger ought not, however, to be em- 
ployed synonymously ; they are different de- 
grees of the same want. Hunger is an impe- 
rious desire : it cannot be provoked, like the 
appetite. It is always allayed by eating : but 
not so the appetite; for, at times, it may be ex- 
cited in this manner. They are very generally, 
however, used synonymously. 

Appetite, morbid, Limosis. 

Appetitus Caninus, Boulimia. 

APPLE, BITTER, Cucumis colocynthis— a. 
Curassoa, Aurantium curassaventium — a. May, 
Podophyllum peltatum — a. Tree, Pyrus malus. 

APPLICA'TA, from applica're, ' to apply.' 
A word, unnecessarily introduced into medical 
language, to express the objects which are ap- 
plied immediately to the surface of the body, as 
clothes, cosmetics, baths, &c. — Halle. 

APPLICATION, .tf/^/ictt'rio, in a moral sig- 
nification, is synonymous with Attention. Also, 
the act of applying one thing to another; as the 
A. of an apparatus, of a bandage, blister, &c. 

APPREHEN'SIO. This word is employed 
in various senses. It means catalepsy, (q. v.) 
or catochia. — Paul Zacchias. A kind of band- 
ace for securing any part. Also, a therapeuti- 
cal indication. ' 



APPROCHE, Coition. 

APPROXIMATION, Approxima'tio. Ett- 
muller gave this name to a pretended method 
of curing disease, by making it pass from man 
into some animal or vegetable, by the aid of 
immediate contact. 

APRAC'TA, from * priv. and ;rg*o-o-&>, ' I 
act.' Without action. An epithet for the parts 
of generation, when unfit for copulation or 
generation. 

APRICATIO, Isolation. 

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 

APROSO'PlA, from * priv. and n-poe-wTrov, 
' the face.' A malformation, which consists in 
the face beino- deficient. 

APSINTHA'TUM, from a^tv&iov, 'worm- 
wood.' A sort of drink made of wormwood. — 
Aetius, 

APSINTHITES, Absinthites. 

APSYCHIA, Syncope. 

APTHJE, Aphthas. 

APTYS'TOS, from ct priv. and irrvte, 'I 
spit.' Devoid of expectoration. An epithet 
given to certain pleurisies, in which there is no 
expectoration. — Hippocr. 

APYETOS, from a. priv. and ttvcv, ' pus.' 
An external affection, which does not end in 
suppuration. 

APYiqUE, Apyos. 

AP'YOS, from a. priv. and ttucv, ' pus,' (F) 
Apifique. That which does not afford pus. 

Al'YRENOMELE, Apyromele. 

APYRET'IC, Apijrct'icvs, from a. priv. and 
nvg, 'fire, fever.' Without fever. This epi- 
thet is given to days in which there is no pa- 
roxysm of a disease ; as in the case of an inter- 
mittent; as well as to some local affections 
which do not induce fever. Urticaria is some- 
times called an apyretic exanthem. 

APYREX'IA, the same etymology. Absence 
of fever: Dial elm' ma, Intcrmissio. Apyrexia 
is the condition of an intermittent fever be- 
tween the paroxysms : the duration of the apy- 
rexia, consequently, depends on the type of the 
intermittent. Occasionally, the term has been 
applied to the cessation of the febrile condition 
in acute diseases. 

AP YUOME'LE or APYRENOME'LE, from 
«. priv. TTu^nv, ' a nut,' and /uxah, ' a sound.' A 
sound or probe, without a button or nut. It is 
the Melo'tis, Spccil'hirn auricula' rium or auricu- 
lar sound of Galen. 

AQUA, Water — a. Acidula hydrosulfurata, 
Naples water (factitious) — a. Aeris fixi, Acidu- 
lous water (simple) — a. Alkalina oxymuriatica, 
Eau de Javellc — a. Aluminis compositus, Li- 
quor a. c. — a. Aluminosa Bateana, Liq. alumi- 
nis compositus — a. Ammonite, Liquor ammo- 
nias — a. Acetatis ammonia?, Liquor ammonia? 
acetatis — a. Ammonias carbonatis, Liquor am- 
monias subcarbonatis — a. Ammonias coustica, 
Liquor ammonias — a. Amnii, Liquor amnii. 

AqUA AMVGDALARUM CONCENTRATA, (F) Eau 

d , Amandes ameres. Water of bitter almonds. 
Made by bruising well two pounds of bitter 
til month ; adding, whilst triturating, ten pounds 
of spring water, and four pounds of alcohol, let- 
ting the mixture rest in a well-closed vessel, 
and then distilling two pounds. Used instead, 
of the Aqua Laurocerasi and the hydrocyanic 
acid. 



AQUA 



63 



AQUEDUC 



Aqua Anisi Fortis, Spiritus anisi — a. Aquis, 
granensis, see Aix-la-Chapelle — a. Ardiente, 
see Spirit — a. Auditoria, Cotunnius, liquor of — 
Aqua balsamica arterialis, Aqua Binelli — a. 
Bareginensis, Bareges water — a. Bellilucana, 
Balaruc waters — a. Benedicta, Liquor calcis — 
a. Benedicta composita, Liquor calcis composi- 
tus — a. Benedicta Rulandi, Vinum antirnonii 
tartarizati. 

Aqua Binellii, Aequo. Binelli, Aqua balsam'- 
ica arlcria'lis. A celebrated Italian haemosta- 
tic, invented by one Binelli. Its composition is 
unknown, but its virtues have been ascribed to 
creosote; although there is reason for bplieving 
it to possess no more activity than cold water. 

Aq.ua Borvonensis, Bourbonne-les-Bains, 
Mineral waters of — a. Bristoliensis, Bristol 
water — a. Calcariae ustae, Liquor calcis — a. 
Calcis, Liquor calcis — a. Calcis composita, 
Liquor calcis compositus — a. Camphorata, 
Bates's, see Cupri sulphas — a. Catapultarum, 
Arqucbusade eau (V — a. Cirmamomi fortis, Spi- 
ritus Cinnamomi — a. Colcestrensis, Colchester, 
mineral waters of — a. Cupri ammoniata, Li- 
quor c. a. — a. Cupri vitriolati composita, Liquor 
cupri sulphatis composita — a. inter cutem, Ana- 
sarca — a. Distillata, Water, distilled — a. Fhi- 
viatilis, Water, river — a. Fontana, Water, 
spring — a Fortis, Nitric acid — a. Hepatica, 
Hydrosulphuretted water — a. Hordeata, Decoc- 
tum hordei — a. Juniperi composita, Spiritus 
juniperi compositus — a. Kali, Liquor potass® 
subcarbonatis — a. Kali caustici, Liquor po- 
tassae — a. Kali prseparati, Liquor potass® sub- 
carbonatis — a. Kali puri, Liquor potassae — a. 
Kali subcarbonatis, Liquor potassa? subcarbo- 
natis — a. Labyrinthi, Cotunnius, liquor of — a. 
ex Lacu, Water, lake — a. Lithargyri acetati 
composita, Liquor plumbi subacetatis dilutus — 
a. Luciae, Spiritus ammonias succinatus — a. 
Marina, Water, sea — a. Medicata, Water, mine- 
ral — a. Mentha? piperitidis spiriluosa, Spiritus 
menthae piperita — a. Mentha vulgaris spiritu- 
osa, Spiritus menthae viridis — a. Mineralis, Wa- 
ter, mineral — a. Mirabilis, Spiritus pimentae — a. 
Mulsa, Hydromeli — a. Neapolitana, Naples wa- 
ter (factitious) — a. Nephritica, Spiritus myris- 
ticae — a. Nivata, Water, snow — a. Nucis mos- 
chatae, Spiritus myristicae — a. Ophthalmica, 
Liquor zinci sulphatis cum camphora — a. Pa- 
ludosa, Water; marsh — a. Picea, see Pinus 
sylvestris — a. Pluvialis, Water, rain — a. Potas- 
sae, Liquor potassai — a. Pulegii spirituosa, Spi- 
ritus pulegii — a. Putealis, Water, well — a. 
Rabelii, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Raphani 
composita, Spiritus armoraciae compositus — a. 
Regia, Nitro-muiiatic acid — a. Salubris, Water, 
mineral — a. Sappharina, Liquor cupri ammo- 
niata — a. Saturni, Liquor plumbi subacetatis 
dilutus — a. Sclopetaria, Arqucbusade cau d' — a. 
Seminum anisi composita, Spiritus anisi — a. 
Seminum carui fortis, Spiritus carui — a Sote- 
ria, Water, mineral — a. Stygia, Nitro-muriatic 
acid — a. Styptica, Liquor cupri sulphatis com- 
posita — a. Sulphurata simplex, Hydrosulphu- 
retted water — a. Sulphureti ammoniae, Liquor 
fumans Boylii — a. Thediana, Arqucbusade eau 
a" — a. Theriacalis Bezoardica, Chylostagma 
diaphoreticum Mindereri — a. Tofana, Liquor 
arsenicalis — a. Traumatica Thedenii, Arqucbu- 
sade eau d' — a. Vegeto-mineralis, Liquor plumbi 



subacetatis dilutus — a. Vicicnsis, Vichy water 
— a. Vitriolica camphorata, Liquor zinci sul- 
phatis cum camphora — a. Vitriolica caerulea, 
Solutio sulphatis cupri composita— a. Vulne- 
raria, Arqucbusade cau d' — a. Zinci vitriolati 
cum camphora, Liquor zinci sulphatis cum 
camphora. 

AQUjE ACIDUL^, Acidulous waters— a. 
Badiguae, Bath, Mineral waters of— a. Badizae, 
Bath^ Mineral waters of— a. Bathonice, Bath, 
Mineral waters of — 'a. Buxtonienses, Buxton, 
Mineral waters of — a. Cantuarienses, Canter- 
bury, waters of. 

Aquc Destilla'tje, Distilled Waters. Ily- 
drola'ta, (F) Hydrolats. These are made by 
putting vegetable substances, as roses, mint, 
pennyroyal, &c. into a still with water, and 
drawing off as much as is found to possess the 
aromatic properties of the plant. To every 
gallon of the distilled water, 5 oz. of spirit 
should be added to preserve it. The si?nple 
distilled waters are sometimes called Aqua stil- 
latit"i(B sim'plices : the spirituous, Aquic stil/a- 
tit"ice spirituo'sce, but more commonly Spir'itus. 

Aquc Minerales Acidulc, Waters, mine- 
ral, gazeous — a. Minerales ferruginosas, Waters, 
mineral, chalybeate — a. Minerales salinae, Wa- 
ters, mineral, saline — a. Minerales, sulphureae, 
Waters, mineral, sulphureous — a. Stillatitiae, 
Aquas distillate — a. Solis, Bath Mineral waters. 

AQ'UiEDUCT, Aqucduc'tus, (F) Aqueduc. 
Properly, a canal for conducting water from 
one place to another. Anatomists have used it 
to designate certain canals. 

Aqucductus Cerebri, Infundibulum of the 
brain — a. Cotunnii, Aquasductus vestibuli, 

Aqucduc'tus Fallo'pii, Canal spiro'ide de 
I'os temporal, of Chaussier, Aqueduc de Fallope. 
A canal in the pars petrosa of the temporal 
bone, which extends from the meatus audito- 
rius internus to the foramen stylo-mastoideum, 
and gives passage to the facial nerve. The 
opening into this aqueduct is called the HuJ- 
tus Fallo'pii. 

Aqucduc'tus Vestib'uli or Aqumduclus 
Cotun'nii, (F) Aqueduc du vestibule and Aqueduc 
de Cotugno. This begins in the vestibule, near 
the common orifice of the two semicircular 
canals, and opens at the posterior surface of the 
jjars petrosa. 

Aqucduc'tus Coch'jlec, (F) Aqueduc du 
Limacon ; — a very narrow canal, which pro- 
ceeds from the tympanic scala of the cochlea, 
to the posterior edge of the pars petrosa. 

Aqucduc'tus Syl'vii, Aqueduc de Sylvius, 
Her ad quartum vcntric'ulum, Cana'lis me'dius 
Canal inter medi aire des ventricules of Chaussier. 
A canal forming a communication between the 
third and fourtli ventricles of the brain. 

AQUALIC'ULUS. That part of the abdo- 
men which extends from the umbilicus to the 
pubes. See Hypogastrium. R has also been 
applied to the stomach or intestinal canal. 

AQUAS'TER. A word used, by Paracelsus 
to express the visions or hallucinations of pa- 
tients. 

AQUEDUC, Aquceduct— a.de Cotugno, Aqus>- 
ductus ; vestibuli— a. de Fallope, Aquseductus 
Fallopn— a. du Limagon, Aquaeductus cochleae 
a. de Sylvius, Aqua?ductus Sylvii—a. du Vesti- 
bule, Aquaxluctus vestibuli. 



AQUEOUS 



63 



ARALIA NUD1CAUL1S 



A'QUEOUS, Aquo'sus, 'watery,' Hydato'des, 
Hydro' des, from aqua, ' water,' (F) Aquevx. 

The absorbents or lymphatics are sometimes 
called, in France, Conduits ou canaux aqueux. 

Aqueous Humour or the Eye, Humor 
aquo'sus, the Albugineous humour, Odei'dcs, 
motiSnc, Hydatoi'des, vfznttSitc, Ova'tus or Ovi- 
for'mis humor, (F) Ilii/ncur uqucusc. The lim- 
pid fluid, which fills the two chambers of the 
eye, from the cornea to the crystalline, and 
which is, consequently, in contact with the 
two surfaces of the iris. Quantity, 5 or G 
grains : s. g. 1.0003. It contains gelatine, albu- 
men, muriate of soda, and phosphate of lime in 
small quantity ; and is enveloped in a fine mem- 
brane : — the membrane of the aqueous humour — 
the Tunica propria seu Vugi'na humo'ris a'quei, 
Dcoturia'na membra' na. 

AQUIDUCA, hydragogues. 

AQUIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AQUILA, Hydroa, Hydrargyri submurias, 
Sulphur. 

AQ'UILA. The alchymists used this word 
for sublimed sal ammoniac, precipitated mer- 
cury, arsenic, sulphur, and the philosopher's 
stone. See Hydrargyri Submurias, and Sul- 
phur: also, Hydroa. 

Aq/uila Ccslestis ; a sort of panacea, of 
which mercury was a constituent. 

Aq/uila Lach'crymje ; a liquid prepared from 
several ingredients, especially from calomel. 

Aq/uila Philosopho'rum ; the alchymists, 
whose terms were always mysterious, called 
mercury thus, when reduced to its original 
form. 

Aq/uila Ven'eris ; an ancient preparation, 
made by subliming verdigris and sal ammoniac. 

AQUIL^E VElV-E, Temporal veins. 

AQUILE'GIA VULGA'RIS, Common Co- 
lombine, (F) Ancolie. The seeds, herb, and 
flowers were formerly used in jaundice and cu- 
taneous diseases. They are still retained in 
many of the Pharmacopoeias of continental 
Europe. 

AQUO-CAPSU LITIS, Aquo-membranitis.- 

AQUO-MEMBRANl'TlS,Keratoiritis,Aquo- 
capsulitis : inflammation of the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye. A badly compounded term, de- 
noting inflammation of the capsule or mem- 
brane of the aqueous humour. 

AQUULA, Ceratocele, Hydatid — a. Acus- 
tica, Cotunnius, liquor of. 

ARA PARVA, a small altar; — a kind of 
bandage invented by Sostratus; which repre- 
sents the corners of an altar. — Galen. 

AR'ABE; a wound, a blow. — Erotian. 

ARAB'ICA ANTID'OTUS HEPAT'ICA, 
Ar'abic Hcpat'ic An'tidote. A powder, composed 
of myrrh, costus, white pepper, &c. It was 
administered in new wine. 

ARAB'ICUS LAPIS. A sort of white mar- 
ble, found in Arabia and analogous to alabaster. 
It was regarded as an absorbent and desicca- 
tive, and was employed in haemorrhoids. 

AR'ABhS MALAG'MA. An anti-scrofulous 
medicine, composed of myrrh, olibanum, wax, 
sal ammoniac, iron pyrites, &c. — Celsus. 

AR'ABS, MEDICINE OF THE. The Ara- 
bians kept the torch of medical science illumi- 
nated, during a dark period of the middle ages. 
Before the year of the Hegira, they had Schools 



of Medicine ; but these were most flourishing 
during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. The 
chief additions made by them to medical sci- 
ence, occurred in the departments of pharmacy 
and in the description of diseases. Their prin- 
cipal writers were Avicenna, Serapion, Aver- 
rhoes, Hali Abbas, Moses Maimonides, Aven- 
zoar, Rhazes, Albucasis, &c. 

ARACH'NF, apa^H, 'a spider, a cobweb.' 
Hence — 

ARACHNITIS or ARACHNOIDITIS, In- 
flammation of the Arachnoid. A variety of 
phrenitis ; winch see. 

ARACH'NOID MEM'BRANE, Meninx Me'- 
dia, Arachno'idcus , Arachno'des, from ag^yw, ' a 
cobweb,' and s/JV, ' form, resemblance.' Tu'- 
nica aru'nea, Tu'nica arachno'des, Menin' 'gion. 
A name given to several membranes, which, by 
their extreme thinness, resemble spider-webs. — ■ 
Celsus and Galen called thus the membrane of 
the vitreous humour, — the tunica hyaloidea. 
The moderns use it now for one of the mem- 
branes of the brain, situate between the dura 
mater and pia mater. It is a serous membrane, 
and composed of two layers; the external being 
confounded, in the greater part of its extent, 
with the dura mater, and, like it, lining the in- 
terior of the cranium and spinal canal : the 
other being extended over the brain, from which 
it is separated by the pia mater, without pass- 
ing into the sinuosities between the convolu- 
tions, and penetrating into the interior of the 
brain by an opening at its posterior part under 
the corpus callosum. It forms a part of the 
investing sheath of the nerves, as they pass 
from the encephalic cavities. Its chief uses 
seem to be ; — to envelop, and, in some mea- 
sure, protect the brain, and to secrete a fluid 
for the purpose of keeping it in a state best 
adapted for the proper performance of its func- 
tions. 

ARACHNOIDITIS, Arachnitis. 

ARACK 7 , Arrack' ; Indian. A spirituous li- 
quor made in India in various ways, often from 
rice, sometimes from sugar fermented along 
with the juice of the cocoa nut: frequently 
from toddy, the juice which flows from the 
cocoa nut tree by incision, and from other sub- 
stances. It is a strong, heating spirit. 

Mock Arack is made by adding T)ij of Ben- 
zoic acid to a quart of rum. The celebrated 
Vauxhall punch is made with such arack. 

AR.ACOUCH1NI, Icica aracouchini. 

ARACUS AROMATICUS, Vanilla. 

AR'ADOS, from *g*£iu>, '1 am turbulent.' 
The agitation excited in the stomach by the 
coction of aliments of different nature. — Hip- 
pocr. Likewise, the motion produced by ca- 
thartics. 

AIL^OT'ICA, from attorn, < I rarefy.' Me- 
dicines supposed to have the quality of rarefy- 
ing the humours. See Rarefaciens. 

ARAKI, see Spirit. 

ARA'LIA NUDICAU'LIS, False Sarsapa- 
ril'la. This American plant is said to be a 
mild stimulant and diaphoretic, and has been 
recommended as a substitute for the sarsapa* 
rilla. It is used, also, as a tonic. In the se- 
condary list, Pharm. United States. 

Ara'lia Spino'sa, Angel'ica Tree, Prickly 
Ash, Toothach Tree. Its properties are not 



ARANEA 



64 



AHC1 HATER 



clear. The berries, and a tincture of them 
liave been employed, it is said, successfully in 
tuothack. A spirituous infusion has also been 
used in colic. 

ARANEA TARENTULA, see Tarantula. 

ARA'NEl TELA, Coined), (F) Toik d'Arai- 
gnie. Formerly, this substance was mucli em- 
ployed, and supposed to possess extraordinary 
virtues, especially when applied to the wrists. 
It has been recently used again in interm it- 
tents. It is a mechanical styptic, and is so 
applied, externally, at times. 

ARANEO'SA URl'NA; a term applied to 
the urine when loaded with filaments, like 
cobwebs. 

ARANEO'SUS PULSUS; a term employed 
to express extreme weakness of pulse ; when 
the movements resemble those of a delicate 
net raised by the wind. 

ARA'lNEUM ULCUS, Astakil'los. A name 
given by Paracelsus to a malignant, gangrenous 
ulcer, extending from the feet to the legs. 

ARARA, Myrobalanus citrina. 

ARASCON, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

ARATRUM, Vomer. 

ARBOR BEN1VI, Benjamin— a. Indica, 
Laurus cassia — a. Maris, Coral — a. Thurifera, 
Juniperus Lycia. 

Arbor Vitje, (F) Arbre de vie. A name 
given to an arborescent appearance, observed on 
cutting the ceiebellum longitudinally; and 
which results from the particular arrangement 
of the white substance with the cineritious ; 
also, the Thuya occidentalis, (q. v.) 

AR'BORES. A morbid alteration of the skin, 
which precedes its alteration. — Ruland. 

ARROUSIER, Arbutus unedo. 

ARE RE DE VIE, Arbor Vitae. 

ARBUSCULA GUMMIFERA BRAZILI- 
ENSIS, Hypericum Bacciferum. 

AR'BUTUS UVA URSI, Arctostaph'ylos, 
Uv(B Ursi Fo'lia. Nat. Ord. Ericeas, Sex. Sijst. 
Dccandria Monogynia, (F) Russcrolic ou Rai- 
sin d' Ours. The leaves of this plant are tonic 
and astringent, and have been employed, 
chiefly, in diseases of the urinary organs. Dose 
of powder from gr. xv. to gss. The English 
name is Bear's Whortleberry. 

The Ar'butus Une'do, Andrach'ne, Une'do, 
Une'do papyra'cea, m/ai^os, (F) Arbousier. A 
decoction of the leaves is astringent, and has 
been used in diarrhoea. 

ARC or ARCH, Amis. Any part of the 
body resembling an arch in form ; as the Arch 
of the colon, (F) Arc d,u colon; — the transverse 
portion of that intestine: — Arch of the aorta, 
Ar'cus aor'ta, (F) Crosse de VAorte, &c. : the 
turn which the aorta takes in the thorax. 

An Anastomotic Arch, (F) Arcade anasto- 
motiquc, is the union of two vessels, which 
anastomose by describing a curved line. The 
vessels of the mesentery anastomose in this 
manner. 

Arches of the Palate. These are two in 
number on each side of the throat, one of 
which is termed anterior, the other posterior. 

The anterior arch arises from the middle of 
the velum palati, at the side of the uvula, and 
is fixed to the edge of the base of the tongue. 

The posterior arch has its origin, likewise, 
from the side of the uvula, and passes down- 



wards to be inserted into the side of the pha- 
rynx. 

The anterior arch contains the circumflexus 
palati, and forms the isthmus faucium. The 
posterior arch has, within it, the levator palati: 
and In tween the arches are the tonsils. 

ARCA ARCANORUM, Hydrargyrum— a. 
Cordis. Pericardium. 

ARCADE ANASTOMOTIQVE, Arch anas- 
tomotic — a. Cruralc, Crural arch — a. Inguinale, 
Crural arch — a. Orbitaire, Orbitar arch — a. Pu- 
bienne, Pubic arch — a. Zygomatique, Zygomatic 
arch. 

ARCADES DENTAIRES, Dental arches. 

ARCADES PALMAIRES, Palmar arches. 

ARCADI-TEMPORO-MAXILLAIRE, Tem- 
poralis. 

ARCiE'US or ARCCE'US, BALSAM OF. 
(F) Baume d'Arcccus. A kind of soft ointment 
used in sores, contusions, &c. It is made by 
melting two parts of mutton suet, one part of 
lion's lard: of turpentine and rosin, each one 
part and a half: straining and agitating till cold. 

ARCANSON, Colophonia. 

ARCA'NUM, from ur'ca, ' a chest.' A secret, 
a nostrum, {¥) Arcane. A remedy whose com- 
position is kept secret ; but which is reputed to 
possess great efficacy. 

Arcanum Corallinum, Hydrargyri nitrico- 
oxydum — a. Duplicatum, Potassae sulphas — a. 
Tartari, Potassae acetas. 

ARCATOS, Meros. 

ARCEAU, Arculus, Cradle. 

ARCEUTOS, Juniperus communis. 

ARCHiE'US, Archcus, from ag^,», 'com- 
mencement,' (F) Archie. A word, invented by 
Basil Valentine, and afterwards adopted by 
Paracelsus and Van Helmont. The latter used 
it for the internal principle of our motions and 
actions. This archaeus, according to Van Hel- 
mont, is an immaterial principle, existing in 
the seed, prior to fecundation, and presiding 
over the development of the body, and over all 
organic phenomena. Besides this chief arch- 
seus, whose seat Van Helmont placed in the 
upper orifice of the stomach, he admitted seve- 
ral of a subordinate character, which had to 
execute its orders : one, for instance, in each 
organ, to preside over its functions : each of 
them being subject to anger, caprice, error, and 
every human (ailing. 

ARCHANGELICA, Lamium album. 

ARCHE, ct%x», Tnitium, Princip'ium, Inva'- 
sio ; the first attack of a disorder. 

ARCHKE, Arcrueus, 

ARCH ELL, CANARY, Lichen roccella. 

ARCHELO'GIA, from &£%», ' beginning," 
and xo^gc, ' a discourse.' A treatise on the 
fundamental principles of Medicine. 

ARCHEN'DA. A powder of the leaves of 
the liirustrum, used, by the '^Egyptians, after 
bathing, to obviate the unpleasant odour of the 
feet. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ARCHIA'TER; Protomcd'icus, Proti'atros, 
from *§£», ' authority,' and /a^oc, ' physician.' 
The original signification of this word is a 
matter of dispute. Some consider, with Mer- 
curialis, that it meant physician to a prince, 
king, emperor, &,c. ; others, with C. Hoffmann, 
apply it to every physician who, by his situa- 
tion, is raised above his colleagues. The former 



ARCHIGEN1 MORBI 



65 



AREOMETER 



opinion seems to have prevailed, — Archiatre des 
Rois de France, being applied to the chief phy- 
sician to the kino-. 

ARCHIG'ENI MOR'BI. Acute diseases; 
because they hold the first rank: from ■*§>», 
' beginning,' and ytvo/uat, ' I am.'' 
AltCHIMAGIA, Chymistry. 
ARCHINGEAY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Archingeay is situate in France, three leagues 
from St. Jean d'Angely. The waters are prized 
in all diseases. They seem to contain carbo- 
nate of lime, a little muriate of soda, carbonate 
of iron, and some bitumen. 

ARCHITECTURA APOPLECTICA, Apo- 
plectic make. 
ARCHOPTOSIS, Proctocele. 
ARCHORRHA'GIA, from ag^oc , « the anus,' 
and £iu>, ' I flow.' Hemorrhage from the anus. 
Archorrhcc'a. 

ARCHORRHOZA, Archorrhagia. 
ARCHOS, Arcus, Rectum. 
ARCHOSYRINX, Fistula in ano. 
ARCTA'TIO and ARCTITU'DO, from arc- 
to, 'I make narrow.' Contraction of a natural 
opening or of a canal, and especially of the 
vulva; of the orifice of the uterus, or of the in- 
testinal canal. Constipation. Reunion by su- 
ture or infibulation. — Scribonius Largus, Paul 
Zacchins, &c. 

ARCTITUDO, Arctatio. 
ARCTIUM LAPPA. The root and seed; 
the Clit-bur, Barda'na, Arctium,, I'lapkis, Lappa 
glabra, Lappa major, L. pcrsotta'la, Burdock, 
(F) Bardanc, Gloutcron. Nat. Ord. Composite. 
Sex. Syst. Syngenesia a:qualis. Root diuretic, 
seed cathartic. It has been used in decoction in 
diseases of the skin and in syphilis. 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, Arbutus uva ursi. 
ARCTU'RA, from arcto, ' I straiten.' The 
effects of a nail grown into the flesh, Arctu'ra 
unguis. — Linnaeus. 

ARCUA'TIO. An anterior gibbosity or pro- 
jection of the sternum. Concava'tio. 

ARCUEIL, WATERS OF. Arcueil is about 
one league south of Paris. The water contains 
carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, sulphate of 
lime, muriate of soda, and some deliquescent 
salts. 

A celebrated society held its meetings at this 
village, of which Berthollet, Humboldt, La 
Place, &c. were members. 
ARCULA CORDIS, Pericardium. 
AR'CUL.E. The Orbitar Fossa?: Trosx/efsc— 
Rufus of Ephesus. 

AR'CULUS. A small arch ; a cradle, (q. v.) 
(F.) Arceau, Archet. A semicircular box or bas- 
ket used for preventing the coverings of the 
body from coming in contact with injured or 
diseased parts. An ordinance of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany forbade mothers to sleep with 
an infant near them, unless it was put under a 
solid cradle. 

ARCUS MEDULLARIS, Fornix— a. Seni- 
lis, Gerotoxon. 
ARDALOS, Excrement. 
ARDAS, Excrement. 

ARDENT. Ardens, from ar'dere, * to burn.' 
Ardent Fever, (F.) Fievre ardentc. The Causus, 
Synocha, or inflammatory fever. 
Mai des ardens, a name given to a species of 



which reigned epidemically in France in 
1130. J 

Ardent, or inflamed eyes, (F) Yeux ardens ; so 
called when they are injected, red. 

Ardent urine, (F) Urines ardentcs ; when it is 
of a deep red, &c. 

ARDESIA HIBERNICA, Hibernicus lapis. 
ARDEUR, Ardor — a. de VEstomac, Ardor 
ventriculi — a. de hi Fievre, Ardor febrilis-- a. 
d' Urine, Ardor urinae. 

AR'DOR, (F) Ardeur. Heat, (q v.) A feel- 
ing of burning, of violent heat. JEstus, JEstu- 
a'tio, Causo'ma. 

Ardor Uri'nje, (F.) Ardeur d' Urine, a scald- 
ing sensation occasioned by the urine in pass- 
ing over the inflamed mucous membrane of the 
urethra, or over the neck of the bladder. 

Ardor Febri'lis, (F) Ardeur de la Fievre, 
the hot period of fever. 
Ardor Stomachi, Pyrosis. 
Ardor Ventric'uli, (F) Ardeur d'Estomac, 
Heartburn. See Cardialgia and Pyrosis. 

A'REA. A Latin word used by some autbors 
to designate a variety of Alopecia, (q. v.) in 
which the hair changes colour, but does not fall 
off; also, Porrigo decalvans, (q. v.) 

ARE'CA. The fruit of the Are'ca Cat'cchu, 
Caun'ga. Nat. Ord. Falmre, Sex. Syst. Mo- 
ncscia Monadelphia. (F) Arec, is astringent 
and tonic, and enters into the composition of 
the Betel, the great masticatory of Orientals. 

AREFAC'TION, Arefadtio, ^n^v<rtc, from 
arefaccre, ' to make dry.' The process of dry- 
ing substances, prior to pulverization. 
ARENAMEN, Bole Armenian. 
ARENATIO, Sand or Earth Bath, from 
are'na, ' sand.' Saburra'tio. The application of 
hot sand to the body of a patient, instead of 
placing him in a water-bath. Pedilu'via of sand 
were formerly used in Ascites. 

ARENO'SA URI'NA. Sandy Urine. Urine 
when it deposits a sandy sediment. The person, 
passing such urine, has been called Areno'sus. 
A RENOSUS, Sabulous. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutive of A'rea. Anato- 
mists understand, by Areola, the interstices 
between the fibres composing organs; or those 
existing between laminae, or between vessels 
which interlace with each other. 

Areola is, also, applied to the coloured circle 
or Halo, which surrounds the nipple ; and which 
becomes much darker during pregnancy, as 
well as to the circle surrounding certain vesi- 
cles, pustules, &c. ; as the pustules of the 
small-pox, the vaccine vesicle, &c. Chaussier, 
in such cases, recommends the word Aurc'ola. 
(F) Auriole, Aire. 

AREOLAR, Areola'ris, appertaining to an 
areola. 

Areolar Exhalations are those recremen- 
titial secretions, which are effected within the 
organs of sense, or in parenchymatous struc- 
tures, — as the aqueous, crystalline and vitreous 
humours, &c. 

AREOM'ETER, Arcom'ctrum, Gravim' elcr. 
Alcoblom'eter, Aerostatic Bal'ance, from «g*/3f, 
' light,' and jutT^ov, ' measure :' i. e. measure of 
lightness. An instrument, so called, because 
first employed to take the specific gravity of 
fluids lighter than water. The Areometer of 



pestilential erysipelas, or Saint Anthony's Fire, 1 Beaum6, which is the most used in Pharmacy, 
9 



AREOMETER 



GG 



ARGENTUM 



particularly in France, consists of a tube of 
glass, largely expanded towards its inferior ex- 
tremity, and terminating, below, by a small 
ball, containing mercury or lead, which serves 
it as a balance, so that it may remain upright in 
the fluid. This tube is furnished with a gra- 
duated scale. If the fluid, into which the Areo- 
meter is plunged, be heavier than water, the 
instrument rises : if lighter, it sinks. There 
are various Areometers, as those of the Dutch, 
of Fahrenheit, Nicholson, &c. The Areometer 
is also called Hydrom'eter, (F) Ariomltre, Pese- 
liqueur. 

SCALE OF THE AREOMETER WITH CORRESPOND- 
ING SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

1. Ascending Scale for light liquids. 
('Beaume. y ) 



Scale of 
Beaume. 



25 
23 

Id. 

22 

Id. 

20 
18 
13 
12 
11 
10 



Specific 
Gravi- 
ties. 



700 

715 
742 
782 
792 
819 
827 
847 
863 
868 



900. 



900 
915 

Id. , 

923 . 

Id. 
935 
948 
980 
986 
993 
1000 



Substances. 



Pure hydrocyanic acid.— Gay Lus- 

sac. 
Very pure sulphuric ether. 
The same concentrated. 

Equal parts of alcohol, and ether. 
Very pure alcohol for pharmaceuti- 
cal purposes. 
Pure alcohol. Naphtha. 
Alcohol of commerce. 
Essential oil of turpentine. 

Hydrocyanic acid of Schcele and 
pure hydrocyanic acid,mixed with 
an equal portion of water. (Ru- 

biqilCt.) 

Acetic ether. 

Nitric ether. 
Muriatic ether 
Liquid ammonia. 
Olive oil. 

Brandy. 

Burgundy wine. 

Bourdeaux wine. 
Distilled water. 



2. Descending Scale for heavy liquids. 
(Dutch.) 



Scale of 
Beaume. 



Specific 

Gravi- 
ties. 




1 
2 

51 

10 
12 
20 
21 
25 
30 

35 

40 
41 
45 
Id. 
50 
60 
66 
70 



1000 
1007 I 
1009 \ 
1014 

1032 

1075 ) 
1091 i 
1161 
1180 1 
1210 1 
1261 ' 

1321 ' 

1384; 
1398 
1454. 
Id. 
1532 
1714 
1847 
I 1946 



Substances. 



Common distilled water. 
Distilled vinegar. 
Common vinegar. 
Cow's milk, 

Concentrated acetic acid. 

Liquid hydrochloric acid. 

Boiling syrup. 
Cold syrup. 
Common nitric acid. 

Concentrated nitric acid. 

Phosphoric acid for medical use. 



Very concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Very concentrated phosphoric acid 



ARES ; a term invented by Paracelsus to de- 
signate the principle on which depends the form 
of mercury, sulphur, and salt. These the Al- 
chymists regarded as the three bodies that give 
birth to every other. 

AR'ETE, age™, ' virtue.' Mental or corpo- 
real vigour. — Hippocrates. 

A'REUS, A pessary, mentioned by Paulus of 
iEgina. 

AR'GEMA and AR'GEMON, from *&<><:, 
< white.' Fos'sula, (F.) Encavure; a white spot or 
ulceration of the eye. — Hippocr. See Leucoma. 
ARGEMONE MEXICA'NA, Thorn Poppy. 
A native of Mexico, but naturalized in most 
parts of the world. Nat. Ord. Papaveracete. 
Sex. Syst. Polyandria Monogynia. The juice 
resembles gamboge, and has been used as a hy- 
dragogue. The seeds are employed in the 
West Indies as a substitute for Ipecacuanha. 
They are also used as a cathartic. 

ARGENSON, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A chalybeate situate at Argenson in Dauphiny : 
used in cases of obstruction, jaundice, &c. 

ARGENT, Argentum— a. Nitrate d', Argenti 
nitras. 

ARGENTERIA, Potentilla anserina. 
ARGEN'TI NITRAS, Argen'tum Nitra'tum, 
Sal argen'ti, Argentum Nit'ricum., Nitrate of 
Silver. This preparation is sometimes kept in 
crystals, the Nitras Argen'ti in crystal'los con- 
cre'tus, Nitrate d' Argent cristallist of the Co- 
dex of Paris, Crystalli Luna:, Argen'tum nifri- 
cum crystallisa'tum, Nitras argenti crystal'li- 
nus, Ni'trum luna're, Hydrago' gum Boy'lei. 
Generally, however, it is in the fused state : 
and it is this which is admitted into most Phar- 
macopoeias, and which, besides the name Ni- 
tras Argenti, is called, Ni'tras argen'ti fu'sus, 
Caus'ticum luna're, Lapis inferna'lis, Argen'- 
tum nit'ricum fusum, and lunar caustic. (F) 
Nitrate a" argent fondu, Pierre infernale. 

The virtues of Nitrate of Silver, are tonic, 
and escharotic. It is given in chorea, epilepsy, 
&c; locally, it is used in various cases as an 
escharotic. Dose, gr. 1-8 to gr. 1-4 in pill, 
three times a day. 

The Chloride Cyanide and Iodide of Sil- 
ver, the Oxide and the Chloride of Ammonia 
and Silver, have been used in Syphilis. At 
first, these different preparations were adminis- 
tered iatraleptically on the gums ; the chloride, 
the cyanide and the iodide in the dose of l-12th 
of a grain; the chloride of silver and ammonia 
in the dose of l-14th of a grain, and the oxide 
of silver and the divided silver in the dose of 
l-8th and l-4th of a grain. M. Serre, of Mont- 
pellier, who made many trials with them, soon 
found that these doses were too small, he there- 
fore raised that of the chloride to l-10th, and of 
the iodide to l-8th of a grain, without any in- 
convenience resulting. The dose of the other 
preparations was likewise increased in a similar 
ratio. M. Serre extols the preparations of sil- 
ver, used internally, as well as iatraleptically, 
as antisyphilitics,but they are not to be depended 
upon. 
ARGENTINE, Potentilla anserina. 
ARGEN'TUM, /l/gT/j-Ms^roma^of,' white.' 
Silver, Luna, (F) Argent. A solid metal of a 
shining white appearance : insipid ; inodorous; 
highly sonorous ; malleable and ductile ; some- 



ARGILE OCHREUSE PALE 



67 



ARNICA MONTANA 



what hard ; crystallizable in triangular pyra- 
mids ; fusible a little above a red heat, and vola- 
tizable. Not used at all in Medicine, unless in 
some places for silvering pills. Silver Leaf, 
Argen'tum folia' turn, is the state in which it is 
used for this purpose. 

The argentum divi'sum, or metallic silver in 
very fine powder has been recommended inter- 
nally in syphilis. 

Argentum Fugitivum, Hydrargyrum — a. 
Fusum, Hydrargyrum — a. Mobile, Hydrargy- 
rum — a. Vivum, Hydrargyrum. 

ARGILE OCHREUSE pAlE, Bolus alba. 

ARG1LLA PURA, Terra Alu 'minis, T. hola- 
ris sen argilla'cea pur a, pure Argil or Alumina, 
Alumine factice. This substance, which is pre- 
pared by drying alum and exposing it, for 
twenty or twenty-five minutes to a red heat, 
until the sulphuric acid is driven off, has been 
recommended in indigestion as antacid, as well 
as in vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied with 
acidity. The dose to a very young child is from 
gss to^j ; for older children from ^j to^ij. 

Argilla Ferruginea Rubra, Bole, ar- 
menian — a. Kalisulphurica, Alumen — a. Pal- 
lida, Bolus alba — a. Sulphurica alcalisata, Alu- 
men — a. Sulphurica usta, Alumen exsicca- 
tum — a. Supersulphas alcalisatum, Alumen — a 
Vitriolata, Alumen. 

ARGOL, RED, Potassae supertartras im- 
purus — a. white, Potassae supertartras impurus. 

ARGUMENTUM INTEGRITATIS, Hy- 
men. 

ARGYROCH^TA, Matricaria. 

ARGYROPH'ORA, from agyvgof, ' silver,' 
and <p4ga>, 'I bear.' A name given, by Myrep- 
sus, to an antidote which he regarded as ex- 
tremely precious. 

ARGYROTROPHEMA, Bhncmano-er. 

ARGYRUS, Argentum. 

ARHEUMAT'IC. Arheumaficus, agsufAZTicr- 
to{, from cl privative, and gst/^-*, 'fluxion or rheu- 
matism.' One without fluxion or rheumatism. 

ARIA, Crategus aria. 

ARIC'YMON. agiKufxtov. A name given to 
women who conceive readily. — Hippocr. 

ARIDE'NA. A Latin word employed to de- 
signate the leanness of any part. — Ettmuller, 
Sauvages. 

ARIDTTY, Ariditas. (F.) Aridite. The 
French use the word Ariditi to express the 
dryness of any organ, and particularly of the 
skin and tongue, when such dryness is so great 
as to render the organ rough to the touch. 
Ariditi, also, means the lanuginous appearance 
of the hair in some diseases, in which they 
seem covered with dust. 

ARIDU'RA. Wasting or emaciation of the 
whole or any part of the body. — Marasmus, 
Atrophy, (q. v.) 

ARIKA. See Spirit. 

ARISTALTHiPA, Althcea. 

ARISTOLOCHFA, from agio-roc, 'very 
good,' and xc^wt, < parturition ;' so called, be- 
cause the different varieties were supposed to 
aid parturition. Birthwort, (F) Aristoloche. 
Several varieties were once in use. 

Aristolochi'a Clemati'tis, Aristolochi'a 
Vulga'ris, Adra Riza, Aristolochi'a tcn'uis. (F) 
Aristoloche ordinaire, Upright Birthwort. 

The root has been considered stimulant and 



emmenagogue, and as such has been used in 
amenorrhcea, chlorosis, and cachexia. 

Aristolochia Fabacea, Fumaria bulbosa. 

Aristolochi'a Longa and A. rotun'da, (F) 
Aristoloche longuc et ronde, Long and round 
Birthwort. Virtues the same as the preceding. 

Aristolochi'a Pistolociii'a, Pistolochi'a, 
Aristolochi'a pohjrrhi'za. This variety has an 
aromatic odour, and an acrid and bitter taste. 
(F) Aristoloche cre'ncldc. 

Aristolochi'a Sf.rpenta'ria, Scrpcnta'ria, 
Vipera'ria, Viperi'na Virginia'na, Colubri'na 
Virginia 'na, Contraijer'va Virginia'na, C'oluv- 
rinc dc Virginic, S. Virginia'na, (F) Serpen In ire 
and Aristoloche scrpenta ire dc Virginic, Virginia 
Snake root. Virtues — tonic, stimulant; and, 
as such, employed in debility, intermittcnts, 
&c. The other varieties of Aristolochia have 
similar properties. 

Aristolochi'a Triloba'ta. (F) Aristoloche 
triloMc. A plant of Surinam and Jamaica; 
possessing the general virtues of the Aristolo- 
chiae. 

ARISTOLOCH'IC, same etymology. An 
old term for remedies supposed to have the pro- 
perty of promoting the flow of the Lochia. — 
Hippocr., Theophrastus. Dioscorides, &c. 

ARISTON MAGNUM and ARISTON 
PARVUM. These names were formerly given 
to pharmaceutical preparations, used in phthi- 
sis, tormina, and fever. — Avicenna. 

ARISTOPIIANEI'ON. A sort of emollient 
plaster, prepared with four pounds of pitch, 
two of apochyma, one of wax, an ounce of opo- 
ponax, and half a pint of vinegar. — Gorrams. 
not used. 

ARKANSAS, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
About 5 miles from the Washita river, and 
about a quarter of a degree north of the Loui- 
siana line, there are 70 of those springs. They 
are thermal, and upwards of 15U° Fahrenheit, 
and are employed in rheumatism, cutaneous 
affections, &c. 

ARLADA, Realgar. 

ARM, Brachium. 

ARMA VENTRIS, Penis. 

ARMAMENTARIUM, Arsenal. 

ARMATORY UNGUENT, Hoplochrysma. 

ARMATURA, AMNIOS. 

ARME, Suture. 

Arme, from «ga>, 'I adapt;' ag/^n. Any phy- 
siological or mechanical junction or union of 
parts. — Hcsychius. The sutures of the cranium. 
— Galen. 

ARMENIACA MALUS. The A'pricot. 
See Prunus. 

ARMENIAN STONE, Melochites. 

ARMENITES, Melochites. 

ARMILLiE MANUS MEMBRANOS.E, 
Annular ligament of the carpus. 

ARMOISE BLANC, Artemisia rupestris— a. 
Estragon, Artemisia dracunculus — a. Ordi- 
naire, Artemisia vulgaris. 

ARMORACIA, Cochlearia armoracia. 

ARMOUR, Condom. 

ARMURE DES JAMBES. See Cornu am- 
monis. 

ARMUS, Humerus, — a. Summus, Acromion. 

AR'NICA MONTA'NA. Derivation uncer- 
tain. Arnica, Leopard's Bane, Doron'icvm 
Gcrman'icum, Alis'mu, Acyrus, Diuret'ica, Ami- 



ARNOGLOSSUM 



68 



ARSENICAL PASTE 



ca Plauenfsis, Panacc'a lapso'rvm, Ptar'mica 
mon/a'tia, Cakha sen Calen'dula Mpi'na, (F) 

Antique, Betoine dcs Montagues. Tabac des 
Vosgcs. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia, Polygamia su- 
perflua. Nat. Ord. Synantherea?. The plant 
and flower are considered, or have been consi- 
dered, narcotic, stimulant, emmenagogue, &c. ; 
and, as such, have been given in amaurosis, 
paralysis, all nervous affections, rheumatism, 
gout, chlorosis, &.c. Dose, gr. v to x in pow- 
der. In large doses, it is deleterious. 

Arnica Spuria, Inula dysenterica — a. Sue- 
densis, Inula dysenteiica. 

ARNOGLOSSUM, Plantago. 

AROMA, a^a'/nu, ' perfume :' Spir'itus Rec- 
tor. (F) Arome. The odorous part of plants: 
an emanation — frequently imponderable — from 
bodies, which acts on the organ of smell, and 
varies with the body exhaling it. 

AROMATIC, Aromat'icus, (F) Aromate. 
Any odoriferous substance obtained from the 
vegetable kingdom, which contains much vola- 
tile oil, or a light and expansible resin. Aro- 
matics are used in perfumes, in seasoning, and 
embalming. In Medicine they are employed 
as stimulants. Ginger, cinnamon, cardamoms, 
mint, &c. belong to this class. 

AROMATOPO'LA, from etgupa., * an odour.' 
and 7rceKice, 'I sell.' An apothecary or drug- 
gist. One who sells spices. 

AROPH. A barbarous word, which had va- 
rious significations with the ancients. Para- 
celsus employed it to designate a lithontriptic 
remedy. The Mandragore, according to some: 
— Also, a mixture of bread, saffron and wine. — 
Helmont. 

Aroph Paracelsi, Ferrum ammoniatum. 

ARQUEBUSADE, Eau d', Aqua traumat'- 
ica Thede'nii, Aqua Thedia'na, Aqua sclopeta'- 
ria, Aqua vulnera'ria, Aqua catapulta' rum, Mis- 
tu'ra vulnera'ria, ac"ida. A sort of vulnerary 
water, distilled from a farrago of aromatic 
plants. (Rosemary Ibiss, millefoil thyme, each 
Ibss. Pi-oof spirit 2 gallons — distil a gallon. 
This is one form.) 

ARRABON, Arraphon. 

ARRACHEMENT, (F.) from arracker, < to 
tear out,' Apospas'ma, Abrup'tio, Avul'sio. Act 
of separating a part of the body by tearing it 
from the bonds connecting it with others ; Evul- 
sion (q. v.) Laceration (q. v.) 

Arrachcmcnt, is applied to certain operations, 
as to the extraction of a tooth, the extirpation of 
a polypus. &c. 

ARRACK, Arack. See Spirit. 

AR'RAPHON or AR'RABON, from a. priv. 
and £*<?», ' a suture,' ' without suture.' A term 
applied to the cranium when it presents no su- 
tures. 

ARREPTIO. Insanity. 

ARRESTA BOVIS. Ononis spinosa. 

ARRET D'HILDAN, Remora Hildani. 

ARRETEBCEUF, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRHCE'A, from a priv. and gsa>, ' I flow.' 
The suppression of any flux. Amenorrhea, 
(q.V.) 

ARRHOSTEMA, Disease. 

ARRHOSTENIA, Disease. 

ARRHOSTIA, Disease. 

ARRHYTHMUS, Cacorrhythmus. 

ARRIERE-BOVCHE, Pharynx. 



ARRIERE-FA1X, Secundines. 

ARRlkRE-GOUT, (F) 'after taste.' The 
taste left by certain bodies in the mouth for 
some time after they have been swallowed, 
owing probably to the papilla: of the mouth 
having imbibed the savoury substance. 

ARRlkRES NARINES, Nares, posterior. 

ARROCHE, Atriplex hortensis — a. Puant, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ARROSEMEJYT, Aspersion. 

ARROW ROOT. The fecula of the Ma- 
ran'ta Arundina'cca, Fcc'ula Maran'tcc which, 
like all fecula?, is emollient and nutritive, when 
prepared with water or milk. 

Arrow Root, common. See Solanum tube- 
rosum. 

ARS CABALISTICA, Cabal— a. Chymia- 
trica, Chymiatria — a. Clysmatica nova, Infusion 
of medicines — a. Coquinaria, Culinary art — a. 
Cosmetica, Cosmetics — a. Culinaria, Culinary 
art — a. Empirica, Empiricism — a. Hermetica, 
Chymistry — a. Infusoria, Infusion of medicines 
— a. Machaonia, Medicina — a. Majorum, Chy- 
mistry — a. Medica, Medicina — a. Obstetricia, 
Obstetrics — a. Sanandi, Art, healing — a. Sepa- 
ratoria, Chvmistry — a. Spagiiica, Chymistry. 
' ARSALTOS, Asphaltum. 

ARSATUM, Nymphomania. 

AR'SENAL (F) Chirapolhc'ca, Armamcnta'- 
rium. A collection of surgical instruments. A 
work containing a description of surgical in- 
struments. 

ARSE'NIATE, Arse'nias. A salt formed by 
a combination of arsenic acid with a salifiable 
base. 

Arseniate of Ammonia, Arse'nias Ammo'- 
niai, Ammo'nium Arscn'icum, (F) Arsi'niate 
(VAmmoniaque. This preparation is highly 
extolled in cutaneous diseases. A grain of the 
salt may be dissolved in an ounce of distilled 
water, and 20 to 25 drops be commenced with 
as a dose. 

Arseniate of Iron, Arse'nias Ferri, Ferrum 
Arsenia'tum, F. Arsenicum oxydulatum, (F) 
Arseniate de Fcr. This preparation has been 
applied externally to cancerous ulcers. An 
ointment may be made of ^ss of the arseniate, 
gij of the phosphate of iron and ^vj of sper- 
maceti ointment : the arseniate has also been 
given internally in cancerous affections, in the 
dose of one-sixteenth of a grain. 

Arseniate of Protox'ide of Potas'sium, 
Proto-arsc'niatc of Potas'sium, Arse'niate of 
Potass, Arse'nias Potassa, Arse'nias Kali. Pro- 
perties the same as those of the Arsenious Acid. 

ARSENIC, Arscn'icum. A solid metal; of a 
steel-gray colour ; granular texture ; very brit- 
tle ; volatilizing before melting : very combus- 
tible and acidifiable. It is not dangerous of it- 
self, and only becomes so, by virtue of the faci- 
lity with which it absorbs oxygen. 

Arsenic, Iodide of, Arsen'ici Iodidum, A. 
Iodine' turn, Arsenicum Iodu'tunt. This prepa- 
ration has been highly extolled by Biett in va- 
rious cutaneous affections, applied externally. 
The ointment he uses contains 3 grains of 
iodide to §j of lard. 

Arsenic, Oxide of, Arsenious acid — a. 
White, Arsenious acid. 

ARSEN'ICAL PASTE, (F) Pate Arsinicalc. 
This application to cancers is formed of 70 parts 



ARSENICUM RUBRUM FACTITIUM C9 



ART ARE 



of cinnabar, 22 of dragon's blood, and 8 ofarsc- 
nious acid; made into a paste with saliva, when 
about to be applied. 

ARSENICUM RUBRUM FACTITIUM, 
Realgar. 

ARSE'NlOUS ACID ; White Ar'senic, Oxide 
of Ar'scnic, Ratsbane, Arsen'ici, ox'ydum album, 
Arsen'icum album, Ac"idum Arsenico'sum, Calx 
Arsen'ici alba. An acid which is met with in 
commerce, in compact, white, heavy, fragile 
masses ; of a vitreous aspect, opaque, and co- 
vered with a white dust: of an acrid and nau- 
seous taste ; without smell when cold ; volatili- 
zable by heat, and exhaling the odour of garlic : 
soluble in water, alcohol and oil; crystallizable 
in regular octahedrons. It is this that is meant 
by the name Arsenic, as commonly used. 

The Arsenicum Album Sublima'tum or 
Sublimed Oxide of Arsenic is the one employed 
in medicine. It is tonic and escbarotic, and is 
the most virulent of mineral poisons. It is used 
in intermittents, periodical headachs, neuro- 
ses, &c. Dose, gr. one-tenth to one-eighth in 
pill. 

See Poisons, Table of. 

ARSEN1S POTASS-E, Arsenite of protox- 
ide of potassium — a. Potassre aquosus, Liquor 
arsenicalis — a. Potassoe liquidus, Liquor arseni- 
calis. 

AR'SENITE, Ar'senis. A salt, formed by a 
combination of the arsenious acid with a salifi- 
able base. 

Ar'senite of Protox/ide of Potas'sium, 
Proto- ar'senite of Potas'sium, Ar'senite of Po- 
tass, Ar'senis Fota'ssa:. An uncrystallizable 
and colourless salt, which forms the basis of 
the Liquor Arsenicalis, which see. 

ARSE-SMART, Persicaria— a. Biting, Poly- 
gonum hydropiper. 

ART, HEALING, Ars sanan'di, Medici'na, 
(q. v.) The appropriate application of the pre- 
cepts of the best physicians, and of the results 
of experience to the treatment of disease. 

AR'TABA, a£ru@». Name of a measure for 
dry substances, in use with the ancients , equal, 
at times, to 5 modii : at others, to 3 ; and at 
others, again, to 7. — Galen. 

All'TELSHEIM, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. These German waters have been much 
recommended in hysteria, gout, palsy, &c. 
Their physical or chymical properties have not 
been described. 

ARTEMISTA, Anacti'rion: called after a 
queen of the name, who first employed it; or 
from A^ts/^/c, ' Diana;' because it was former- 
ly used in diseases of women, over whom she 
presided. The Gauls called it Bricumum. 

Artemis'ia Abkot'anum, Abrot'anum Cath- 
sum, Abrot'anum mas, Abrathan, South' ermoood, 
(F) Aurone, Aurone male, Aurone des Jardins, 
Garderobe, Citronellc. Supposed to be pos- 
sessed of stimulant properties. 

The Oil of Souther mcood, O'lcum Abrot'ani, 
(F) Huilc cV Aurone, possesses the Aromatic 
properties of the plant. 

Artemis'ia Absin'thium, Absin'thium, Ab- 
sin'thium xul ga' re, Banjpi'cron, CommonWorm- 
icood, (F) Absinthe. Properties: — tonic atid 
anthelmintic. The Oil of Wormwood, O'lcum 
Absin'thii, (F) Huilc d' Absinthe, contains the 
aromatic virtues of the plant. 



Artemisia Botrvs, Chenopodiura ambro- 
sioides. 

Artemis'ia Campes'tris, Field Southern- 
wood, (F) Aurone des Champs. This possesses 
the same properties as the A. Abrot'anum. 

Artemisia Chenopodium, Chenopodium bo- 
trys. 

Artemis'ia Dracun'cueus, Tar'agon, (F) 
Armoise cstragon. Virtues : — the same as the 
last. 

Artemisia Indica, Artemisia santonica. 

Artemis'ia Pon'tica, A. Roma'na, Absin'- 
thium Pon'ticum seu Romanum, Roman Worm- 
wood, Lesser Wormwood. This plant possesses 
like virtues ; — as well as the 

Artemis'ia Glacia'lis or Silky Wormicood ; 
and the 

Artemis'ia Marit'ima, Absin'thium Marit'- 
imum, Sea Wormicood, Maritime Southernwood. 

Artemis'ia Rupes'tris, Creeping Wormwood, 
Gen'ipi album, (F) Armoise blanc, Genipi blanc. 
This variety has aromatic virtues, and is used 
in intermittents and in amenorrhcea. 

Artemis'ia Santon'ica, Santon'icum, Arte- 
mis'ia contra, Semen contra Vermes, Semen con- 
tra, S. Zedoa'rim, Canni Hcrba, Chama.ce' dris , 
Chamcccyparis'sus, Semen Cince, Hagiosper' mum , 
Sanctum Semen, Absin'thium Santon'icum, Se- 
mcnti'na, Xantoli'na, Scheba Ar'abum, Arte- 
mis'ia Juda'ica, Wormsecd, Tartarian Southern- 
wood, (F) Barbotinc. Virtues : — anthelmintic 
and stimulant. Dose, gr. x to % j in powder. 

Artemis'ia Vulga'ris, Artemis'ia rubra et 
alba, Sin'gulum Sancti Joannis, Mater Hcrba'- 
rum, Berenisccum, Bubastccor' ilium, Canapa'- 
cia, Mug'wort, (F) Armoise ordinaire, Hcrbe de 
Saint Jean. This, as well as some other varie- 
ties, possesses the general tonic virtues of the 
Artemisia?. The Artemisia Vulgaris has been 
of late highly extolled by the Germans in cases 
of epilepsy. Dose of the powder in the 24 hours 
from gss to £j. 

From the Mugwort the Chinese form their 
Moxa (q. v.) 

ARTkRE, Artery — a. Brachial, Brachial ar- 
tery — a. Brachio-ciphalique, Innominata arteria 
— a. Bronchique, Bronchial artery — a. Clito- 
rienne : see Clitoris — a. Ccccale : see Colic arte- 
ries — a. Collatiralc du coude, Anastomoticus 
magnus ramus — a. Collatiralc cxtcrne, Arte- 
ria profunda humeri — a. Collaterale interne, 
Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. Coronaire 
des leorcs, Labial artery — a. Coronaire Sto- 
machique, Coronary artery — a. Cruralc, Crural 
artery — a. Dcuxihne des thoraciques, Arteria 
thoracica externa inferior — a. Epincusc, Menin- 
geal artery, middle — a. Fcmoro-poplitee, Ischia- 
tic artery — a. Fcssihe, Gluteal artery — a. Gas- 
trique d.roite, petite, Pyloric artery — a. Gutiu- 
ro-m.axillairc, Maxillary artery, internal — a. 
Honteuse cxtcrne, Pudic, external, artery — a. 
Honteuse interne, Pudic, internal, artery — a. 
Humerale profonde, Arteria profunda humeri — 
a. lliaque primitive, Iliac artery — a. lnnominic, 
Innominata arteria — a. Iricnnc, Ciliary artery — 
a. Ischio-penienne : see Pudic, internal, artery — 
a. Midiane anterieure, Spinal artery, anterior — 
a. Midianc jjost&ricurc du rachis, Spinal artery, 
posterior — a. Mmingee moyenne, Menino-cal 
artery, middle — a.Mcnlonni'ere, Mental foramen 
a. Mesoa'phalique, Basilary artery — a. Mcsoco- 



ARTERIA 



70 



ARTERY 



liquc : see Colic artery — a. Musculaire du Iras, 
Arteria profunda humeri — a. Musculaire du 
bras, grande : see Collateral arteries of the arm 
— a. Musculaire grande de la cuisse, Arteria 
profunda femoris — a. Opisthogastrique, Cceliac 
artery — a. Orbitairc, Ophthalmic artery — a. de 
VOvairc, Spermatic artery — a. Pelvi-crurale, 
Crural artery — a. Pelvi-crurale, Iliac artery — a. 
Pelvienne, Hypogastric artery — a. Premier des 
Ihoraciques, Arteria thoracica externa superior 
a. Radio -car pienne Iransvcrsale palmairc, Radio- 
carpal artery — a. Scrotule, Pudic, external, ar- 
tery — a. Sous-claviere, Subclavian artery — a. 
Sous-pubio-f 6 morale, Obturator artery — a. Sous- 
pubienne, Pudic, internal, artery — a. Sous-ster- 
nal, Mammary, internal — a. Split 1 no-tpineuse, 
Meningeal artery, middle — a. Stoinogastriqve, 
Coronary artery — a. Sus-maxillaire, Alveolar 
artery — a. Sus-maxillaire, Buccal artery — a. 
Sus-Mctatarsiennc, Metatarsal artery — a. Sus- 
■pubienne, Epigastric artery — a. Tcsticulairc, 
Spermatic artery — a. Thoracique humerale, 
Acromial artery — a. TracMlo- cervical, see Ce- 
rebral arteries — a. Trochanterienne, Circumflex 
artery of the thigh — a. Troisiemc des ihora- 
ciques, Acromial artery — a. Tympanique, Audi- 
tory artery, external — a. Alveole, Ciliary artery 
— a. Vulvaire, Pudic, external, artery. 

ARTERIA, Artery — a. Anonyma Jnnominata 
artery — a. Aspera, Trachea — a. Cerebralis, Caro- 
tid, internal— a. Cervicalis,Basilary artery — a.Co- 
ronaria dextra, Pyloric artery — a. Crassa, Aorta 
— a. Externa cubiti, Radial artery — a. Dorsalis 
metacarpi, Metacarpal artery — a. Durre matris 
media maxima, Meningeal artery, middle — a. 
Encephalica, Carotid, internal — a. Gastrica su- 
perior, Coronary artery — a. Ileo-colica : see 
Colic arteries — a. Iliaca interna, Hypogastric 
artery — a. Iliaca posterior, Hypogastric artery — 
a. Magna, Aorta — a. Malleolaris externa : see 
Tibial arteries — a. Malleolaris interna : see Ti- 
bial arteries — a. Mammaria externa, A, Thora- 
cica externa, inferior — a. Maxima, Aorla — a. 
Media anastomotica : see Colic arteries — a. 
Meningaea media, Meningeal artery, middle — 
a. Muscularis femoris, A. profunda femoris — 
a. Pharyngea suprema, Pterygoid artery — a. 
Profunda cerebri : see Cerebral arteries — a. Pu- 
denda communis. Pudic, internal, artery — a. 
Pudica, Pudic, internal, artery— a. Ramulus 
ductus pterygoidei, Pterygoid artery — a. Splie- 
no-spinosa, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Spi- 
nalis, A. profunda humeri — a. Sternalis, Mam- 
mary, internal — a. Supra-orbitalis, Frontal ar- 
tery — a. Sylviana : see Cerebral arteries — a. 
Thoracica axillaris, vel alaris, Scapular artery, 
inferior — a. Thoracica humeralis, Acromial ar- 
tery — a. Transversalis colli: see Cerebral arte- 
ries — a. Transversalis humeri, Scapular artery, 
superior — a. Ulnaris, Cubital artery — a. Ute- 
rina hypogastrica, Uterine artery — a. Vasta 
posterior, A. profunda femoris. 

ARTE'RIAC, Artcriaca, agTM^/sut*. A medi- 
cine prescribed in diseases of the windpipe. 

ARTE'RLE ADIPO'S^E. The arteries, 
which secrete the fat about the kidneys, are 
sometimes so called. They are ramifications of 
the capsular, diaphragmatic, renal, and sper- 
matic arteries. 

Arterije Apoplectics, Carotids — a. Capi- 
tales, Carotids — a. Jugulares, Carotids — a. Le- 



thargies, Carotids— a. Pracparantes, Spermatic 
arteries— a. Somniferse, Carotids— a. Soporales, 
Carotids— a. Soporaria;, Carotids— a. Venosa;, 
Pulmonary veins. 

ARTE'RIAL, Arteriosus. Belonging to ar- 
teries. 

The Arte'rial Duct, Cana'lis artcrio'sus, 
Ductus artcrio'sus, D.Botalli (F) Canal ar Uriel, 
is the portion of the pulmonary artery, which 
terminates in the aorta, in the foetus. When 
this duct is obliterated after birth, it is called 
Aite'rial Lig 1 anient, (F) Ligament arteriel. 

Arterial Blood, (F) Sang arUriel. Red 
blood is so called because contained in the arte- 
ries. The pulmonary veins, however, also con- 
tain red blood : hence the name arterial veins, 
(F) Veines artt'ricllcs, applied to them. 

The Arterial System includes all the ar- 
teries, from their origin in the heart to their 
termination in the organs. See Vascular Sys- 
tem. 

ARTERIALIZATION OF THE BLOOD, 
Hsemalosis. 

ARTERIECTASIS, Aneurism. 

ARTERIODIALYSIS, see Aneurism. 

ARTERIOG'RAPH Y, Arteriogra'phia: from 
ugTȣi3., ' artery,' and ygaqii, < a description.' A 
description of the arteries. 

ARTERfOLA. A small artery. 

ARTERIOL'OGY, Artcriolo'gia ; from « g - 
T»gw, 'artery,' and Xoyo?, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on the arteries. 

ARTE'RIO-PITU'ITOUS. An epithet ap- 
plied to vessels which creep along the interior 
of the nostrils — Ruysch. 

ARTERIORRHEXIS, see Aneurism. 

ARTERIOT'OMY, Arterioto'mia, from «§t»- 
§/*, ' an artery,' and Ti/uvce, ' I cut.' This word 
has been used for the dissection of arteries. 
Most commonly, however, it means a surgical 
operation, which consists in opening an artery, 
to draw blood from it. 

Arteriotomy is chiefly used in inflammatory 
affections of the head, when the blood is gene- 
rally obtained from the temporal artery. 

ARTERI'TIS, from agTu^tx, ' an artery,' and 
ilis, a termination denoting inflammation. In- 
flammation of an artery. 

AR'TERY, Artdria, (F) Artlre, from «»g, 
' air,' and th^iiv, ' to preserve,' quasi,' recepta- 
cle of air,' because the ancients believed that 
it contained air. They, at first, gave the name, 
Artery, to the trachea, agrx/i/a. Tgjr^e/*, because 
it is filled with air ; and afterwards they used 
the same term for the arteries, properly so 
called, probably because they commonly found 
them empty in the dead body. We 'find, also, 
<p>.t@ic to designate the arteries, called by the 
Latins, Vena: micantcs, pulsatiles. Arteries, 
with the moderns, signify that order of vessels, 
which arise from the two ventricles of the heart, 
and have valves only at their origin. They are 
cylindrical, firm, and elasticcanals : of a yellow- 
ish white colour ; little dilatable ; easily lacera- 
ble ; formed, 1. Of an external, laminated or 
cellular membrane, of a dense and close cha- 
racter : 2. Of a middle coat composed of fibres, 
which does not, however, contract on the ap- 
plication of the galvanic stimulus: and 3. Of 
an inner coat, which is thin, diaphanous, red- 
dish, and polished. 



ARTERY 



71 



ARTERY 



The use of the arteries is, to carry the blood 
from the heart to the various parts of the sys- 
tem. It will be obvious, however, that they can- 
not all convey arterial blood. The pulmonary 
artery, for example, is destined to convey the 
venous blood to the lungs, there to be converted 
into arterial ; whilst the pulmonary veins con- 
vey arterial blood back to the heart. 

A TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTERIES OF THE 
BODY. 

All the arteries take their rise from the Pul- 
monary Artery, or the Aorta: and the names 
generally indicate the parts to which they are 
distributed. 

I. Arteria Pulmonaris. 

The Pulmonary Artery arises from the right- 
ventricle, and soon divides into a right and left 
branch, which are distributed to each lung. 

LT. Arteria Aorta. 

The Aorta rises from the left ventricle. It is 
the common trunk of the arteries of the body, 
and may be divided into five portions. 

a. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its origin. 

1. A. Cardiaca or coronaria anterior. 

2. A. Cardiaca or coronaria posterior. 

b. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its arch. 

The arch of the Aorta gives off, to the left, 
two considerable trunks — the Arteria carolidea 
primitiva, and the A. subclavia; and, to the right, 
a single trunk, which is larger — the A. innomi- 
nata or Brachio-ccplmlica, which divides into the 
primitive carotid and subclavian. 

A. Arteria Caro- ) Divides into A. Carotidea externa. 
tidea primitiva. ) A. Carotidea interna. 

'Furnishes, 1. A. Tliyroidea superior. 

2. A. lingualis, which gives off 
the A. dorsalis linguaB and A. 
sublingualis. 

3. A. facialis or A. Maxillaris ex- 
terna, which furnishes the A. 
palatina inferior, the A. sub- 
mentals, and A. coronaria 
superior and inferior. 

4. A occipitalis, which gives off 
the A. mastoidea posterior. 

5. A. auricularis ■posterior, which 
gives off A. stylo-mastoidea. 

6. A. pharyngca inferior. 

The external carotid ultimately divides into the tem- 
poral artery and internal maxillary. 

Furnishes A. transversalis faciei, A. 

auricularis anterior , and A. tempo- 
ralis media- 

f Furnishes 13 branches, viz. A. me- 
vingea media, A. dentaris inferior, 
A. temporalis profunda posterior, 
A. massetcrina, A. pterygoidra, A. 
buccalis, A. temporalis profunda 
anterior, A. alveolaris; A. subor- 
bitaris, A. vidiana, A. pterygopala- 
tina or pharyngea superior, A. 
palatina superior, and A. sp/icno- 
[ palatina. 



a. A. Carotidea ex- 
terna. 



b. A. Carotidea in- 
terna. 



B. Arteria Sub- j 

CLATIA. 



1. A. Temporalis. 



2. A. Maxillaris in- 
terna. 



A. Axillaris. 



A. Brachialis. 



' Furnishes, 1. A. ophthalmica, which 
gives off A. lachrymalis, A. cen- 
tralis retinrc, A. supraorbitaria or 
superciliaris, A. ciliares posteri- 
ori, A. ciliares longa?, A. muscu- 
laris superior et inferior, A. eth- 

| moidalis posterior et anterior, A. 

I palpebrals, superior et inferior, 
A. nasalis, and A. frontalis. 2. 

I A. communicans, Willesii. 3. A. 
choroidea. 4. A. cerebrulis ante- 

[ rior. 5. A. ccrebralis media. 

'Furnishes, 1. A. Vertebralis, which 
gives off A. spinalis anterior et 
posterior, A. cerebellosa inferior, 
and forms by uniting itself with 
that of the opposite side — the A. 
basilaris, divided into A. cerebel- 
losa superior and A. cerebralis 
posterior. 2. A. Thyroidea infe- 
rior, which gives off A. cervicalis 
ascendens. 3. A mammaria in- 
terna, which gives off the A. me- 
diastinaanteriorand A. diaphrag- 
matica superior. 4. A. intercos- 
talts superior. 5. A. cervicalis 
transversa. 6. A. scapularis su- 
perior. 7. A. cervicalis posterior 
vel profunda. Farther on, the 
subclavian artery continues its 
progress under the name A. ax- 
illaris. 

f Furnishes, 1. A. acromialis. 2. A. 
thoracica superior. 3. A. thoracica 
inferior or longa or mammaria ex- 
terna. 4. A. scapularis inferiorox 
communis. 5. A. circumflexa pos- 
terior. 6. A. circumflexa anterior. 
Farther on, the axillary artery 
continues under the name A. bra- 
chialis. 

[ Furnishes A. humcralis profunda or 
col/atcralis externa. 2. A. col- 
lalcralis interna. It afterwards 
divides into the radial and cubital 
arteries. 

fGives off A. recurrens radialis, A. 

dorsalis carpi, A. dorsalis meta- 

1. A. Radialis. < carpi, A. dorsalis pollicit, and ter- 

I initiates in forming the Arcuspal- 

^ maris profundus. 

'Gives off A. recurrens cubitalis an- 
terior and posterior; A. intcros- 
sea anterior and posterior, which 
o ft r Vi r ' latter furnishes A. recurrens ra- 

' dia/is posterior. It terminates in 
forming the superficial palmar 
arch, which gives off./?. Collate- 
ralcs digitorum. 



c. Arteries given off by the Aorta in the Tliorax. 

f 1. A. bronchica, dextra et sinistra. 
2. A. esophageal (to the number 
of four, five, or six ) 
These arteries are, ^ 3. A. mediastinal posteriores. 

4. A. intercostales infrriorcs vel 
Aorticm (to the number of eight, 
nine, or ten.) 

d. Arteries furnished by the Aorta in the Ab- 

domen. 



These branches 
are, 



2. A. Caliaca. 



1. The A. diaphragmatica vel phre- 
nica, dextra et sinistra. 

'Which divides into three branches, 
1. A. coronaria ventriculi. 2. A. 
Hepatica, which gives off A. py- 
lorica, A. gastro-epiploica dextra 
and A. cystica ; and, lastly, the 
A. splenica, which gives off A. 
gnstroepiploica sinistra and vasa 

\ brevia. 



ARTERY, ANGULAR 



ARTHRON 



f Which gives off at its concavity the 

3. A. Mesenterial 1 A. colica dextra superior, media ct 

superior. j inferior, and at its convex part 

[ from 15 to 20 Rami intestinales. 

C Which gives off A. colica superior 

4. A. Mescnterica j media, and inferior, and divides 

inferior. j into A. hrcmorrhoidales supe- 

(. riores. 

5. Tlie A. Capsularcs media (to the number of two on 
each side.) 

6. A. Renales or Emulgcnles. 

7. A. Spermatids, 

8. A. Lumbares (to the number of four or five on each 
side.) 



e. Arteries resulting from the Bifurcation of the 
Aorta. 

The Aorta, a little above its Bifurcation, gives off the A. 
sacra media, and divides into A. iliaca: primitives. 

Divides into A. iliaca interna and 
iliaca externa. 



A. Iliaca primitiva. j - ' 



a. A. Iliaca interna. < 



b. A. Iliaca externa 



A. Cruralis. 



'Furnishes, 1. A. ilio lumbaris. 2. A. 
sacra lateralis. 3. A. gluUca or 
iliaca posterior. 4. A. umbiliculis 
5. A. vesical.es. 6. A, obluratorea. 
7. A. hannorrhoidaa media. 8. A. 
uterina. 9. A. vaginalis. 10. A. 
ischialica. 11. A. pudendaintcrna, 
which gives off the A. hemorrhoi- 
dales inferijres, A. of the septum 
A. transversa perinei, A. corporis 
cavernosi, and A. dorsalis penis. 
f Furnishes 1. A. cpigastrica, 2. A. 
j iliaca anterior or circumflexa ilii, 
) and is continued afterwards un- 
( der the name of Crural Artery. 

' Furnishes, 1. A. subcutanea abdo- 
minalis. 2. A. pudenda supcrficialis 
and profunda. 3. A. muscularis 
supcrficialis. A. A. muscularis pro- 
funda, which gives off the A. cir- 
cumflexa externa and interna, and 
the three Perforantes, distin- 
guished into superior, middle, 
and inferior. Farther on, the 
crural artery continues under the 
name A. Poplitasa. 

Furnishes, 1. A. articulares supcri- 

ores, interna, media, el externa. 2. 

A. gemella;. 3. A. articulares in- 

feriorcs, interna et externa. 4. A. 

! tibialis antica, which, at the foot, 

■) takes the name A. Vorsalis Tarsi, 

I and gives off the tarsal and meta- 
tarsal arteries. In the leg, the po- 
pliteal artery divides into the pe- 
( roneal and posterior tibial. 
( Divides into A. peronxa antica aitd 
| A. perono?a poslica. 

f Divides into A. plantaris Interna 
and A. plantaris externa. The 
latter, by anastomosing with the 
j A. dorsalis tarsi, forms the plan- 
I tar arch, whence arise Rami $u 
periores or perforantes postici, R. 
inferiorcs postici et antici, which 
give off Kami perforantes antici. 



ARTERY, ANGULAR, Facial artery— parti- 
cular, Circumflex artery — a. Central of the reti- 
na, Central artery of the retina— a. Central of 
Zinn, Central artery of the retina — a. Cephalic, 
Carotid — a. Cerebral posterior, Vertebral— a. 
Cervico-scapular, see Cervical arteries — a. Co- 
ronary of the lips, Labial artery — a. Crotaphite, 
Temporal artery — a. Fibular, Peroneal artery — 
a. Gastric inferior, Gastro-epiploic artery — a. 
Gastro-hepatic, see Gastro-epiploic artery — a. 
Genital, Pudic (internal) artery— a. Guttural 
inferior, Thyroideal a. inferior — a. Guttural su- 



A. Poplitaa. 



1. A. Perona:a. 



A. Tibialis pos- 
tica. 



perior, Thyroideal — a. superior — a. Humeral, 
Brachial artery— a. Iliac posterior, Gluteal ar- 
tery — a. Iliaco-muscular, Ileo-lumbar a. — a. La- 
bial, Facial artery— a. Laryngeal superior, Thy- 
roideal a. superior— a. Lateral large, Spheno- 
palatine artery— a. Maxillary internal, Facial 
artery — a. Median of the sacrum, Sacral ar- 
tery, anterior — a. Palato-labial, Facial artery — 
a. Pericephalic, Carotid (external) — a. Pharyn- 
geal, superior, Pterygopalatine artery — a: 
Phrenic, Diaphragmatic artery — a. Posterior of 
the brain, see Cerebral arteries — a. External 
scapular, Acromial artery — a. Spinal, Menin- 
geal artery, middle — a. Subclavian right, Inno- 
minata arteria — a. Subscapular, Scapular artery, 
inferior — a. Supramaxillary, Alveolar artery — 
a. Suprarenal, Capsular artery — a. Thoracic, in- 
ternal, Mammary internal — a. Urethro-bulbar, 
Transverse perineal artery — a. Vesjco-prostatic, 
Vesical A. — a. Vidian, Pterygoid artery. 

ARTETIS'CU S ; from arlus, ' a limb.' One 
who has lost a limb. 

ARTHANPTA, from ag-m, 'bread:' the 
Cydlamen or Sowbread. It was formerly made 
into ointments, with many other substances, 
and was employed as a purgative, being rubbed 
on the abdomen. It formed the Uvguentum Ar- 
thani'ta. 

Arthanita Cyclamen, Cyclamen. 
ARTHETICA, Teucrium chamnepitys. 
ARTHRALGIA, JirthronaV 'gia, from agS-gov, 
'a joint,' and axyoc, ' pain.' Pain in the joints. 
ARTHREM'BOLUS, from agSsv, 'a joint,' 
iv, ' in,' and JZ&kkoo, ' I cast.' An ancient instru- 
ment used in the reduction of dislocations. 
ARTHRET1CA, Teucrium chamsepitys. 
ARTHRITIC, Arthrit'icus, from agS-gsv.'a 
joint.' (F) Jlrtliritique, Goutteux. That which 
relates to gout, as arthritic symptoms, &c. 
ARTHRITICUS VERUS, Gout. 
ARTHRITIS, Gout, Arthrosia— a. Aberrans, 
Gout (wandering) — a. Acuta, Gout (regular) — 
a. Arlhrodynia, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Ato- 
nic, Gout (atonic)— a. Asthenica, Gout (atonic) 
— a. Erratica, Gout (wandering) — a. Hydrar- 
thros, Hydrarthrus — a. Inflammatoria, Gout 
(regular) — a. Nodosa, Gout (with nodosities) — 
a. Podagra, Gout — a. Rheumatismus, Rheuma- 
tism, acute — a. Retrograda, Gout (retrograde.) 
ARTHROC'ACE,fromag3-^v,'a joint,' and 
xxKoe, < bad.' Disease of the joints ; and espe- 
cially caries of the articular surfaces; Spina 
ventosa. (q. v.) 

ARTHROCACOLOG"IA, from Arthrocada, 
— according to Rust, a chronic disease of the 
joints ; and \oyoc, ' a description.' The doctrine 
of chronic disease of the joints. 

ARTHRO'DIA, from a g 3- ? ov, 'a joint,' 
a^guSiu., Adarticula 'tio . A moveable joint, 
formed by the head of a bone applied to the 
surface of a shallow socket, so that it can exe- 
cute movements in every direction. Arthro- 
dium is 'a small joint :' diminutive of Arthrodia. 
ARTHRODYN'IA, Arthronal'gia, from 
■jfigtv, 'articulation,' and cJuvv, 'pain.' Ar- 
ticular pain. Pain in the joints. See Rheu- 
matism, chronic. 

ARTIIROM'BOLE, from *$&gsv, and /Saxxa,, 
1 1 cast.' Coaptation, reduction. Reduction 
of a luxated or fractured bone. 
ARTHRON, ' a joint.' The ancients used 



ARTHRONALGIA 



ARUM DRACUNCULUS 



the word Arthron, for the articulation of bones 
with motion, in opposition to Symphysis, or ar- 
ticulation without motion. 

ARTHRONALGIA, Arthralgia, Arthro- 
dynia. 

ARTHRO-RHEUMATISMUS, Rheuma- 
tism (acute.) 

ARTHROPHLOGO'SIS, from agS-gcv, <a 
joint,' and qxiyai, ' 1 burn.' Inflammation of 
the joints. 

ARTHROPUO'SIS, from u^gov, < a joint,' 
.and 7ruov, ' pus.' Suppuration or abscess of the 
joints. 

ARTHRO'SIA, from ag3-go«. <I articulate.' 
Arthritis, (of some.) Inflammation mostly con- 
fined to the joints, severely painful; occasion- 
ally extending to the surrounding muscles. A 
genus of diseases in the Nosology of Good, in- 
cluding Rheumatism, Gout, fyc. Articular inflam- 
mation, Jointache. 

Arthrosia Acuta, Rheumatism, acute a. 
Chronica, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Lumbo- 
rum, Lumbago — a. Podagra, gout — a. Podagra 
complicata, Gout (retrograde) — a. Podagra lar- 
vata, Gout (atonic) — a. Podagra regularis, Gout 
(regular.) 
ARTHROSIS, Articulation. 
ARTHROSPON'GUS, from ugSgov, ': 
joint,' and <T7royyoc, * a sponge.' A white, fun 
gous tumour of the joints. 

ARTLA. According to some, this word is 
synonymous with ugTDgtx ■■, others use it syno- 
nymously with Trachea. 

ARTICHAUT, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICHOKE, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICLE, Articulation. 
ARTICOCALUS, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICULAR, Articula'ris : that which re- 
lates to the articulations ; — as the articular cap- 
sules, &c. 

The Artic'ular Facettes are the conti- 
guous surfaces, by means of which the bones 
are articulated. 

The Artic'ular Ar'teries of the Knee, 
arise from the popliteal artery, and surround 
the tibio-femoral articulation. Although of a 
small size, they are important, as they furnish 
blood to the lower extremity after the operation 
for popliteal aneurism. They are distinguished 
into superior and inferior. 

The superior articular arteries, popliteal arti- 
cular arteries, are commonly three in number: 
one of which is internal, another external, and 
another middle. The first anastomoses by one 
branch with the external circumflex ; and by 
another with the external superior articular. 
The second anastomoses with the external cir- 
cumflex, the superior internal articular, and the 
inferior external articular ; and the third is dis- 
tributed within the joint. 

The inferior articular arteries are two in 
number : an internal and external. The former 
anastomoses with the internal superior articu- 
lar, and the external inferior articular. The 
latter anastomoses with the recurrent branch of 
the anterior tibial, and the external superior ar- 
ticular. 

The Articular Veins of the knee follow 
the same course as the arteries. 

ARTICULA'TION. Joint; Arlicula'tio, Ar- 
throsis, As sar thro' sis, Artic'ulus, Junctu'ra, Cola, 
10 



C'onjunc'tio, Nodus, Commissu'ra, Compagcs, 
Syntax/is, (F) Articulation, Article. The union 
of bones with each other, as well as the kind 
of union. 

TABLE OF ARTICULATIONS. 

Articulations ( ire generally divided into Diar- 
throscs or moveable articulations, and Synar- 
throses or immoveable. 

(I. Ampliiarthroses. 
I 2. Diarthroses, orbicu- ( Enarthrosis 
Dlarthroses. } lar vague. ) Arthrodia. 

3. Alternative or Ginglymus, wliicli 
[ admits of varieties, 
C 1. Suture. 
Synarthro- J 2. Harmony. 

ses. 1 3. Gompbosis. 

C 4. Schindylesis. 

Articula'tion means the combination of 
letters which constitute words. See Voice. 

Articulation, False, Pscudarthrosis, Ar- 
tic'ulus falsus, (F) A. fausse, A. accidentclle 
A. contre nature, A. anormale. A false joint, 
formed between fragments of bone, that have 
remained ununited ; or between a luxated bone 
and the surrounding parts. 

The Articulations are subject to a number of 
diseases, which are generally somewhat severe. 
These may be physical, as wounds, sprains, 
luxations, &c; or they may be organic, as an- 
kyloses, extraneous bodies, caries, rheumatism, 
gout, hydrarthroses, arthropuosis, &c. 

ARTICULATION EN CHARNlkRE, Gin- 
glymus — a. de la Hanche, Coxofemoral articula- 
tion. 

ARTICULI DIG1TORUM MANUS, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Digitorum pedis, Pha- 
langes of the toes. 

ARTIFICIAL, Artificial les. (F) Artificiel. 
That which is formed by art. 

Artificial Teeth are teeth made of ivory, 
porcelain, &c. 

Artificial Eves are usually made of enamel, 
and represent a sort of hollow hemisphere, 
which is applied beneath the eyelids, where 
the eye is lost. 

Pieces d 'anatomic artificielles are preparations 
of anatomy, modelled in wax, plaster, paper, &.c. 

ARTISCOCOUSLJE VIS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTISCUS, from aprot, 'bread.' A troch 
of the shape of a small loaf. Also, and espe- 
cially, a troch made of vipers. 

Artiscus, Trochiscus. 

ARTOCAR'PUS. The Bread-fruit Tree. 
An Ota£eitan tree, so called because the fruit, 
which is milky and juicy, supplies the place of 
bread to the inhabitants. It grows to the 
height of 40 feet. 

Artocarpus Integrifolia, Caoutchouc. 

ARTOC'REAS, from agT-o?, < bread,' and 
jtgs*r, ' flesh.' A kind of nourishing food made 
of various aliments boiled together. — Galen. 

ARTOG'ALA, from agros, 'bread,' and 
>*x*, 'milk,' An alimentary preparation of 
bread and milk. A poultice. 

ARTOM'ELI, from agra? , ' bread,' and /xt\t, 
' honey.' A cataplasm of bread and honey. 
Galen. 

ARTUS, Membrum. 

ARTYMA, Condiment. 

ARUM DRACUN'CULUS, Dracun'cuhis 
polyphyl'lus, Colubri'na Dracon'tia, Erva de 



ARUMARI 



74 



AsCELES 



Sanc'ta Maria, Gig 1 arus serpenta'fia, Arum po-\ihe Pm-'uli Assafatfida, Order, UmbellifersB. 



lyphyFlum, Serpenta'ria Galle/rum. Family, 
Aroidefie. Sex, Syst. Monoecia Polyandria. 
The roots and loaves are very acrimonious. 
The plant resembles the next in its properties. 
Arum Macula'tum, Cuclcow Pint, Barba 
Aaro'nis, Serpenta'ria minor, Zin' giber, Gcr- 
man'icum, Hake Robin. (F) Gouet, Pied de 
Veau. The fresh root is stimulant internally. 
Dose, 9j of the dried root. Externally, it is 
very acrid. 

From the root of this Arum a starch is pre- 
pared, which is called Portland Island Sago, 
Gersa serpenta'ria, Cerusfsa serpenta'ria:, Fee'- 
tda ari macula' ti. 

Arum Triphyl'lum, Indian Turnip, Dragon 
Root. This plant grows all over the United 
States, and is received into their Pharmaco- 
poeia under the title of Arum. The recent root 
is very acrimonious, and has been employed in 
asthma, croup, and hooping-cough. Boiled in 
lard, it lias been used in tinea capitis, and 
boiled in milk in consumption. 
ARUMARI, Caramata. 
ARUNDO BAMBOS, Bamboo— a. Brachii 
major, Ulna — a. Brachii minor, Radius — a. In- 
dica, Sagittariym alexipharinacum — a Major, 
Tibia — a. Minor, Fibula — a. Saccharifera, see 
Saccharum. 

ARVUM NATURE, Uterus. 
ARYTyE'NA, a/>i/Ta/v«, ' a ladle.' Hence, 
ARYT^'NO-EPIGLOT'TICUS. Arytm'- 
no-tpiglottidw'us. That which belongs to the 
arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis. Winslow 
gives this name to small, fleshy fasciculi, which 
are attached, at one extremity, to the arytenoid 
cartilages, and, by the other, to the free edge 
of the epiglottis. These fibres do not always 
exist. They form part of the arytenoid muscle 
of modern anatomists. 

ARYTENOID, Arytenoi'dcs, agvrcivcitS'»c. 
from agvn'Xtva., ' a ladle,' and e/Jc?, ' shape.' 
Ladle-shaped. 

The Aryt'enoid Car'tii.ages, Cartilag"ines 
arytcnoi'des, C. gutlura'les, C. gutturi'na, C. 
gutturifor'mes, C. triquetral, Guttur'nia, are 
two cartilages of the larynx, situate posteriorly 
above the cricoid, and which by approximation, 
diminish the aperture of the glottis. Their up- 
per extremities or cornua are turned towards 
each other, and are now and then found loose, 
in the form of appendices, which are considered, 
by some, as distinct cartilages, and termed cu- 
neiform or tubcrculatcd, or Cornic'tda Laryn'gis. 
The Aryt'enoid Glands, Glandu'he Aryte- 
noids' a, are small, glandular, whitish bodies, 
situate anterior to the A. cartilages. They 
pour out a mucous fluid to lubricate the larynx. 
ARYTENOIDiF/US. (F) Arytcnoidicn. A 
small muscle, which passes from one arytenoid 
cartilage to the other, by its contraction brings 
them together, and diminishes the aperture of 
the glottis. Winslow divided the muscle into 
three portions; — the Arytcnoidee'us transver'sus, 
and two Arytenoids 'i olli'qrii. 

ARYTH'M, Arylh'mus, from a privative, 
and gv&pcc, 'rythm.' 'measure.' Irregular. 
This word is applied chiefly to the pulse. 
ASA. Asafcetida. 

ASAFCETIDA, Assafaifida, Stems diah'oli, 
Asa, DcviVs dung. A gum resin obtained from 



It is in small masses of ;i whitish, reddish, and 
violet hue, adhering together. Taste bitter 
and subacrid: smell insupportably alliaceous. 
The Asiatics use it regularly as a condiment. 

Its medical properties arc antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, and anthelmintic. Dose, gr. v. to xx, 
in pill. 

AS'APES, ' crude,' Asep'ton. A term ap- 
plied to the sputum, or to other matters evacu- 
ated, which do not give signs of coction. 

ASAPH'ATUM, from a. priv. and <rx<p»c, 
' clear.' This term has been applied to collec- 
tions in the sebaceous follicles of the skin, which 
may be pressed out like little worms, with a 
black head. See Acne. 

ASAPH PA, from a. privative and vaQhs 
' clear.' Dyspbo'nia immodulofta palati'na, Pa- 
niji/ii/nia guttura'lis; P. palati'na. Defective 
articulation, dependent upon diseased palate. 
— Hippocr., Vogel. 

ASARABACCA, Asarum. 



ASAR'CON, from * privative; and s-«g£, 
' flesh.' Devoid of flesh. Aristotle uses the 
term for the head when it is but little fleshy, 
compared with the chest and abdomen. 
ASARET, Asarum. 

ASARPTES, from ac-agov, < the asarum.' A 
diuretic wine, of which asarum was an ingre- 
dient. — Dioscorides. 

AS'ARUM, from a. priv., and vAtguv, ' to 
adorn :' because not admitted into the ancient 
coronal wreaths. As'enuni Europatum, JYar- 
dvs Monta'na, JYardus Rusl'ica, Azarinn. (F) 
Asaret ou Cabaret, Oreille d'hommc, Orcillcttc, 
Girard-Roussin , Kurd Sfiuvage. Fani. Aroidea;. 
Sex. Syst. Dodecandria Monogynia. The 
plant, used in medicine, is the As 1 arum Euro- 
pee'vm, the Asarabeic'ca, and of this the leaves. 
They are emetic, cathartic, errhine,butare hard- 
ly ever employed, except for the last purpose. 

A'sarum Canaden'se, Canada Snakeroot, 
Wild Ginger, Coifs Foot. It is used as a sub- 
stitute for ginger, and is said to act as a warm 
stimulant and diaphoretic. 

ASCA1N, MINERAL WATERS OF. As- 
cain is a village, situate about a league from tSt. 
Jean-de-Luz in France. The water is a cold 
chalybeate. 

ASCARDAMYC'TES, from * priv., and 
o-y.agcTa/^i/T-Tffl, ' I twinkle the eyes.' One who 
stares with fixed eyes, and without moving the 
eyelids. — Hippocr. 

ASCARICIDA ANTHELMINTICS. Ver- 
nonia anlhelmintica. 

AS'CARIS, pi. ASCAR'IDES, from aa-^u.- 
§/£&>, ' 1 leap.' A genus of intestinal worms, 
characterized by a long, cylindrical body, ex- 
tenuated at the extremities; and having a mouth 
furnished with three tubercles, from which a 
very short tube is sometimes seen issuiiiir. 

Formerly, there were reckoned two varieties 
of the Ascaris — the As'caris lumbricoi'des, Liiid- 
bri'cus. 1j. Tens or long round worm ; and 
the As'earis Vvrmicula'ris — the Ascaris proper 
— the thread worm or maw worm. The former 
is alone included under the genus, at present, 
— a new genus having been formed of the A. 
vermicularis under the name O.wu'ris. 
Asi aris Trichuria, Tricocephalus. 
AS'CELLS or AS'KELES, Car ens cru'ribus, 



ASCELLA 



75 



ASPERSION 



from a privative, and 0-x.o.oc, ' a leg.' One who 
has no legs. 
ASCELLA, Axilla. 

ASCEiN'DENS, from Jlsccn'dcrc, ' to as- 
cend.' (F) Ascendant. Parts are thus called, 
which are supposed to arise in a region lower 
than that where they terminate. Thus, Aorta 
ascendents, is the aorta from its origin to the 
arch: Vena cava ascendens, the large vein, 
which carries the blood from the inferior parts 
to the heart: Obliquus ascendens (muscle,') 
the lesser oblique muscle of- the abdomen, 
&c. 

ASCEN'SUS MORBI. The period of in- 
crease of a disease. 

ASCESIS, Exercise. 

ASCHIL, Scilla. 

ASCI A, Axvrii, 'an axe,' Scepar'nos, Dola- 
bra, Fascia spiralis. Name of a bandage men- 
tioned by Hippocrates and Galen, and figured 
by Scultetus, in the shape of an axe or hatchet. 
— Galen. See Doloire. 

ASCILLA, Axilla. 

ASCITES, from a<rx.o;, ' a bottle :' — Hydro- 
cc'lc Peritonce'i, Hi/drops Abdom'iivs, Hydro- 
gas'tcr, Ascli'tcs. A collection of serous fluid 
in the abdomen. Dropsy of the lower belly. 
(F) Ascite. Ascites proper is dropsy of the 
peritoneum ; and is characterized by increased 
size of the abdomen, by fluctuation and the ge- 
neral signs of dropsy. It is rarely a primary 
disease, but is always dangerous, and but little 
susceptible of cure. Most generally, it is 
owing to obstructed circulation in some of the 
viscera, or to excitement of the vessels of the 
abdominal organs. The treatment is essen- 
tially the same as that of other dropsies. Pa- 
racentesis, when had recourse to, can only be 
regarded as a palliative. 

Ascites Hefato-Cvsticds, Turgescentia 
vesiculae felleas — a. Ovarii, Hydrops ovarii — 
a. Saccatus, Hydrops ovarii. 

ASCLEPFADE, Asclepias Vincetoxicum. 

ASCLE'PIASTUBERO'SA, £«««;//// JfYcrf, 
Pleurisy Root, Flax Root, Wind Root, White 
Root. Nat. Ord. Asclepiadeae, Sea;. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Digynia. Said to have been first re- 
commended by ActjcAstwJV. In Virginia and 
the Carolinas, the root of this plant has been 
long celebrated as a remedy in pneumonic af- 
fections. It is sudorific, and the powder acts 
as a mild purgative. Us chief powers are said 
to be expectorant, diaphoretic, and febrifuge. 
It is occasionally given to relieve pains of the 
stomach from flatulence and indigestion. 

Asclepias Syriaca, Common Silk weed, Milk 
Weed, (F) Herbc a la houette. The cortical part 
of the root has been given, in powder, in asth- 
matic and pulmonic affections in general, and, 
it is said, with success. 

Asclepias Vincetox'icum. Called from 
^Esculapius probably. The Swallow Wort. 
(F) AscMpiadc, Dompte-venin. The root is 
said to be stimulant, diuretic, and eminena- 
gogue, but is hardly ever used. It is called, 
also, Hirundinafria. 

Asclepias DECuiu'BENs,the root. Escharo- 
tic, cathartic, sudorific, diuretic. 

Asclepias Asthmat'ica. (F) Ipecacuanha 
blanc de I'llc de France. A creeping plant of the 
Isle of France, regarded as a specific in asthma. 



Asclepias Curassav'ica. The leaves are 
emetic in the dose of one or two scruples. It 
is the Ipecacuanha blanc of St. Domingo. 

Asclepias Gigantea. The milky juice is 
very caustic. It is used in Malabar against 
herpes; and, mixed with oil, in gout. 

Asclepias Proc"era (?) Beidcl-ossar ; Bei- 
delsar. An ^Egyptian plant, the leaves of 
which are made into plaster, and applied to in- 
dolent tumours. The milky juice is caustic, 
and is used as such. 

ASCLITES, Ascites. 

ASCO'MA, from <*<ntoc, ''a bottle.' The 
eminence of the pubes at the period of puberty 
in females. — Rufus of Ephesus. 

ASE, Anxiety. 

ASELLI, Onisci aselli. 

ASELLUS, Oniscus. 

ASE'MA CRISIS, k/>/3-;? a.<n/u*, from a. priv. 
and c-^/uLtt, 'a sign.' A crisis occurring unexpect- 
edly, and without the ordinary precursory signs. 

ASEPTON, Asapes. 

ASH TREE, Fraxinus excelsior — a. Moun- 
tain, Sorbus acuparia — a. Prickly, Aralia spi- 
nosa, Xanthoxylum clava Herculis. 

ASIT'IA, from a. priv. and o-<to?, 'food.' 
Abstinence from food (q. v.) Want of appetite. 

ASJAGAN, As' jo gam. An Indian tree, the 
juice of whose leaves, mixed with powdered 
cumin seeds, is employed, in India, in colic. 

ASJOGAM, Asjao-an. 

ASKELES, Asceles. 

ASPALASO'MUS, from *<rsraA«£, ' a mole,' 
and 0-tey.ct, ' body.' A genus of monsters in 
which there is imperfect development of the 
eyes. — I. G. St. Hilaire. 

ASPALTUM, Asphaltum. 

ASPARAG1NE. See Asparagus. 

ASO'DES, Asso'des, from x<ni, ' disgust,' 
' satiety.' A fever accompanied with anxiety 
and nausea. Fe'bris aso'des vel azo'des. 

ASPAR'AGUS, Aspar'agus officinalis, Com- 
mon Asparagus, Sparrow Grass, Grass. Nat. 
Ord. AsphodelesB, Sex. Syst. llexandria Mono- 
gynia. Aspar'agi officinalis Turio'ncs. (F) 
Asperge. The fresh roots are diuretic, perhaps 
owing to the immediate, crystallizable princi- 
ple, Asparaginc. The young shoots are a well 
known and esteemed vegetable diet. They 
communicate a peculiar odour to the urine. A 
syrup made of the young shoots and ail extract 
of the roots has been recently recommended as 
a sedative in heart affections. 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in an 
infusion of galls, and used by females for con- 
strino-ing the vagina. 

ASPERGE, Asparagus. 

ASPERITlt DES PAUPIkRES, Trachoma. 

ASPERITAS ARTERLE ASPERJE, Rau- 
cedo. 

ASPER'ITY, Asperitas, roughness. Aspe- 
rities are inequalities on the surfaces of bones, 
which often serve for the insertion of fibrous 
orsrans. 

ASPERMATIS'MUS, from * priv. and 
cm-igfAa., 'sperm.' Reflux of sperm from the 
urethra into the bladder, during the venereal 
orgasm. 

ASPER.SIO, Catapasma, Fomentation. 

ASPERULA, Galium aparine. 
ASPER'SION,. Aspcr'sio, (F) Arrosement. 



ASPERULA ODORATA 



7G 



ASS1DENS 



Act of sprinkling or pouring a liquid guttatim 
over a wound, ulcer, &c. 

ASPER'ULA ODORA'TA, Matrisyl'va, 
Hepatfica stella'ta, (F) Asperule odorante ou 
Muguet des bois, H6patique etoilee. Fam. Ru- 
biaceaa. Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia. 
Sweet- scented Woodroof. Said to be diuretic, 
deobstruent, tonic, and vulnerary. 

ASPKRULE ODORANTE, Asperulaodorata. 

ASPHAL'TUM, Nep'ta, Arsal'tos, AspaV- 
tum, from cmtqxki^iiv. 'to strengthen.' With 
the Greeks, this word signified any kind of bi- 
tumen. It is now restricted chiefly to the Bit'- 
umen of Jvdje'a, B. Juda'icurn, B. sol'idum, 
Jew's Pitch, or Karaite of Sodom. (F) Asphaltc. 
It is solid, friable, vitreous, black, shining, in- 
flammable, and of a fetid smell. An oil is ob- 
tained from it by distillation. It enters into the 
composition of certain ointments and plasters. 

It is collected on the surface of the water of 
the Dead Sea, or Lake Asphaltites in Judrea. 

ASPHALTl'TES, same etymon. A name, 
given by some to the last lumbar vertebra. — 
Gorrffius. 

ASPHARINE, Galium aparine. 

ASPHOD'ELUS RAMO'SUS, Asphodclus, 
Jl. Albus, A. Maris, Has 1 tula Regis. (F) Lis 
asjmodelc. The bulbs of this southern Euro- 
pean plant have an acrimony, which they lose 
in boiling water. They contain a fecula with 
which bread has been made, and have been 
considered diuretic. They have been used as 
a succedaneum for the squill. 

ASPHYX'IA, from a. priv. and o-<f>t/£K, 
' pulse.' Defec'tus Pulsus, Acrot.is'mos. For a 
Jong time, Asphyxia was confined to the sense 
of ' suspension of circulation.' It now gene- 
rally means suspended animation, produced by 
the nonconversion of the venous blood of the 
lungs into arterial blood. Apna?'a, (q. v.) Ap- 
neustia,Apncesphyx'ia, Anhmmato'sia. Owing to 
the supply of air being cut off, the unchanged 
venous blood of the pulmonary artery passes 
into the minute radicles of the pulmonary veins, 
but their peculiar irritability requiring arterial 
blood to excite them, stagnation takes place in 
the pulmonary radicles, and death occurs chiefly 
from this cause, — not owing to venous blood 
being distributed through the system, and 'poi- 
soning' it, as was the idea of Bichat. Carus as- 
phyx'ia, Mors apparens, Mors putativa, or Ap- 
parent death, is characterized by suspension of 
respiration, of the cerebral functions, &c. Seve- 
ral varieties of Asphyxia have been designated. 

1. Asphyx'ia by Submer'sion,^. by Drown- 
ing, a. hnmersorum, as occurs in the drowned, 
who perish in consequence of the medium in 
which they are plunged being unfit for respi- 
ration. See Submersion. 

2. Asphyx'ia by Strangula'tion or Suffo- 
ca'tion; produced by mechanical impediment 
to respiration, as in strangulation. 

3. Asphyx'ia by Nox'ious Inhala'tion, or 
inhalation of Gases, some of which cause death 
by producing a spasmodic closure of the glot- 
tis : others by the want of oxygen, and others 
are positively deleterious or poisonous. 

4. Asphyx'ia of the New-Born. This is 
often dependent upon the feeble condition of 
the infant, not permitting respiration to be es- 
tablished. 



Mr. Chevalier lias used the term) Asphyxfia 
Tdiopath'ica for fatal syncope owing to relaxa- 
tion of the heart. See Suffocation. 

Asphyxia, Local. See Gangrene. 

ASPIC, Aspis, also, Lavendula. 

ASPIDISCOS, Sphincter ani externus. 

ASPIDIUM CORIACEUM, Calaguate ra- 
dix — a. Filix mas. Polypodium filix mas. 

ASPIRATIO, Inspiration. 

ASPIRA'TION, Mspira'tio, Aspira'tio. The 
French sometimes use the term synonymously 
with inspiration. It also means the act of at- 
tracting or sucking like a pump. Imbibition, 
(q. v.) Also, the pronunciation of a vowel 
with a full breath. 

ASPIS, 23-7r/?. A name given by the an- 
cients to a venomous serpent — the Egyptian 
viper, of Lacepede. (F) Aspic. Its bite is very 
dangerous, and it is supposed to have been the 
reptile which Cleopatra used for her destruc- 
tion. 

ASPLE'NIUM, from « priv. and o-jtx»v, 
' the spleen.' Splccnwort, Milticaste. 

Asple'nium Cet'erach, DoradiVla, Blech- 
num squamo'sum, Scolopcn' dria, Atky'rion, 
Cet'erach officinarum. (F) Doradille. Sup- 
posed to be subastringent and mucilaginous, 
and has been recommended as a pectoral. It 
has also been given in calculous cases. 

Asple'nium Ruta Mura'ria, A. mura'le, 
Paronychia, ll'allrue, White Maidenhair, Tent- 
wort, Adian'thum album, Ruta mura'ria, Salvia 
vita. (F) Rue des murail/es, Sauvevic. Used 
in the same cases as the last. 

Asple'nium Scolofen'drium, Scolopcn'- 
driurn qfficina'rum, Hart's Tongue, Splccmoort, 
Pln/l/i'tis, Lingua ccrvi'na, Blechnum lignifo'- 
lium. (F) Scolopcndrc, Languc dc ccrf. Pro- 
perties like the last. 

Asple'nium Trichomanoi'des, A. Trichom'- 
anes, CalLiphyl'lum, x*x*<<j>uaaov, Trichom'- 
anes, Adian'thum rubrum, Common Maiden- 
hair, Polyt'ricum eommu'nc, (F) Polytric. Pro- 
perties like the last. 

ASPREDO, Trachoma— a. Miliacea, Miliary 
fever. 

ASPRELE, Hippuris Vulgaris. 

ASSA DOUX, Benjamin— a. Dulcis, Ben- 
jamin — a. Odorata, Benjamin. 

AS'SABA. A Guinea shrub whose leaves 
are considered capable of dispersing buboes. 

ASSAIERET. A compound of bitter, sto- 
machic, and purgative medicines, in the form of 
a pill. — Avicenna. 

ASSAISOJYJYEMEJVT, Condiment. 

ASSAKUR, Saccharum. 

ASSALA. See Myristica moschata. 

ASSARTHROSIS, Articulation. 

ASSELLA, Axilla. 

ASSATIO, Optc'sis. The boiling of food or 
medicines in their own juice, without the addi- 
tion of any liquid. Various kinds of cooking 
by heat. — Galen. 

AS'SERAC, Assis. A preparation of opium 
or of some narcotic, used by the Turks as an 
excitant. 

ASSERCULUM, Splint. 

ASSERVATIOK, Conservation. 

AS'SIDENS, from ad, ' to,' and sedere, ' to 
be seated.' That which accompanies or is 
concomitant. An epithet applied to the ac- 



ASSIMILATION 



77 



ASTRAGALUS VERUS 



cessory symptoms and general phenomena of 
disease. 

ASSIMILA'TION, Assimila'tio, Appropria'- 
tio, Exomoio'sis, 1 lomoio 1 sis , Threpsis, Threp- 
tice : from assimila're, ' to render similar.' The 
act by which living bodies appropriate and 
transform into their own substance, matters 
with which they may be placed in contact. In 
man, assimilation is a function of nutrition. 

ASSIS, Asserac. 

AS'SIUS LAPIS, A'sius Lapis. A sort of 
stone or earth found near the town of Assa in 
the Troad, and which had the property of de- 
stroying proud flesh. 

ASSODES, Asodes. 

ASSO UP [SSEMEjYT, Somnolency . 

ASSOURON. See Myrtus pimenta. 

ASSUETUDO, Habit. 

ASSULA, Splint. 

ASSUMPTIO, Prehension. 

ASTACUS FLUVIATILIS, Crab. 

Astaci Fluviatilis Concrementa, Can- 
crorum chelae. 

ASTAKILLOS, Araneum ulcus. 

ASTASIA, Dysphoria. 

ASTARZOF. An ointment, composed of 
litharge, frog's spawn, &c. Also, camphor 
dissolved in rose-water. — Paracelsus. 

ASTER ATTICUS, Bubonium— a. Ingui- 
nalis, Eryngium campestre. 

ASTE'RIA GEMMA, Astc'rias, Astrdi'tes, 
As'trios, Astroh'olos. The ancients attributed 
imaginary virtues to this stone, — that of dis- 
persing Naivi Materni, e. g. 

ASTHENFA, from * priv. and tr9-«no?, ' force,' 
'strength.' Want of strength, debility, (q. v.) 
Infirmity, (q. v.) A word used in this sense 
by Galen, and employed especially by Brown 
to designate debility of the whole economy or 
diminution of the vital forces. He distinguish- 
ed it into direct and indirect : the former pro- 
ceeding from diminution of stimuli ; the latter 
from exhaustion of incitability by the abuse of 
stimuli. 

Asthenia Pectoralis, Angina pectoris. 

ASTHMA, from a.a>, '1 respire,' A. spas'ti- 
cuin adulto'rum, A. Seniorum, A. Convulshum , 
A. spas' ticum intermit' tens, Dyspnm'a ct orthop- 
nea convulsiva, Broken windedness . Difficulty 
of breathing, recurring at intervals, accompa- 
nied with a wheezing sound and sense of con- 
striction in the chest; cough and expectoration. 

Asthma is a chronic disease, and not curable 
with facility. Excitant and narcotic antispas- 
modics are required. 

The Asthma Acu'tum of Millar, A. spasticum 
infan'tum, Cynun'che trachea' /is spasmod'ica, 
(F.) Asthma aigu, probably spasmodic croup. (?) 

The Asthma Siccum, so called when the 
paroxysm is sudden, violent, and of short du- 
ration •- cough slight, and expectoration scanty : 
spasmodic constriction. 

Asthma, hay, Fever, hay. 

The Asthma Hu'midum, Humid, Common or 
spitting asthma, is when the disease is accom- 
panied with expectoration. It is also called A. 
humora'le, A. flatulcn'tum, A. pnexunon'icum, 
B/rnnotho'rax chro'nicus, &c. 

There are no pathognomonic physical sio-ns 
of asthma. In some cases, the respiration is 
universally puerile during the attack. In the 



spasmodic form the respiratory murmur is 
very feeble or absent during the fit ; and in all 
forms of the disease percussion elicits a clear 
pulmonary sound. 

The disease generally consists in some source 
of irritation, and occasionally, perhaps, in para- 
lysis of the pneumogastric nerves : more fre- 
quently of the former — all the phenomena indi- 
cating constriction of the smaller bronchial ra- 
mifications. 

The treatment is one that relieves spasmodic 
action — narcotics, counter-irritants — change of 
air, &c. 

Asthma Aerium, Pneumothorax — a. Arthriti- 
cum, Angina pectoris — a. Convulsivum, An- 
gina pectoris — a. Emphysematicum, Pneumo- 
thorax — a. Infantum, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Dolorificum, Angina pectoris — a. Nocturnum, 
Incubus. 

Asthma Pulverulen'tum. The variety of 
asthma to which Millers, Bakers, Grinders and 
others are subject. 

Asthma Spastico-Arthritjcum incosstans, 
Angina pectoris. 

Asthma Thymicum, A. T. Koppii, Spasmus 
glottidis, A. intermittens infan'tum, A. Den- 
tientium, A period' icum acu'tum, Koppian Asth- 
ma, Thymic Asthma, Laryngis'mus strid'ulus. 
A disease of infants characterized by suspen- 
sion of respiration at intervals; great difficulty 
of breathing, especially on waking, swallow- 
ing, or crying, ending often in a fit of suffoca- 
tion with convulsions. 

The pathology of the disease has been sup- 
posed to consist in enlargement of the Thymus 
gland, or of the glands of the neck pressing on 
the pneumogastric nerves. 

The ear, on auscultation, at a distance from 
the chest, detects an incomplete, acute, hissing 
inspiration, or rather cry; whilst the expiration 
and voice are croupal, both at the accession 
and termination of the paroxysm. The heart's 
action has been observed to be distinct and 
feeble. 

ASTHMAT'IC, Asthmat' icus ; one affected 
with asthma. What relates to asthma. 

AS'TOMUS, aa-Tc^oc, from a. priv. and 
trrofiix, 'a mouth.' One without a mouth. 
Pliny speaks of a people in India without 
mouths, who live anhelatu et odore! 

ASTRAGALE COL D', Collum astrao-ali. 

ASTRAG'ALUS, Talus, the Ankle, Qua'trio, 
Diab'ebos, Peza, Cavic'ula, Cavil'la, Tctro'ros, 
As'trion, Os Ballist'a. A short bone situate at 
the superior and middle part of the tarsus, where 
it is articulated with the tibia. It is the ankle 
hone, sling bone or first bone of the foot. The 
anterior surface is convex, and has a well- 
marked prominence, supported by a kind of 
neck, and hence has been called the head of the 
Astragalus. The astragalus is developed by 
two points of ossification. 

Astrag'alus Exs'capus, Stem/ess Milk-vetch, 
(F) Astragalc a gousses veins. Nat. Ord. Le- 
guminosre. Sex. Syst. Diadelphia Decandria. 
The root is said to have cured confirmed sy- 
philis. 

Astrag'altts Vr.nrs, Goat's thorn, Milk- 
retch. Spina hirci, Astragalus aculea'tus. The 
plant which affords Gum Trag'acanth. See 
Tragacantha. 



ASTRANTIA 



78 



ATIIENIONIS CATAPOTIUM 



Astragalus Trag acanthus, see Traga- 
canth. 

ASTRANTtt., Imperatoria. 

AS'TRAPE, Corusca'tio, Fulgvr, Lightning. 
Galen reckons it amongst the remote causes of 
epilepsy. 

ASTRICTION, Astric'tio, »«4«, from ad- 
strin'gere, ' to constringe.' Action of an astrin- 
gent substance on the animal economy. 

ASTRKJTORIA, Astringents. 
. ASTRINGENTS, Astringcn'tia, Katastal'- 
tica, Constringeri'tia, Contrahen'tia, Stcgno'tica, 
Syncritfica, Astricio'ria, from astringcrc, ' to con- 
stringe.' Medicines, which have the property 
of constringing the organic textures. External 
astringents are called Styptics. 

The following are the chief astringents : 



Acidum Sulphuricum, 

Alumen, 

Argenti Nitras, 

Catechu, 

Cupri Sulphas, 

Ferri Muriatis, Tinct. 

Ferri Nitratis, Liquor, 

Ferri Sulplias, 

Gall.T, 

Hasmatoxjion, 



Kino, 
Kraincria, 
Liquor Galcis, 
Plumb. Ac'etas, 
Quercus Alba, 

" Tiuctoria, 
Tanninum, 
Zinci Sulphas, 

Creasoton. 



ASTRION, Astragalus. 

ASTRIOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROB'LES, from ain-gsv, ' a star,' and 
fixxxce, ' 1 strike.' One struck by the stars 
(si.il i rn/tus.) One who is in a state of sidera- 
tion — in an apoplectic state. — Gorrcnus. 

ASTROBOLIS'MOS, same etymology. Si- 
dcra'tion or action of the stars on a person. 
Apoplexy. — Theophr., Gorrreus. 

ASTROBOLOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROITIS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROL/OGY, AstroWgia, from acrrgov/a. 
star,' and xoyo;, ' a discourse.' The art of di- 
vining by inspecting the stars. This was for- 
merly considered to be a part of Medicine ; and 
was called Judicial Astrology, to distinguish it 
from Astronomy. 

ASTRON'OMY, Astrono'mia, from arr^v, 
1 a star,' and vo/uoc, ' a law,' ' rule.' A science, 
which makes known the heavenly phenomena, 
and the laws that govern them. Hippocrates 
places this and Astrology amongst the neces- 
sary studies of a physician. 

ASTYSIA, Impotence. 

ASUAR, Myrobalanus Indica. 

ASULCI, Lapis lazuli. 

ASYNOD1 A, Impotence. 

ATACTOS, Erratic. 

AT'AVISM ; from At'axus, ' an old grandsire 
or ancestor, indefinitely.' The case in which 
an anomaly or disease, existing in a family, is 
lost in one generation and reappears in the fol- 
lowing. 

ATARACTAPOIE'SIA, from a. priv. «§««- 
tgc, 'troubled,' and wc/s/v, ' to make.' Intre- 
pidity, firmness. A quality of which, according 
to Hippocrates, the physician ought to be pos- 
sessed in the highest degree. 

ATARAX'IA, from « privative, and T*g«£/c, 
1 trouble,' ' emotion.' Moral tranquillity , peace 
of mind. 

ATAX'IA. from * priv. and t«|/c, 'order.' 
Disorder, irregularity. Hippocrates employs 
the word in its most extensive acceptation 



Galen applies it, especially, to irregularity of 
pulse; and Sydenham speaks of Ataxia Spi- 
rituum for disorder of the nervous system. 
Ataxia, now, usually means the state of disorder 
that characterizes nervous fevers, and the ner- 
vous condition. 

Ataxia Spirituum, Nervous diathesis. 

ATCIIAR, Achia, Ackar. A condiment used 
in India. It is formed of green fruits of various 
kinds; — garlic, ginger, mustard, and pimento, 
pickled in vinegar. 

ATECNIA, Sterilitas. 

AT'ELES, ctttxtis, 'imperfect, defective.' 
Hence, 

ATELOENCEPHAL'IA, from *T-sx»r, ' im- 
perfect.' and eyx.iQ-j.xov, ' the encephalon.' State 
of imperfect development of the brain . — Andral. 

ATELOCHEFLIA,from <m-im»c,« imperfect,' 
and yjixo^, ' lip.' A malformation which con- 
sists in an imperfect development of the lip. 

ATELOGLOS'SIA, from *tsx»c, 'imper- 
fect,' and yXu>o-<r<t, ' tongue.' A malformation 
which consists in an imperfect development of 
the ton one. 

ATELOGNA'THIA, from utix^, ' imper- 
fect,' and yvuQoc, 'the jaw.' A malformation 
which consists in an imperfect development of 
the jaw. 

ATELOMYELIA, from a.Tix»c, ' imperfect,' 
and [Avthoc, ' marrow.' State of imperfect de- 
velopment of the spinal marrow. — Beclard. 

ATELOPROSO'PIA, from «<nx*c, 'imper- 
fect,' and irpoe-uirov, ' the face.' A malforma- 
tion which consists in imperfect development 
of the face. 

ATELOSTO'MIA, from anx^, ' imperfect,' 
and cr<T0fA'jL, ' mouth.' One whose mouth is im- 
perfectly developed. 

ATER SUCCUS, Atrabilis. 

ATHANASIA, Tanacetum. 

ATHAMAN'TA, from Athamas, a place in 
Thessaly. A genus of plants. 

Atiiaman'ta Creten'sis or Crct'ica, Daucus 
Crcticus; D. Candianus, Myrrhis annua , Candy 
Carrot. The seeds of this plant are acrid and 
aromatic. They have been used as carmina- 
tives and diuretics. 

Atiiaman'ta Aureoseli'num, OrcoseU'num, 
Black Mountain Parsley. (F) Pcrsil dc Mon- 
tague. The plant, seed and roots are aromatic. 
It lias been considered attenuant, aperient, de- 
obstruent, and lithontriptic. The distilled oil 
has been used in toothache. 

ATIIANA'SIA, from a priv. and 3-*v*to ? , 
' death.' An antidote for diseases of the liver, 
jaundice, gravel, &c. It consisted of saffron, 
cinnamon, lavender, cassia, myrrh, juncus odo- 
ratus, honey, &c, and was esteemed to be su- 
dorific. 

ATHARA, Athera. 

ATHELAS'MUS, from * priv. and 6»x», *a 
breast or nipple.' Impracticability of giv'ing 
suck ; from want of nipple or otherwise 

ATHELXIS, Sucking. 

ATIIE'NA, *9-»v*. Name of a plaster, re- 
commended by Asclepiades, and composed of 
oxide of copper, sublimed oxide of zinc, sal am- 
moniac, verdigris, gall-nuts, and a variety of 
resinous and other ingredients.— Oribasius, 
A< tin-;, and P. /]>ineta. 

ATHENIO'NIS CATAPOTIUM. A pill, 



ATIIERA 



79 



ATRIPLEX HORTENSIS 



composed of myrrh, pepper, castor, and opium; 
used to allay coughing. — Celsus. 

ATHE'RA, Atha'ra, from «0»/>, 'an ear of 
corn.' A kind of pap for children : also, a kind 
of liniment. — Dioscorides, Pliny. 

ATIIERO'MA, from aS-Jig*, 'pap or pulp.' 
r.mpluj'ma encys'lis athtro'ina, Mollus'cum. A 
tumour formed by a cyst containing matter like 
pap or Bovillic. 

ATHEROMATOUS, Atheromatoses. Ha- 
ving the nature of Atheroma. 

ATHLE'TA, from «3-ac c ,< combat.' Athletes 
were men, who exercised themselves in combat 
at the public festivals. — Vitruv. 

ATHLETIC, Athlet'icus; concerning AthW- 
Ice. Strono- in muscular powers. — Foesius. 

ATHORACOCEPHALUS, Acephalogaster. 

ATHRIX DEPILIS, Alopecia. 

ATHYM'IA, An'imi defec'tus et anxi'ctas, 
An'imi demis'sio, Tristia, from a. priv. and 
3-UiUOf, ' heart,' ' courage.' Despondency. The 
prostration of spirits, often observable in the 
sick. — Hippocr. Melancholy. — Swediaur. See 
Panophobia. 

ATHYRION. Asplenium cetcrach. 

ATHYR1UM FILIX MAS, Poly podium 
filix mas. 

ATLANTION, Atlas. 

ATLAS, Atlantion, from cn\cta>, ' I sustain.' 
The first cervical ver'tcbra: so called, from its 
supporting the whole weight of the head, as 
Atlas is said to have supported the globe on his 
shoulders. Chaussier calls it Mloid. This ver- 
tebra in no respect resembles the others. It is 
a kind of irregular ring, into which, anteriorly, 
the processus dentatus of the second vertebra is 
received. Posteriorly, it gives passage to the 
medulla spinalis. 

ATLOI'DO-AXOID, (F) Atloido-axoidien. 
Relating to both the Atlas and the Axis or 
Vertebra Dentata. 

Atloi'do-axoid Articulation. The articu- 
lation between the two first cervical vertebras. 

Att.oi'do-axoid Lig'aments. These are two 
in number ; one anterior and another posterior, 
passing between the two vertebras. 

Ati.oi'do-occip'ital. Relating to the Atlas 
and occiput. The Atloi'do-occip'ital Artie ulal - 
tion is formed by the condyles of the occipital 
bone and the superior articular surfaces of the 
Atlas. 

ATLOIDO- OCCIPITAL, Rectus capitis pos- 
ticus minor — a. Sous-masto'idien, Obliquus su- 
perior oculi — a. Sous-occipitalc, Rectis capitis 
lateralis. 

ATMIATRI'A, Atmidiat'rica, from cm-^oc, 
< vapour,' and iwrfiiA, ' treatment.' Treatment 
of diseases by fumigation. 

ATM1DIATRICA, Atmiatria. 

ATMISTERION, Vaporarium. 

ATMOS, Breath. 

ATMOSPHERE, Almosplue'ra, from cfr/uios, 
'vapour,' and o-qzigct, ' a. sphere:' — as it were, 
Sphere of vapours. The atmosphere is a sphe- 
rical mass of air, surrounding the earth in every 
part; the height of which is estimated at 15 f>r 
1G leagues. It presses on the surface of the 
earth, and this pressure has, necessarily, sensi- 
ble effects on organized bodies. The surface of 
the human body being reckoned at 15 square 
feet, it is computed that a pressure of 33,000 



pounds or more exists under ordinary circum- 
stances ; and this pressure cannot be increased 
or diminished materially, without modifying the 
circulation and all the functions. 

ATMOSPHER1ZATION, Hamatosis. 
ATOL'MIA, from ct priv. and tox^u, ' con- 
fidence.' Want of confidence; discouragement. 
A state of mind, unfavourable to health, and 
injurious in disease. It is the antithesis of 
Eutol'mia. 

ATONY, Mo'nia, Infir'mitas et Remis'sio 
vi'rium, Languor, Lax'itas, from a. priv. and 
tovos, ' tone,' ' force.' Want of tone. Weak- 
ness of every organ, and particularly of those 
that are contractile. Violent gastritis has been 
described by Scribonius Largus under a similar 
name, avavov, At'onon. 

ATRABILTARY, Jltrabil'ious, Atrabilia'ris, 
Jitrubilio'sus. An epithet given by the ancients 
to the melancholic and hypochondriac, because 
they believed the Atrabilis to predominate in 
such. 

The Jltrabiliary capsules, arteries, and veins, 
are the renal capsules, arteries, and veins ; the 
formation of Atrabilis having been attributed to 
them. 

ATRABl'LIS, from atra, ' black,' and bills, 
'bile:' Ater succus, Black Bile or Melancholy. 
According to the ancients, a thick, black, acrid 
humour, secreted, in the opinion of some, by 
the pancreas ; in that of others, by the supra- 
renal capsules. Hippocrates, Galen, Aetius, 
and others ascribe great influence to the Atra- 
bilis in the production of hypochondriasis, me- 
lancholy, and mania. There is really no such 
humour. It was an imaginary creation. — Are- 
tarns, Rufus of Ephcsus, &c. 

ATRACHELOCEPH'ALUS, from a. priv. 
Tf>*%n\o;, ' neck,' and x.t<p*Aii, ' head.' A mon- 
ster whose neck is partially or wholly deficient. 
ATRACHE'LUS. Same etymon. One who 
is very short-necked. — Galen. 

ATRAC'TYLIS GUMMIF'ERA, Car'duus 
pincus, Ix'ine, Gummy-rooted Atractylis , Pine 
Thistle. The root, when wounded, yields a 
milky, viscid juice, which concretes into tena- 
cious masses, and is said to be chewed with the 
same views as Mastich. 

ATP..AGENE, Clematis vitalba. 
A'lTlAMEN'TUM, A. Suto'rium, Ink, Cal- 
can'thon, (F) Encrc. It has been advised as an 
astringent, and as an external application in 
herpetic affections. 

Atramf.ntum Sutorium, Ferri sulphas. 
ATRESIA, Adherence, Imperforation. 
ATRETfSMUS, Imperforation. . 
ATRE'TUS, from a. priv. and t^'jlu, ' I per- 
forate.' One whose anus or parts of generation 
are imperforate. 

ATRICES. Small tumours, which appear 
occasionally around the anus. Some commen- 
tators consider the word to be synonymous with 
condylomata. — Forestus. 

AT'RICI. Small sinuses in the vicinity of 
the anus, not penetrating the rectum. 

ATRIPLEX HORTEN'SIS, A. Sati'va. (F) 
Arroche, Bonne Dame. The herb and seed of 
this plant have been exhibited as antiscorbutics. 
The At.'ripli.i al'imus, A. Pprtulacoi'des, and 
A. Patiiln, are used as pickles, and have similar 
properties. 



ATRIUM CORDIS DEXTER 



80 



AUDITION 



Atriplex F(Etida, Chenopodium vulvaria — 
a. Odorata, Chenopodium botrys — a. Olida, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ATRIUM CORDIS DEXTER, Sinus dexter 
cordis — a. Cordis sinistrum, Sinus pulmonalis. 

AT'ROPA, from At^s.toc, ' the goddess of 
destiny ;' so called from its fatal effects. 

Atropa Belladon'na, Belladon'na, Deadly 
Nightshade, Sola'num Utha'le, Sola'num ma- 
niacuw., S. Fiirio'surn, Sola'num mclanocer'asus. 
(F) Belladone, Morelle furicuse, Belle Dame. 
Nat. Ord. Solaneae, Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Mo- 
nogynia. The leaves are powerfully narcotic, 
diaphoretic, diuretic, and repellent. They are 
occasionally used where narcotics are indicated. 
Sprinkling the powdered leaves over cancerous 
sores has been found to allay the pain ; and the 
leaves form a good poultice. Dose, gr. A to gr. 
j. of the powdered leaves. 

Atrota Mandrag'ora, Mandrag'ora, Man- 
drake. The boiled root has been used in the 
form of poultice in indolent swellings. 

ATROPHIA, Tabes— a. Mesenterica, Tabes 
mesenterica. 

AT'ROPINE, Atrophia, Mro'pia,Atro'pium. 
The active principle of the Atropa Belladonna, 
separated by Rrandes, by a process similar to 
that for procuring Morphine. 

AT'ROPHY, Maras'mus Atro'phia, Atro'- 
2>hia, Maras 1 mus, Macies, Contabescen'tia, Talcs, 
Marco'res,Analo'sis, from a. privative, and rgcqn, 
'nourishment.' (F.) Atrophic, Dcsscchfrmcnt. 
Progressive and morbid diminution in the bulk 
of the whole body or of a part. Atrophy is ge- 
nerally symptomatic. 

ATTACHE, Insertion. 

ATTAGAS, Attagen. 

ATTACK', Insul'tus, Irrep'tio, Inva'sio, Eis'- 
hole, Lcpsis, (F) Attaque. A sudden attack, in- 
vasion or onset of a disease. A seizure. 

AT'TAG~EN,At'tagas,the Fran'colin. Cele- 
brated with the ancients both as food and me- 
dicine. — Martial, Aristophanes. 

ATTANCOURT, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. A mineral water in France at Allan- 
court in Champagne ; and about 3 leagues 
north of Joinville. The water is a chalybeate, 
and contains sulphate of lime. In large doses 
it is purgative. 

ATTAQUE, Attack— a. des Nerfs, Nervous 
attack. 

ATTELLE, Splint. 

ATTENOTING, MINERAL WATERS 
OF, in Bavaria. The water contains carbonic 
acid, carbonates of lime and soda, sulphates of 
lime and magnesia, muriate of soda, iron, and 
alum. It is much used in skin diseases, fistula, 
old ulcers, calculi, and hemorrhoids. 

ATTENDANTS, Atlenuan'tia Lcptun'tica, 
from ten'uis, ' thin.' Medicines which augment 
the fluidity of the humours. 

ATTIRANT, Attrahcnt. 

AT'TITUDE, Situs Corporis. Situation, 
position of the body. The attitudes are the 
different postures which man is capable of as- 
suming. In General Pathology, the altitude 
will often enable the physician to pronounce at 
once upon the character of a disease, or it will 
aid him materially in his judgment. In St. 
Vitus's dance, in fractures, luxations, &c, it is 
the great index. It will also indicate the de- 



gree of nervous or cerebral power: hence the 
sinking down in bed is an evidence of great 
cerebral debility in fever. 

The position of a patient during an opera- 
tion is an interesting subject of attention to the 
surgeon. 

ATTOL'LENS AUREM, Attol'lens Auric'- 
ula., Lcva'tor Auris, Supc'rior Auris, Attol'lens 
Auric'ulam, (F) Auriculairc supdrieur, Tern- 
poro-auriculaire. A muscle of the ear, which 
arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, from the ten- 
don of the occipito-frontalis, and is inserted into 
the upper part of the ear, opposite to the anti- 
helix. It raises the ear. 

ATTOLLENS OCULI, Rectus superior 
oculi. 

ATTOUCHEMENT, Masturbation. 

ATTRACTION OF AGGREGATION, Co- 
hesion, force of. 

ATTRACTIVUM. See Magnet. 

ATTRACTIVUS, Attrahent. 

ATTRACTOR1US, Attrahent. 

ATTRAHENT, Al'trahens, Attracli'vus, At- 
tracto'rius, from ad, ' to,' and traho, ' I draw.' 
(F) Attractif, Attirant. Remedies are so called, 
which attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied, as blisters, rubefacients, &c. 

ATTRAPE-LOURDAUT, (F.) A bistouri 
invented by a French surgeon, called Biennaise, 
and used in the operation for hernia. See Bis- 
tour cache. 

ATTRITA, Chafing. 

ATTRITION, Attri"tio, EcthUmma, from 
tcrcre, ' to bruise.' Friction or bruising. Cha- 
fing. — Galen. Also, a kind of cardialgia. — Sen- 
nertus. Likewise, a violent contusion. 

ATYP'IC, Atyp'icus, At'ypos, from « priva- 
tive, and tvtjoc, 'type.' That which has no 
type. Irregular. Chiefly applied to an irregu- 
lar intermittent. Febris atypica. 

ATYPOS, Erratic. 

AUAN'TE, Anap'sS, from avavCig, ' desicca- 
tion.' Hippocrates gave this name to a dis- 
ease, the principal symptom of which was 
emaciation. — Atrophy. 

AUBE-VIGNE, Clematis vitalba. 

AUBERGINE, Solanum Melongena. 

AUBIlPINE, Mespilus oxyacantha. 

AUBIFOIN, Cyanus segetum. 

AUCHEN, Collum. 

AUDE, Voice. 

AUDINAC, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Audinac is situate in the department of Ar- 
riege, France. The water contains a small 
quantity of hydrosulphuric acid ; carbonic acid, 
sulphates of lime and magnesia, carbonates of 
lime and iron, and a bituminous substance. It 
is much used in chronic rheumatism, herpes, 
scrofulous diseases, &c. 

AUDl'TION, from avdi're, < to hear.' Acol, 
Audi"tio, Audi'tus, Acoe'sis, Acu'sis. Hearing. 
The act of hearing. The sensation arising 
from an impression made on the auditory nerves 
by the vibrations of the air, produced by a so- 
norous body. The Physiology of Audition is 
obscure. It probably takes place :— 1. By the 
vibrations being communicated from the mem- 
brana tympani along the chain of small bones 
to the membrane of "the foramen ovale. 2. By 
means of the air in the cavity of the tympanum, 
the membrane of the foramen retundum is ao-i- 



AUDITORY 



81 



AURICULAR 



tated. 3. The transmission may be made by 
means of the bony parietes. 

In these three ways the vibrations, produced 
by a sonorous body, may reach the auditory 
nerves. Audition may be active or passive : 
hence the difference between listening and 
simply hearing. 

AU'D ITORY , Audito'rius, Auditi'vus. That 
which relates to audition. 

The Exter'nal Au'ditory Canal, Mea'tus, 
audito'rius extcr'nus, Alvca'rium, (F.) Conduit 
audi tif ext erne, Conduit auriculaire, commences 
at the bottom of the concha, at the Fora'men 
auditi'vum exter'num, passes inwards, forwards, 
and a little downwards, and terminates at the 
membrana tympani. It is partly cartilaginous, 
partly osseous, and partly fibrous. 

The Internal Auditory Canal, Mea'tus 
audito'rius inter' nus, Cyar, (F.) Conduit auditif 
interne. C. labyrinthique, is situate in the pos- 
terior surface of the pars petrosa of the tem- 
poral bone. From the Fora'men auditivum in- 
ter'num, where it commences, it passes forwards 
and outwards, and terminates by a kind of cul- 
de-sac, perforated by many holes, one of which 
is the orifice of the Aqua;ductus Fallopii ; and 
the others communicate with the labyrinth. 

The Auditory Nerve, JYerf labyrinthique — 
(Ch.), is the Portio Mollis of the seventh pair. 
It arises from the corpus restiforme, from the 
floor of the fourth ventricle, and, by means of 
white stria?, from the sides of the calamus scrip- 
torius. As it leaves the encephalon, it forms a 
flattened cord, and proceeds with the facial 
nerve through the foramen auditivum inter- 
num, and as far as the bottom of the meatus, 
where it separates from the facial and divides 
into two branches, one going to the cochlea; 
the other to the vestibule and semicircular ca- 
nals. 

The Auditory Arteries and Veins, are 
vessels which enter the auditory canals, and 
are, like them, distinguished into internal and 
external. The external auditory artery, A. 
Tympanique — (Ch.), is given oft" by the sty- 
loid, a branch of the external carotid : the in- 
ternal is a branch of the basilary artery, which 
accompanies the auditory nerve, and is distri- 
buted to it. 

The Auditory Veins empty into the internal 
and external jugulars. 

AUGE, M'veus. Some of the older Ana- 
tomists gave this name to reservoirs, into 
which liquids flow in an interrupted manner, 
so that they are alternately full and empty. 
Such are the ventricles and auricles of the 
heart. 

AUGMENTATION, from augere, < to in- 
crease.' Augmen'tum, Incrcmen'tum, Anab'asis, 
Auc't.io, Auxe'sis. The stage of a disease in 
which the symptoms go on increasing. 

AULISCOS,Canula. 

AULOS, Canula. See Vagina, and Fora- 
men. 

AUMALE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Aumale is a town of Upper Normandy, in the 
country of Caux. Several springs of ferrugi- 
nous mineral waters are found there, whose 
odour is penetrating, and taste rough and as- 
tringent. They are tonic, and employed in 
debility of the viscera, &c. 
11 



AUJYE JYOIR, Rhainnus frangula. 

AUJYJiE, Inula helenium — a. Dysenterique, 
Inula dysenterica. 

AURA, Pnoe. A vapour or emanation from 
any body, surrounding it like an atmosphere. 
Van Helmont regarded the vital principle as 
a gas and volatile spirit, which he called Aura 
vitalis. 

Aura Sem'inis or A. seminal lis ; — an active 
principle fancied to exist in the sperm, and re- 
garded by some as the fecundating agent. Such 
is not the case. 

Aura Sanguinis. The odour exhaled by 
blood newly drawn. See Gaz Sanguinis. 

In Pathology, Aura means the sensation of 
a light vapour, which, in some diseases, ap- 
pears to set out from the trunk or limbs; and 
to rise towards the head. This feeling has 
been found to precede attacks of epilepsy and 
hysteria, and hence it has been called Aura epi- 
lep'tica and A. hyster'ica. 

AURANITE. See Ao-aric. 

AURANCUM. See Ovum. 

AURAN'TIA CURASSAVEN'TIA, Curas- 
so'a apples or oranges. Immature oranges, 
checked, by accident, in their growth. They 
are a grateful, aromatic bitter, devoid of acidity. 
Infused in wine or brandy they make a good 
stomachic. They ore also used for issue peas. 

Aurantia Curassavica, see Citrus auran- 
tium — a. Poma, see Citrus aurantium. 

AURANT1UM, Citrus aurantium. 

AUREOLA, Areola. 

AURI CHLORETUM CUM CHLORETO 
NATR1I, see Gold— a. Chloridum, Gold, muri- 
ate of — a. Chloretum, Gold, muriate of — a. 
Cyanidum,see Gold — a.C_yanuretum,see Gold. 
— a.et Natrii chloruretum, see Gold — a. Murias, 
Gold, muriate of — a. Nitro-murias, see Gold — 
a. Oxidum, see Gold. 

AURICHALCUM, Brass. 

AURICULA. Diminutive of auris, an ear. 
The auricle of the ear. See Pavilion. 

The Auricles of the Heart, Cavita'tes in- 
nomina'tce, (F.) Ore.illettes, are two cavities ; 
one right, the other left, each communicating 
with the ventricle of its side. These two cavi- 
ties receive the blood from every part of the 
body. Into the right auricle, the two vense 
caves and coronary vein open: into the left, 
the four pulmonary veins. Chaussier calls the 
former the Sinus of the Vena Cava: — the latter, 
the Sinus ofthePul'monaiy Veins. See Sinus, 

Auricula Jud^e, Peziza auricula — a. Muris. 
Hieracium Pilosella — a. Muris major, Hiera- 
cium murorum. 

AURICULAIRE, see Digitus— a. Postiricur, 
Retrahens auris — a. Superieur , Attollens aurem. 

AURICULAR, Oric'ular, Auricula' 'r is, from 
auric'ula, ' the ear.' That which belongs to the 
ear, especially to the external ear. 

The Aurio'ular Ar'teries and Veins, Ori- 
culaircs — (Ch.), are divided into anterior and 
posterior. The anterior are of indeterminate 
number. They arise from the temporal artery, 
and are distributed to the meatus auditorius 
externus, and to the pavilion of the ear. The 
posterior auricular is given off by the external 
carotid, from which it separates in the sub- 
stance of the parotid gland. When it reaches 
the inferior part of the pavilion of the ear it 



AUR1CULARIS ANTERIOR 



82 



AUTOPLASTY 



bifurcates; one of its branches being distributed 
to the inner surface of the pavilion, the other 
passing over the mastoid process, and being 
distributed to the temporal and posterior auris 
muscles, &c. Before its bifurcation it gives off 
the stylo-mastoid artery. 

The Anterior and Posterior Auricular 
Veins open into the temporal and external 
jugular. 

The Auricular Nerves are several. 1. The 
auricular branch, Zygomato- auricular , is one of 
the ascending branches of the cervical plexus 
It ramifies and spreads over the two surfaces of 
the pavilion. 2. The auricular or superficial 
temporal, Temporal-cutaneous — (Ch), is given 
off from the inferior maxillary. It ascends be- 
tween the condyle of the jaw and the meatus 
auditorius externus, sends numerous filaments 
to the meatus and pavilion, and divides into 
two twigs, which accompany the branches of 
the temporal artery, and are distributed to the 
integuments of the head. There is also a. pos- 
terior auricular furnished by the facial. 

The Auricular Finger, (F.) Doigt auricu- 
laire, is the little finger, so called because, owing 
to its size, it can be more readily introduced 
into the meatus auditorius. 

AUR1CULARIS ANTERIOR, Anterior 
auris. 

AURTCULE, Pavilion of the ear. 

AURIC'ULO-VENTRIC'ULAR, Auric'ulo 
vcntricula'ris. That which belongs to the au- 
ricles and ventricles of the heart. The com- 
munications between the auricles and ventricles 
are so called. The Tricuspid and Mitral Valves 
are auriculo- ventricular valves. 

AUR.PGA. A species of bandage for the 
ribs, described by Galen. See, also, Liver. 

AUR1P1 OMENTUM, Orpiment— a. Ru- 
brum, Realgar. 

AURIGO, Icterus — a. Neophytorum, Icterus 
Infantum. 

AURIS, Ear. 

AURISCALP1UM, Earpick. 

AURIST, from auris, ' the ear.' One who 
occupies himself chiefly with the diseases of 
the ear and their treatment. 

AURIUM FLUCTUATIO, Bombns — a. 
Marmorata, Cerumen — a. Sibilus, Bombus — 
a. Sonitus, Bombus — a. Sordes, Cerumen — a. 
Susurrus, Bombus. 

AURONE, Artemisia, abrotanum — a. des 
Champs, Artemisia campestris — a. des Jardins, 
Artemisia abrotanum — a. Male, Artemisia abro- 
tanum. 

AURUGO, Icterus. 

AURUM, ' Gold,' (q.v.) 

Aurum Chloratum, Gold, muriate of — a. 
Chloratum natronatum, see Gold— a. Foliatum, 
Gold leaf — a. in Libellis, Gold leaf — a. Le- 
prosum, Antimonium — a. Limatum, see Gold 
— a. Muriaticum, Gold muriate of — a. Muriati- 
cum, see Gold — a. Muriaticum natronatum, see 
Gold. 

Aurum Musi'vum, Aurum Mosa'icum, Sul- 
phuret of Tin. The deutosulphurct or persul- 
phuret of tin. (Quicksilver, tin, sulphur, sal 
ammoniac, aa, equal parts. The tin being first 
melted, the quicksilver is poured into it, and 
then the whole are ground together, and sub- 
limed in a bolthead. The aurum musivum lies 



at the bottom.) It is used in some empirical 
preparations. 

Aurum Oxydatum. see Gold — a. Oxydula- 
tum muriaticum, Gold, muriate of— a. Nitro- 
muriaticum, see Gold— a. Salitum, Gold, mu- 
riate of. 

AUSCU LT A'TION, Ausculta'lio from auscul- 
ta're, 'to listen:' act of listening. Buisson has 
used it synonymously with listening. Laennec 
introduced auscultation to appreciate the dif- 
ferent sounds, which can be heard in the chest, 
and in the diagnosis of diseases of the heart, 
lungs, &c. This may be done by the aid of an 
instrument called a stethoscope (q. v.), one ex- 
tremity of which is applied to the ear, the other 
to the chest of the patient. This mode of ex- 
amination is called Mediate Auscultation, (F.) 
Auscultation mediate, — the application of the ear 
to the chest forming immediate auscultation. 

The act of exploring the chest is called Ste- 
thosco'pia, and Thoracoseop' ia ; of the abdomen, 
Ah domino s cop' ia, (q. v.) 

AUSCULTATORY PERCUSSION, see 
Acouophonia. 

AUSTE'RE, Auste'rus. Substances, which 
produce a high degree of acerb impression on 
the organs of taste. 

AUSTROMAN'CY; Auslromanti'a. The art 
of predicting from observance of the winds. 

AUSTRUCHE, Imperatoria. 

AUTALGIA DOLOROSA, Neuralgia, facial, 
Pleurodynia — a. Pruriginosa, Itching — a. Ver- 
tigo, Vertigo. 

AUTARCl'A, from avrog, < himself,' and 
ctQxia), ' I am satisfied.' Moral tranquillity. — 
Galen. 

AUTEMESTA, from avrog, ' self,' and tutotg, 
' vomiting.' Spontaneous or idiopathic vomit- 
ing. — Alibert. 

AUTHE'MERON. A medicine which cures 
on the day of its exhibition; from avrog, 'the 
same,' and \fihqa, ' day.' 

AUTOCHIR1A, Suicide. 

AUTOCRASY, Autocrati'a, Autocrato'ria, 
from avrog, 'himself,' and xqarog, 'strength.' 
Independent force. Action of the vital prin- 
ciple, or of the instinctive powers towards the 
preservation of the individual. — See Vis Medi- 
catrix Natures. Also, the vital principle. 

AUTOCRAT1A, Autocrasy, Vis medicatrix 
naturae. 

AUTOCRATORIA, Autocrasy— a. Physia- 
trice, Vis medicatrix natura:. 

AUTOCTONIA, Suicide. 

AUTOLITHOrOMUS, Autolilhot'omist, 
from uvrog, 'himself,' Zi&og, 'a stone,' and 
Tiuretv, ' to cut.' One who operates upon him- 
self for the stone. 

AUTOMATIC, Automat'icus, from avro- 
uarog, ' spontaneous.' That which acts of itself. 
Those movements are called automatic, which 
the patient executes without any object; ap- 
parently without volition being exercised 

AUTOMJVALE, Autumnal. 

AUTONOMIA, Vis medicatrix naturce. 

AUTOPEPSIA, from avrog, 'self,' and 
Ttinro), ' I concoct.' Self-digestion,— as of the 
stomach after death. 

AUTOPH1A, Autopsia. 

AUTOPHOSPHORUS, Phosphorus. 

AUTOPLASTY, Morioplastice. 



AUTOPSIA OR AUTOPSY 



83 



AXILLA 



AUTOP'SIA or AUTOPSY; from avroc, 
'himself,' and oxpiq, ' vision.' Autoph'ia. At- 
tentive examination by one's self. Improperly 
used occasionally for the following : 

Autop'sia Cadaver'ica, (F.) Autopsie, Ou- 
verturecadaverique. Attentive examination after 
death, Examination post mortem, Sectio Cadav'- 
cris, Dissection, Necroscopy, Necropsy; — prac- 
tised for the purpose of investigating the causes 
and seat of an affection of which a person may 
have died, &c. 

AUTOPYROS, Syncomistos. 
AUTOS1TE, from avrog, 'self,' and atrog, 
' nourishment.' A single monster, capable of de- 
riving nourishment from its own proper organs, 
in contradistinction to Omphalosite, (q. v.) 

AUTUMN, Jiutum'nus, Phthiropo'ron, (F.) 
Jlutomne. One of the seasons of the year, be- 
tween the 23d of September and the 22d of De- 
cember. In all climates, the Autumn or Fall is 
liable to disease ; a combination of local and 
atmospheric causes being then present, favour- 
able to its production. 

AUTUM'NAL; Autumna'lis. (F.) Autom- 
nale. Relating to autumn; as Autumnal Fruits , 
Autumnal Fevers, &c. 

Autumnal Fever, generally assumes a bilious 
aspect. Those of the intermittent kind are much 
more obstinate than when they appear in the 
spring. 
AUXESIS, Augmentation, Increase. 
AUXILIARY, Auxilia'ris, from auxil'ium, 
'aid.' (F.) Auxiliare. That which assists; — 
from which assistance is obtained. 

Auxil'iarv Muscles are those which con- 
cur in the same movement. Some Anatomists 
have applied the term to several ligaments, as 
well as to the fleshy fibres, which hang from 
the sucro-spinalis muscle. 

An Auxiliary Medicine is one which as- 
sists the principal medicine or basis. It is 
synonymous with Adjuvant. 

AUXILIUM, Juvans, Medicament. 
AVAILLES, WATERS OF. A small vil- 
lage in France, 13 leagues S. S. E. of Poitiers, 
at which there is a cold saline chalybeate. It 
contains muriates of soda and lime, sulphate 
and subcarbonate of soda, iron, &.c. 

AVANT-BOUCHE, (F.) Os anti'cum. This 
name has been applied by some, to the mouth 
properly so called, in contradistinction to the 
Arrihre-bouche or Pharynx. 
AVANT-BRAS, Forearm. 
AVAMT-CCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 
JiV ANT- GOUT, (F.) Prcegusta'tio; a Fore- 
taste, Prregustation. 

AV ANT-MAIN, (F.) Adver'sa Manus. The 
inside of the hand, when extended. 

AVAj\ T-PIED, (F.) The most advanced part 
of the foot. 

AVANT-POIGNET, (F.) The anterior part 
of the wrist. 

AVELINE, Corylus avellana (nut.) 
AVELLANA, Cathartica, Jatropha curcas. 
AVE'NA, Oats, Bromos. The seeds of the 
Ave'na sati'va. Nat. Ord. Gramineaj. Sex. Syst. 
TriandriaUigynia. (F.)Avoine. Oats are used 
as food for man, in some parts, particularly in 
the North of England and Scotland. When de- 
prived of the husks they form Groats, which 
see. Reduced to meal, they are applied as 



cataplasms, to promote suppuration. The dry 
meal is sprinkled over erysipelatous parts. 

AVENHE1M, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Avenheim is three leagues from Strasburg, and 
near it is an aperient mineral water. 

AVENNES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Avennes is a village in the department of He- 
rault in France, and near it is a saline spring, the 
temperature of which rises to 84° Fahrenheit. 

AVENS, COMMON, Geum urbanum— a. 
Water, Geum rivale. 
AVER1CH, Sulphur. 

AVERRHO'A CARAM'BOLA. Malum 
Coen'se, Prunum stcl/a'tum, Tam'ara, conga, 
Caram'bolo. An Indian tree, whose fruits are 
agreeably acid. The bark, bruised, is employed 
as a cataplasm, and its fruit is used as a re- 
frigerant in bilious fever and dysentery. 

The Averrho'a Bilim'bi, Bilim'bi, Bilim- 
hing teres, has a fruit, which is too acid to be 
eaten alone. It is used as a condiment, and in 
the form of syrup as a refrigerant. 

AVER'SlON, Avcr'sio, anoToonrj, from aver- 
tere, 'to turn from.' Extreme repugnance for 
any thing whatever. 

AVERSION (F.) also means, in Therapeu- 
tics, the action of medicines which turn the 
afflux of fluids from one organ, and direct them 
to others: being synonymous with counter-irri- 
tation, or rather revulsion or derivation. 

AVERTIN, (F.) Adiseaseofthe mind, which, 
according to Lavoisien, renders the patient 
obstinate and furious. 
AVEVGLE, Csecus. 

AVEUGLEMENT, Csecitas— a. de Jour, 
Nyctalopia — a. de Nuit, Hemeralopia. 

AVICEN'NIA TOMENTO'SA. The plant 
which affords the Maladca Bean or Anacar' dium 
Oricnta'lc of the Pharmacopoeias, Scmecar 'pus 
Anacar' dium. The oil drawn from the bark of 
the fruit is a corrosive, and active vesicatory, 
but it is not used. 

AVICULA CIPRIA, Pastil— a. Margariti- 
fera. See Pearl. 
AVOIN, Avena. 
AVORTEMENT, Abortion. 
AVORTER, to Abort. 
AVORTIN, Abortion. 
A VORTON, Abortion. 
AVULSIO, Arrachement. 
AVULSION, Evulsion. 
AX, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ax is a 
small town in the departmentof Arriege, France; 
where there are several sulphurous springs ; the 
temperature of which varies from 77° to 162° of 
Fahrenheit. 
AXE, Axis — a. Ac VQZil, Axis of the eye. 
AX'EA COMMISSU'RA, Troclwi'des. A 
pivot-joint. See Trochoid. 

AXIL'LA, Ala, Ascel'la, Assel'la, Ascil'la, 
Acel'la, Cordis cmuncto'rium, Male, Ilypo'mia, 
Fovea axillaris, Mas'chalc, (F.) Aisselle. The 
cavity beneath the junction of the arm with the 
shoulder; the armpit. It is bounded, anteriorly, 
by a portion of the pectoralis major; posteriorly, 
by the latissimus dorsi. It is covered with hair, 
contains much cellular membrane, lymphatic 
ganglions, important vessels and nerves, and nu- 
merous sebaceous follicles, furnishing an odor- 
ous secretion. Inconsequence of such secretion, 
the ancients called it cmuncto'rium cordis 



AXILLARY 



84 



BACCE BERMUDENSES 



AX'ILLARY, (F.) Axillaire, from axil'h, 
'the armpit.' Belonging to the armpit. 

Arte'ria Axilla'ris ; a continuation of the 
subclavian, extending from the passage of the 
latter between the scaleni muscles as far as 
the insertion of the pectoralis major, when it 
takes the name Brachial. 

Vena Axilla'ris, Vena Subala'ris. This vein 
corresponds with the artery ; anterior to which 
it is situate. It is a continuation of the brachial 
veins; and, at its termination, assumes the name 
Subclavian. 

The Ax'illary Nerve, Scap'ulo-hn'mcral 
(Ch.) Nerf circonflexe, Articular nerve, arises 
from the posterior part of the brachial plexus, 
particularly from the last two cervical pairs and 
the first dorsal. It is chiefly distributed to the 
posterior margin of the deltoid. 

The Ax'illary Glands are lymphatic 
glands, seated in the armpit ; into which the 
lymphatic glands of the upper extremity open. 

AX1NE, Ascia. 

AXIRNACH, An Arabic word, used by Al- 
bocasis to designate a fatty tumour of the up- 
per eyelid, observed particularly in children. 

AXIS, Axon, (F.) Axe. A right line which 
passes through the centre of a body. 

The Axis of the Eye, (Y.) Axe de Vceil, 
called, also, Visual Axis and Optic Axis, is a 
right line, which falls perpendicularly on the 
eye, and passes through the centre of the pupil. 

Axis, is also the second vertebra of the neck, 
Axon, Epistro'pheus, Maschalisler; the Vcr'tebra 
Denta'ta. (F.) Essieu. So called because it 
forms a kind of axis on which the head moves. 
Chaussier calls it Axo'ide, from uimv, ' axis,' and 
tiSog, ' shape.' 

Axis, Cerebro-Spinal. Spe Encephalon. 

AXOIDE, Axis — a. Occipitale, Rectus capitis 
posticus major. 

AXOI'DO-ATLOIDEUS. What refers to 
both the axis and atlas; as Axoido-alloidcan ar- 
ticulation. 

The lesions of the Axoido-atloidean articula- 
tion, are, 1. Fracture of the Proces'sus Dentd- 
tus. 2. Rupture of the odontoid ligaments, and 
consequently passage and pressure of the pro- 
cessus behind the transverse ligament: and, 3. 
The simultaneous rupture of the odontoid and 
transverse ligaments. These different acci- 
dents are fatal. 

AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEN, Obliquus inferior 
capitis. 

AXON, Axis. 

AXUNGE, Adeps prajparata. 

AXUNGIA, Pinguedo— a. de Mumia, Mar- 
row — a. Articularis, Synovia — a. Porcina, 
Adeps praeparata. 

AZARNET, Orpiment. 

AZARUM, Asarum. 



AZEDARACH, Melia Azedarach. 

AZOODYNA'MIA, from a priv. t<or\, ' life,' 
and dwa f i ig, 'strength.' Privation or diminu- 
tion of the vital powers. — Gilibert. 

A'ZOTE, AZO'TUM, from a priv. and tor;, 
' life.' A'zote or JVi'trogcn, Alcaligene, Gas 
azoticum, Zoogcn'ium, (V.) Air gate 1 , Air vicii, 
is a gas which is unfit for respiration. It is not 
positively deleterious, but proves fatal, owing 
to the want of oxygen. It is one of the consti- 
tuents of atmospheric air, and is the distin- 
guishing principle of animals. Vegetables 
have it not generally diffused, whilst it is met 
with in most animal substances. It has been 
variously called, phlogistic air, vitiated air, &c; 
has been looked upon as sedative, and recom- 
mended to be respired, when properly diluted, 
in diseases of the chest. 

Azote, Protoxide of, Nitrogen, gaseous 
oxide of. 

AZOTENE'SES, from azote, and roaog, < dis- 
ease.' Diseases fancied to be occasioned by 
the predominance of azote in the body. — 
Baumes. 

AZOTURIA. See Urine. 

AZUR, Coral, Smalt. 

AZU'RIUM. A compound of two parts of 
mercury, one-third of sulphur, and one-fourth 
of sal ammoniac. — Albert the Great. 

AZ'YGES, Az'ygos sine pari, from « priv. 
and tvyoQ, ' equal.' Unequal. The sphenoid 
bone, because it has no fellow. Also, a process. 
Proces'sus Az'yges, projecting from under the 
middle and forepart of this bone. 

Vena Azygos, Veine Prilombothoraciquc — 
(Ch.) Vena sine pari, Venapari carens. This vein 
was so called by Galen. It forms a communi- 
cation between the V. cava inferior and V. cava 
superior, permitting the blood to pass freely be- 
tween the two. It rises from the vena cava in- 
ferior, or from one of the lumbar or renal veins, 
passes through the diaphragm, ascends along 
the spine to the right of the aorta and thoracic 
duct, and opens into the V. cava superior, 
where it penetrates the pericardium. On the 
left side, the semi-az'ygos, Left Bron'chial or 
left superior intercos'tal vein, V . demi-azygos, 
Veine petite prilombo-thoraciquc — (Ch.,) pre- 
sents, in miniature, nearly the same arrange- 
ment. 

The Azygos Muscle, Azygos U'vulce, is the 
small muscle, which occupies the substance 
of the uvula. — Morgagni. The name is, how- 
ever, inappropriate, as there are two distinct 
fasciculi, placed along side each other, forming 
the Palato-staphyli'ni , Staphyli'ni, or Epista- 
pkyli'ni muscles, Staphyli'ni me'dii of VVinslow. 

AZ'YMUS, from a priv. and tyfn], ' leaven.' 
Azymous bread is unfermented, unleavened 
bread. — Galen. 



B 



BABEURRE, Buttermilk. 

BAB1LLEMEJYT, Loquacity. 

BAC'ARIS, Bach'aris. A name given by 
the ancients to an ointment described by Galen 
under the name Ointment of Lydia. It was 



sometimes employed in diseases of the womb. 
— Hippocr. 

BACC.E BERMUDENSES, Sapindus sapo- 
naria — b. sen Grana actes, see Sambucus ebu- 
lus— b. Myrtillorum, see Vaccinium myrtillus 



BACCAR, &c. 



BALBUTIES 



— b. Norlandicse, Rubus arcticus — b. Piscato- 
riae, see Menispermum cocculus. 

BACCAR, BAC'CARIS, or BACCHARIS. 
An herb used by the ancients in their garlands, 
to destroy enchantment. Perhaps the Digita- 
lis purpurea (q. v.) Some authors have erro- 
neously thought it to be the Asarum. 

BACCHI'A, from Bacfchus, ' wine.' A name 
applied to the red or pimpled face of the drunk- 
ard. See Gutta rosea. 

BACCHICA, Hedera-helix. 

BACHARIS, Bacaris. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTONS. See Strych- 
nos mix vomica. 

BACIL'LUM, Bqtfulus, Bad cuius; ' a stick.' 
This name has been applied to a kind of troch, 
composed of expectorants, and having the shape 
of a stick. Bacillum was used by the ancient 
chemists for several instruments of iron. 

BACILE, Crithmum maritimum. 

BACOVE, Musa sapientum. 

BACULUS, Bacillum. 

BADEN, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ba- 
den is a town six miles from Vienna. Here 
are 12 springs, containing carbonates of lime 
and magnesia; sulphates of lime, magnesia, 
and soda; and the muriates of soda and alu- 
mina. The water is used in diseases of the 
skin, rheumatism, &c. There are two other 
towns of the same name ; one in Suabia, and 
the other in Switzerland, where are mineral 
springs. The waters of the last are sulphu- 
reous. 

BAD1AGA. A kind of sponge, sold in Rus- 
sia; the powder of which is said to take away 
the livid marks fromblowsand bruises in a few 
hours. Its nature is not understood. 

BA'DIANE, Illicium anisatum. 

BADISIS, Walking. 

BADUKKA, Capparis badukka. 

BAGEDIA, Pound. 

BAGNERES-ADOUR, MINERAL WA- 
TERS OF. Bagneres-Adour is a small town 
in the department of the Hautes Pyr&ne'cs, 
having a great number of mineral springs; 
some, cold chalybeates ; others, thermal salines, 
but the greatest part sulphureous and warm. 
The temperature of the last rises as high as 97° 
Fahrenheit. 

Bagneres De Luchon is a small town in the 
department of Haute Garonne, on the frontiers 
of Spain. It lias been, for a long time, famous 
for its numerous sulphureous springs, the tem- 
perature of which is from 8G° to 147° of Fah- 
renheit. 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A saline mineral 
spring in London, resembling the Epsom. 

BAGNIO, Baignoire. 

BAGUENAUDIER, Colutea arborescens. 

BAGNOLES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bagnoles is a village in the department of the 
Orne. The water resembles that of the Bag- 
neres de Luchon. 

BAGNOLS, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bagnols is a village, two leagues from Mendc, 
in the department of Lozere. The waters are 
hydrosulphurous and thermal: 113° Fahren- 
heit. 

BAHEL, Colum'nea longifo'lia; a labiated 
plant of Malabar, whose leaves, bruised, are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to suppurating tumours. 



Bahel Sciiulli, Genista spinosa Indica. 

BAIGNEUR, Bather. 

BAIGNOIRE, (F.) Baptisle'rium, a Bathing 
tub, Bagnio, Solium, Pisci'na. The vessel or 
place in which bathing is performed. Baig- 
noire oculaire, an cije-bath, — a small vessel for 
bathing the eyes. 

BAILLEMENT, Yawnino-. 

BAILLON, Speculum oris. 

BAIN, Bath— b. Chaud, Bath, hot— J. Alec- 
trique, Bath, electric — b. Alectriquc, see Elec- 
tricity — b. Entier, Bath, general — b. de Fuu- 
teuil, Bath, hip — b. Froid, Bath, cold — b. Marie, 
Bath, salt-water — b. Medicinal, Bath, medicated 
— b. de Pied, Bath, foot, Pediluvium — b. de Sable, 
Bath, sand — b. de Siege, Bath, hip — b. tern- 
piri, Bath, tepid — b. de The, Bath, head — b. 
Tiedc, Bath, tepid — b. de Vapeur, Bath, va- 
pour. 

BAINS, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
are situate at Plombieres, department of the 
Vosges. They are said to be saline and ther- 
mal by some ; others deny them any medical 
properties. 

BALAMPULLI, Tamarindus. 

BALANCE, AEROSTATIC, Aerometer. 

BALANDA, Fagus Sylvatica. 

BALANEUM, Bath. 

BALANITIS, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BALANOBLENNORRHCEA, Gonnorrhrea 
spuria. 

BALANOCASTANUM, Bunium Bulbocas- 
tanum. 

BALANORRHCEA, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

EA'LANOS, fia'/.uvos, 'glans,' 'an acorn.' 
The glans penis. Hence, Balanoblennorrhaa, 
Blennorrhoea of the glans, and Balanitis, Inflam- 
mation of the glans. Suppositories and pessa- 
ries were, also, so called. 

Balanos Pucekicos, Date. 

BALANUS, Glans— b. Myrepsica, Guilan- 
dina moringa. 

BALARUC, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Balaruc is a town in the department of Herault, 
in France. The waters are saline and thermal. 
They contain carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, muriates of soda, lime, 
and magnesia, sulphate of lime, and a little 
iron. They are considered tonic, and are 
largely used. Their temperature is about 118° 
Fahrenheit. 

The Factitious Balaruc Water, (F.) 
Eau de Balaruc ; Aqua Bcllilucana, is made of 
simple acidulous water (containing twice its 
bulk of carbonic acid) gxxss ; muriate of soda 
giss ; muriate of lime, gr. xviij ; muriate of mag- 
nesia, gr. 5(» ; carbonate of magnesia, gr. i. 

BALATRO, Bambalio. 

BALAUSTINE FLOWERS. See Punica 
granatum. 

BiVLBIS, fta\{iis, i a foundation.' Any oblono- 
cavity. — Galen, ttippocrates, in his treatise 
on the joints, gives the name Balbito'dcs to the 
olecranon cavity of the humerus. 

BALBUS. (F.) Begue. One habitually af- 
fected with stammering. A stammerer. 

BALBU'TIES, PsclhWrnus, Pscl'lotcs, Bice'- 
sitas, Baryglossia , Dijsla'lia, Mogilalia, Bat- 
taris'mus, Bamba'lia, Stammering. (F.) Bal- 
butiement, Bigaiement. Also, vicious and in- 
complete pronunciation, in which almost all the 



BALCHUS 



80 



BALSAM OF HONEY 



consonants are replaced by the letters B and L. 
Traulis'mus. 
BALCHUS, Bdellium. 
BALDMONEY, ^thusa Mourn. 
BALENAS, Leviathan penis. 
BALIMBAGO, Hibiscus populeus. 
BALINEATOR, Bather. 
BALL, Pila. 
BALLISMUS, Chorea. 

BJlLLOJYJYEMEJYT, Tympanites. 

BALLO'TA FCETTDA, Marru'bium ni- 
grum, Black Horehound, Stinking H. (F.) 
Marrube noir. This plant is esteemed to be 
antispasmodic, resolvent, and detersive. (?) 

Ballo'ta Lana'ta, Leonu'rus lana'tus. A 
plant of the Nat. Family Labiatae, Sex. Syst. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia, which grows in 
Siberia. The whole plant, with the exception 
of the root, has recently been recommended in 
Dropsy and in Rheumatism and Gout, as a 
diuretic. It is usually given in decoction (^ss 
to :fi to §viij of water.) 

BALLOTTEMEJVT (F.) Agitation, Succus- 
sion, Mouvement de Ballottemcnt, Repercussion, 
means the motion impressed on the fetus in 
utero, by alternately pressing the uterus by 
means of the index finger of one hand intro- 
duced into the vagina; the other hand being 
applied on the abdomen. It is one of the least 
equivocal signs of pregnancy. 

BALLSTON SPA. This village is situate 
in Saratoga County, New York. The springs, 
which are much frequented, belong to the 
class of Acidulous Chalybeates. There is also 
a sulphur spring. 

BALM, Melissa — b. Apple, Momordica bal- 
samina — b. Bastard, Melitis Melisso-phyllum — 
b. of Gilead, Solomon's, see Tinctura cardamo- 
mi — b. of Gilead tree, Dracocephalum cana- 
riense. 

BALNEA CCENOSA, Bouc des eaux. 

BALNEARIUM. Hypocaustum. 

BALNEARIUS,' Bather. 

BALNEATOR, Bather. 

BALNEUM, Bath— b. Animale, Bath, ani- 
mal — b. Arena;, Bath, sand — b. Marice, Bath, 
salt-water — b. Medicatum, Bath, medicated. 

BALSAM, Bal'samum, (q. v.) Bole' son, Bel'- 
cson. (F) Baume. This name is given to na- 
tural vegetable substances, concrete or liquid, 
but very odorous, bitter, and piquant; com- 
posed of resin, benzoic acid, and sometimes of 
an essential oil ; — which allow benzoic acid to 
be disengaged by the action of heat; readily 
dissolve in volatile oil, alcohol, and ether; and, 
when treated with alcalis, afford a soluble ben- 
zoate, and throw down resin. We know of 
only five balsams -.—those of Peru, of Tolu, 
Benzoin, solid Styrax or Storax, and liquid 
Styrax. See those different words. 

There is however, a multitude of pharma- 
ceutical preparations, and of resinous sub- 
stances, possessed of a balsamic smell, and to 
which the name balsam has been given ; but 
they differ essentially in composition and pro- 
perties : hence the distinction of balsams into 
natural and artificial. The natural balsam.s 
include the five before mentioned: the artifi- 
cial the remainder. 

Balsam, Acous'tic, Bal'samvmAcousticum. 
(F.) Bavmc acoustiquc. A mixture of fixed and 



essential oils, sulphur, and tinctures of fetid 
gums. Used in cases of atonic deafness, dropped 
into the car. 

Balsam, American, see Myroxylon peruife- 
rum — b. Anodyne, Bates', Linamentum saponis 
et opii. 

Balsam, Apoplec'tic, Bal'samum Jlpoplcc'- 
ticum, (F.) Baume apoplectique ; a medicine, 
composed of several balsams properly so called, 
resins, and volatile oils. It is of a stiff consist- 
ence, is worn in ivory boxes about the person, 
and is smelled at, in headachs, &c. 

Balsam Apple, Momordica balsamina. 
Balsam of Arco/us, Bal'samum Arcai, Un- 
gucn'tum Elemi, (F.) Baume d'Arcavus; a soft 
ointment; sometimes employed in wounds, ul- 
cers, &c. It is made by melting, with a gentle 
heat, two parts of mutton suet, one of lard, one 
and a half of turpentine, and as much resin. 

Balsam, Canada, see Pinus balsamea — b. 
Canary, Dracocephalum canariense — b. Capivi, 
Copaiba. 

Balsam of Carpa'thia, Bal'samum Car- 
path'icum. (F.) Baume de Carpathic. The resin 
of the Pinus Cembra, (q. v.) a tree, which grows 
in Switzerland, Libya, and the Krapack moun- 
tains in Hungary. 

Balsam, Chalyb'eate, Bal'samum CItaly- 
bca'tum, (F.) Baume d'acier ou d' aiguilles ; a 
mixture of nitrate of iron, alcohol, and oil, pre- 
pared by dissolving needles in nitric acid. It 
was, formerly, employed in frictions in pains of 
the joints. 

Balsam, Commander's, Tinctura benzoini 
composita — b. for cuts, Tinctura benzoini com- 
posita. 

Balsam, Cordial, of Senner'tus, Bal'sa- 
mum Cordia'le Senner'ti, (F.) Baume cordiale 
de Scnnert. A stimulant medicine, composed 
of the essential oils of citron, cloves, and cinna- 
mon, of musk, and ambergris. Dose, G to 15 
drops. 

Balsam, Spir'ituous, of Fioraventi, Bal'- 
samum Fioraven'ti spirituo'sum, (F.) Baume de 
Fioraventi spiritucux. Different products of 
the distillation of resinous and balsamic sub- 
stances, and of a number of aromatic sub- 
stances, previously macerated in alcohol, have 
been thus called. The Spirituous Balsam of 
Fioraventi, the only one now used in friction, 
in chronic rheumatism, is the first product of 
the distillation from a sand-bath. It is entirely 
alcoholic. The Oily Balsam of Fioraventi is 
obtained by removing the residue; and distil- 
ling it in an iron vessel, at a white heat. It lias 
the appearance of a citrine-coloured oil. The 
Black Balsam of Fioraventi, is the black oil, 
obtained when the temperature is sufficient to 
carbonize the substances, in the cucurbit. 

Balsam of Fourcroy or of Laborde, (F.) 
Baume de Fourcroy ou dc Laborde ; a kind of 
liniment, composed of aromatic plants, balsams, 
resins, aloes, turpentine, theriac, and olive oil. 
Used in chaps of the skin and nipples. 

Balsam, Friar's, Tinctura benzoini compo- 
sita. 

Balsam of Genevieve, (F.) Baume de Gene- 
vieve; an ointment composed of wax, turpen- 
tine, oil, red saunders, and camphor. Used in 
contused wounds, gangrene, &c. 
Balsam ok Honey (Hill's;) a tincture of 



BALSAM OF HOREHOUND 



87 



BALSAM OF TURPENTINE 



tolu, honey (aa Bj) and spirit, (a gallon.) A 
pectoral, used in coughs. The committee of 
the New York College of Pharmacy recommend 
the following formula: — (Gum Benzoin ±v, 
Bids. Tolut |j, Mellis, f. gviij, Alcohol Oijj — 
digest for 10 'days and filter.) See Mel. 

Balsam of Horehound (Ford's;) a tinc- 
ture of horehound, liquorice-root, camphor, 
opium, benzoin, dried squills, oil of aniseed, and 
honey. The same property as the above. See 
Marubium. 

Balsam, Hungarian, see Pinus mughos. 

Balsam, Hvpnot'ic, Bal'samum Hypnot'icum, 
(F.) Baume Hypnotique ; a preparation of which 
opium, hyoscyamus, camphor, and some other 
sedative substances form the basis. It is used 
externally to provoke sleep, in friction. 

Balsam, Hyster'ic, Bal'samum Hyster'icnm, 
(F.) Baume Hysterique ; a preparation made of 
opium, aloes, asafoetida, castor, distilled oils of 
rue, amber, &c. It is held to the nose, applied 
to the navel, or rubbed on the hypogastrium in 
hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian, see Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Balsam of Leic'toure, of Condom or Vin- 
ceguere, Bal'samum Lectorcnse. A strongly 
stimulant and aromatic mixture of camphor, 
saffron, musk, and ambergris, dissolved in es- 
sential oils. The ancients burnt it for the pur- 
pose of purifying the air of a chamber, when 
infested with a disagreeable odour. 

Balsam of Life, of Hoff'mann, Bal'samum 
Vital Hoffman'ni, (F.) Baume dc vie d' Hoffmann. 
A tincture, composed of essential oils and am- 
bergris, employed internally and externally as 
a stimulant. A mixture of essential oils with- 
out alcohol constitutes the Saxon Balsam, Bal'- 
samum apoplec'ticum, B. aromat'icum, B. ce- 
phal'icum, B. Saxon'icum, B. nervinum, B. 
Scherzeri, B. Stomach'icum. Employed in fric- 
tion as a stimulant. 

Balsam of Life, Decoctum aloes composi- 
tum — b. of Life, Turlington's, see Tinctura 
benzoini composita. 

Balsam of Locatel'li or Lucatel'li, Bal'- 
samum Lucatel'U, (F.) Baume de Lucatel ; a sort 
of ointment, composed of wax, oil, turpentine, 
sherry, and balsam of Peru, coloured with red 
saunders. It was once administered in pulmo- 
nary consumption. 

Balsam of Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Mexican, see Myroxylon peruiferum — b. 
Natural, see Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Balsam, Nepiihit'ic, of Fuller, Bal'sa- 
mum Nephret'icum Fullcii ; a liquid medicine, 
composed of oils, resins, and balsams, which 
have experienced an incipient state of carboni- 
zation from concentrated sulphuric acid. It 
was given in the dose of 15 or 30 drops in cer- 
tain affections of the kidneys. 

Balsam, Nervous, Bal'samum Nervinum, 
(F.) Baume nervin ou nerval. A kind of oint- 
ment, composed of fatty bodies, volatile oils, 
balsam of Peru, camphor, &c. It is employed 
by friction in cases of sprains and rheumatic 
pains. 

Balsam, Paralyt'ic, of Myn'sicht. A sort 
of liniment or soft mixture of the essential oils 
of different aromatic plants, oils of turpentine 
and amber.— Lemery. 

Balsam of Parf.i'ka-brava, Bal'samum 



Parei'ra-brava. A soft mixture of balsam, 
resin, muriate of ammonia, and powder of the 
root of the Pareirabrava. It is given, inter- 
nally, to excite the urinary secretion. 

Balsam, Peruvian, see Myroxylon peruife- 
rum — b. of Peru, red, see Toluifera balsamum — 
b. of Peru, white, see Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Balsam of Rackasi'ra or of Rakasi'ri. 
This substance is of a yellowish-brown colour; 
semi-transparent; fragile, when dry, but sof- 
tening by heat ; adhering to the teeth, when 
chewed. It has a smell similar to that of the 
Balsam of Tolu, and is slightly bitter. It is 
brought from India in gourd shells, and has 
been employed in diseases of the urinary or- 
gans, especially in gonorrhoea. 

Balsam, Riga. Prepared from the shoots of 
the Scotch Fir, macerated in spirit of wine. 
Internally, stimulant and diuretic; externally, a 
vulnerary. See Pinus Cembra. 

Balsam of Sat'urn. Bal'samum Satur'ni. A 
solution of acetate of lead in spirit of turpen- 
tine, concentrated by evaporation ; and to which 
camphor has been added. This balsam was 
applied to hasten the cicatrization of wounds. 

Balsam of the Samar'itan, (F.) Baume du 
Samarilain. A sort of liniment, prepared by 
boiling together, at a gentle heat, equal parts of 
wine and oil. It is said to have been the oint- 
ment used by the Samaritan of the Gospel to 
cure a patient covered with ulcers. 

Balsam, Saxon, Balsam of Life of Hoff- 
mann. 

Balsam of Sulphur, Bal'samum Sul'phuris, 
(F.) Baume de Soufre. A solution of sulphur in 
oil. — B. sulph. anisa'tum, (F.) B. dc soufre 
anise. A solution of sulphur in essential oil of 
aniseed ; given as a carminative. — B. sulph. 
succina'tum, (F.) B. de soufre succind, A solu- 
tion of sulphur in oil of amber. — B. sulphur 
tcrebinthina'tum, Common Dutch Drops, (F.) B. 
de soufre tir'tbinthini, . A solution of sulphur in 
essential oil of turpentine, administered as a 
diuretic. — The Balsam of Sulphur of Ruland 
is a solution of sulphur in linseed oil or nut oil. 

Balsam of Sym'pathy, Bal'samum Sympalh'- 
icum, (F.) Baume de Sympathie. A balsam, 
used in the days when sympathetic influence 
was strongly believed in. It was composed of 
the raspings of a human skull, of blood, and 
human fat, and was applied to the instrument 
which had inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Thibaut's. A tincture of myrrh, 
aloes, dragon's blood, flowers of St. John's wort, 
and Chio turpentine. Internally, diuretic ; ex- 
ternally, vulnerary. 

Balsam of Tolu, see Toluifera Balsamum. 

Balsam, Tranquil, Bal'samum, tranquil' lum, 
(F.) B. tranquille. A liquid medicine employed 
externally in the shape of friction : it is pre- 
pared by macerating and boiling, in olive oil, 
narcotic and poisonous plants, — belladonna, 
mandragora, hyoscyamus, &.c. — and afterwards 
infusing, in the filtered decoction, different 
aromatic plants. It was employed as an ano- 
dyne. 

Balsam, Turkey, Dracocephalum Cana- 
riense. 

Balsam of Tur'pentine, Dutch Drops, Bal'- 
samum Terebin'thina. Obtained by distilling 
oil of turpentine in a glass retort, until a red 



BALSAM, GREEN 



BANDAGE 



balsam is left. It possesses the properties of 
the turpentines. 

Balsam, Green, of Metz, Bal'samum Vir' . 
ide Mcten' sium, Bal'samum Vir'ide, (F.) Baumc 
vert de Mctz, Baume de Feuillet, Huile verle, 
O'leum ox'ydi cupri vlr'ide. This is composed 
of several fixed oils, holding, in solution, sub- 
carbonate of copper, sulphate of zinc, turpen- 
tine, aloes, and the essential oils of cloves and 
juniper. It is green and caustic, and is em- 
ployed to hasten the cicatrization of atonic 
ulcers. 

Balsam, Vervain's, Tinctura Benzoini com- 
posita. 

Balsam, Wound, Tinctura Benzoini com- 
posita. 

Balsam, Vul'nerary, of Mindere'rus, Bal'- 
samum vulncra'rium Minder e'ri, (F.) B. vul'ni- 
raire de Minderer. A kind of liniment, com- 
posed of turpentine, resin elemi, oil of St. John's 
wort, and wax. Employed in friction, and as a 
dressing to wounds. 

Balsam'ic, Balsam'icus, from (Salaauov, 'bal- 
sam.' Possessing the qualities of balsams. Bal- 
samic odour : — a sweet, faint, and slightly 
nauseous smell. A balsamic substance; — One 
resembling the balsams in property. 

BALSAMIER ELltMIFkRE, Amyris elemi- 
fera — b. de la Mecque, Amyris opabalsamum. 

BALSAMIJVE, Momordica balsnmina. 

BALSAMFTA SUAVEOLENS, B.odora'- 
ta, B. maris, Mentha saraccn'ua, M. Romu'na. 
Fam. Composite Corymbifera?. Sex. Syst. Sy- 
genesia Polygamia superflua. A plant, common 
in the south of France, and cultivated in the 
gardens ; where it bears the names Menthecoq, 
Grand baume, Baumc des Jardins. Its smell is 
strong and aromatic, and taste hot. It is used 
for the same purposes as the tansey, i. e. as a 
stimulant, vermifuge, &c. 

Balsamita Fceminea, Achillea ageratum — 
b. Mas, Tanacetum balsamita — b. Suaveolens, 
Tanacetum balsamita. 

BALSAMO-SACCHARUM, Elseo-Saccha- 
rum. 

BALSAMUM, see Balsam, Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. iEgyptiacum, see Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. Album, see Myroxylon peruiferum — 
b. Alpini, Dracocephalum canariense — b. Al- 
pini, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Anodynum, 
Linimentum saponis et opii — b. Apoplecticum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann— b. Aromaticum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Asiaticum, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Braziliense, Copaiba 
— b. Calaba, see Fagara octandra — b. Catholi- 
cum, Tinctura benzoini composita — b. Cepha- 
licum, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Copaiba?, 
Copaiba — b. Genuinum antiquorum, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Hyperici simplex, see Hy- 
pericum perforatum — b. Judaicum, see Amyris 
opobalsamum — b. Libani, see Pinus cembra — 
b. Marise, see Fagara octandra — b. e. Mecca, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Mercuriale, Un- 
guentum hydrargyri nitiatis— b. Nervinum, 
Balsam of life of Hoffmann— b. Ophthalmicum 
rubrum, Unguentum hydrargyri nitrico-oxydi 
— b. Persicum, Tinctura benzoini composita — 
b. Peruanum, see Myroxylon peruiferum — b. 
Saturninum, Unguentum plumbi superacetatis 
— b. Scherzeri, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. 
Stomachicum, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. 



Styracis, Styrax— b. Styracis benzoini, Benja- 
min— b. Succini, see Succinum— b. Sulphuris 
Barbadense, Petroleum sulphuratum— b. Sul- 
phuris simplex, Oleum sulphuratum— b. Syria- 
cum,see Amyris opobalsamum — b.Tolutanum, 
see Toluifera balsamum — b. Traumaticum, 
Tinctura benzoini composita — b. Universale, 
Unguentum plumbi superacetatis — b. Viride, 
Balsam, green, of Metz — b. Viride, see Fagara 
octandra. 

BALSEM, Amyris opobalsamum. 

BAMBA, Bamboo. 

BAMBAL1A, Balbuties. 

BAMBA'LIO, Bala'tro, from (luupaivu, 'I 
speak inarticulately.' One who stammers or 
lisps, or utters inarticulate sounds. According 
to Kraus, one who speaks as if he had pap in 
his mouth, or as if the tongue were paralyzed. 

BAMBOO, (F.) Bambou, Bambu. Fam. Gra- 
mineae ; Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. The 
young shoots of the Bambos aruudina' cea or 
Aran' do bambos, and of the Bambos verticilla'ta 
contain a saccharine pith, of which the people 
of both the Indies are very fond. They are 
sometimes made into a pickle. 

BAMBOS ARUNDINACEA, Bamboo— b. 
Verticillati, Bamboo. 

BAMJX MOSCHATA, Hibiscus abelmos- 
chus. 

BANANA, Musa sapientum. 

BAMMA, from punTw, ' I plunge,' ' a paint ; 
a dye.' Anciently, liquids were so called, in 
which certain bodies were plunged, to moisten 
or soften them. In the case of tea, for instance, 
into which bread is dipped, the tea would be 
the barnma. 

BANAJV1ER, Musa sapientum. 

BANAUSIA, Charlatanry. 

BAjYC DHIPPOCRATE, Bathron. 

BAJVCAL, (F.) One who has deformed legs. 
It includes the valgus compcrnis, and varus, 
which see. 

BAJVCROCHE, (F.) A vulgar epilhct for a 
rickety individual. 

BAN'DAGE, Desma, Hypodes'mis. This 
word, with the French, is generally used to 
express the methodical application of rollers, 
compresses, &c, to fix an apparatus upon any 
part: corresponding to the words dcliga' tio, fas- 
cia' tio, fascia' rum applica'tio, Epid'csis. With 
us, the noun is usually applied to the result of 
the application ; or to the bandages them- 
selves ; — a sense in which the French employ 
the word Bande. 

Bandages are simple or compound. The sim- 
ple bandage is equal, if the turns are applied 
circularly above each other; unequal, if the 
turns are not accurately applied upon each 
other. If each turn of the bandage be only 
covered one-third, it forms the doloirc of the 
French ; if the edges touch only slightly, it is 
the moussi ; if the turns are very oblique and 
separated, it is the spiral or creeping, (F.) ram- 
pant; if folded upon each other, It is termed 
the reversed, (F.) renvcrse. By uniting various 
kinds of bandaging, we have the compound; 
and these compound bandages have received 
various names expressive of their figure, or of 
the parts to which they are applied, as capis- 
trum, spica, &c. 

Bandages are divided, also, as regards their 



BANDAGE 



89 



BARAQUETTE 



uses, into uniting, dividing, retaining, expelling, 
and compressing. 

Bandage of separate strips, or B. of 
Scultetus, Fascia fasciolis separaftim dispos'i- 
tis, seu Scullc'ti, (F.) Bandage a bandelettcs si- 
paries ou de Scultet. This is formed of linen 
strips, each capable of surrounding, once and a 



called tails, (F.) chefs, and the rolled part is 
termed its head, (F.) globe. If rolled at both 
extremities, it is called a double-headed roller 
or bandage, (F.) Bande d deux globes. 

The word Bande, in Anatomy, is used by the 
French for various, narrow, flat, and elongated 
expansions. Bande d'Hdliodore, is a kind of 



half, the part to which they have to be applied, bandage for supporting the mamma? 



and placed upon each other, so as to cover, 
successively, one-third of their width. It is 
used chiefly for fractures, requiring frequent 
dressing. 

The Eighteen-tailed Bandage, Fascia oc- 
tod'ecim capit'ibus, (F .) Bandage ddix-huit chefs. 
This bandage is made of a longitudinal portion 
of a common roller ; and with a sufficient num- 
ber of transverse pieces or tails, to cover as 
much of the part as is requisite. It is a very 
useful bandage, inasmuch as it can be undone 
without disturbing the part. 

The Compressing Bandage or Roller, 
Fascia compressi'va seu convolu'ta, (F.) Band- 
age compressif ou route, is the simple roller 
with one head ; and is employed in cases of 
ulcers, varices, &c. of the limbs. Whenever 
this roller is applied to the lower part of the 
limbs, it is carried upwards by the doloire and 
reversed methods above described. 

The Body Bandage, Mantile, (F.) Bandage 
de Corps, is used for fixing dressings, &c. to 
the trunk. It is formed of a towel, napkin, or 
some large compress, folded three or four times ; 
the extremities of which are fastened by pins. 
This is again fixed, by means of the scapulary 
bandage, which is nothing more than an ordi- 
nary bandage, stitched to the anterior and mid- 
dle part of the napkin, passing over the clavi- 
cles and behind the head, to be attached to the 
back part of the napkin. 

Bandage, Galen's, or B. for the Poor, Fas- 
cia Galeni seu Pau'perum, (F.) Bandage de 
Galien ou des pauvres, Galea, is a kind of cu- 
cul'lus or hood, (F.) Couvrechef, divided into 
three parts on each side; and of which Galen 
has given a description. See Cancer Galeni. 
For Hernial Bandages, see Truss. 

Bandage, Immovable, Apparatus, immova- 
ble. 

Bandage, Inguinal, Fascia inguina'lis. A 
bandage for keeping dressings applied to the 
groin. It consists of a cincture, to which is 
attached a triangular compress, adapted for 
covering the groin. To the lower extremity 
of this, one or two bandages are attached, 
which pass under the thigh, and are fixed to 
the posterior part of the cincture. This band- 
age may be either simple or double. 

Other bandages will be found described un- 
der their various names. 

Bandage, Permanent, Apparatus, immova- 
ble — b. of the Poor. See Cancer Galeni and 
Bandage, Galen's. 

BANDAGE DIVISIF, Dividing bandage— 
b. en Doloire, Doloire — b. Unissant, Uniting 
bandage. 

The Bandage or Roller, Fascia, (q. v.) 
Tania, Epidesfmos, Vin'culum, the Bande of 
the French, is derived from (G.) b i n d e n, ' to 
bind.' It may be made of linen, flannel, or 
other stuff, capable of offering a certain resist- 
ance. The two extremities of a bandage are 
12 



BANDAGIST. One whose business it is 
to make bandages, and especially those for 
hernia. 

BANDE, Bandage. 

BANDEAU (F.) A kind of simple bandage, 
which consists of a piece of cloth, folded four 
times, and applied round the head. There is 
also the Bandeau or Mouchoir en triangle or 
triangular bandage, a kind of Couvrechef 
(which see,) made of a square piece of cloth or 
a handkerchief, folded diagonally, and applied 
round the head. 

BANDELETTE (F.) Diminutive of Bande, 
Fasciola, Taniola, Vitta ; a narrow bandage, 
strip or fillet. Also, Taenia semicircularis (q. v.) 
Bandelette Semicirculaire, Taenia semi- 
circularis — b. des Comes d 'amnion, Corpus fim- 
briatum — b. des Eminences pyriformes, Taenia 
semicircularis — 6. de I' Hippocampe, Corpora 
fimbriata. 

Bandelettes Agglutinatives, small strips, 
covered with a glutinous plaster. Vitta aggluti- 
nan'tes. See Agglutinant.^ 

Bandelettes DECoupEES,are strips of linen, 
notched on one edge, and covered, on one side, 
with ointment. They are applied to wounds 
to prevent the lint from sticking, and the lace- 
ration of the cicatrix. 

BAN DURA, Nepentha distillatoria. 
BANGUE or BANGIor BENG. Aspecies 
of Indian hemp, which Adanson believes to be 
the Nepenthes of the ancients, Can' nab is Ind'ica. 
Family, Urticese. Sex. Syst. Dioecia Pentandria. 
Its leaves and flowers are astringent. They 
are chewed and smoked. Its seeds, mixed with 
opium, areca, and sugar, produce a kind of in- 
toxication, and are used for this purpose by the 
people of India. 

BANICA, Pastinaca sativa. 
BANILAS, Vanilla. 
BANILLA, Vanilla. 
BAN1LLOES, Vanilla. 
BANISTE'RIA ANGULO'SA. This plant, 
in Brazil and the Antilles, passes for a power- 
ful sudorific, and an antidote to the poison of 
serpents. , 

BAINNIERES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bannieres is a village in Quercy, Diocess of 
Cahors, France. The waters are probably 
chalybeate. They are celebrated in amenor- 
rhcea, cachexia, jaundice, «fcc. 

BA'OBAB. The Adanso'nia digita'ta of Af- 
rica ; Nat. Ord. Bombaceae ; one of the largest 
productions of the vegetable kingdom. Its 
fruit is called, in the country, Pain de singe. 
The pulp is sourish, and agreeable to eat; and 
a refreshing drink is made from it, which is 
used in fevers. Prosporo Alpini and Dr. L. 
Franck, think that the Terra Lemnia was pre- 
pared, in Egypt, from the pulp. All the parts 
of the Baobab abound in mucilage. 
BAPTISTERIUM, Baignoire. 
BARAQUETTE (F.) A name given by 



BARATHRON 



90 



BARYTA 



Rasous, physician at Nimes in France, to a 
catarrhal epidemy, which occurred there in 
1761. See Influenza. 

BARATHRON, Juniperus sabina. 
BARATHRUM, Antrum. 
BARBA, Beard — b. Aaronis, Arum macu- 
latum — b. Caprae, Spiraea ulmaria — b. Jovis, 
Sempervivum tectorum. 

BARBADOES LEG. See Elephantiasis. 
BARBAREA, Erysimum Barbarea. 
BARBAROS'S.E PIL'ULJS, Barbarossa's 
Pills. An ancient composition of quicksilver, 
rhubarb, diagridium, musk, &c. It was the 
first internal mercurial medicine, which ob- 
tained any real credit. 

BARBE, Beard — b. dc Bouc, Tragopogon. 
BARBEAU, Cyanus segetum. 
BARBER-CHIRUR'GEONS. A Corpora- 
tion of London, instituted by king Edward IV. 
The Barbers were separated from the Surgeons, 
by 18 Geo. II. c. 15; and the latter were erect- 
ed into a Royal College of Surgeons at the com- 
mencement of the present century. 

BARBERIE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These mineral waters are half a league from 
Nantes. They contain carbonic acid, muriates 
of magnesia and soda, sulphate of magnesia, 
carbonates of magnesia, lime, and iron. They 
are used as chalybeates. 

BARBERRY, Oxycantha Galeni. 
BARB1TIUM, Beard. 
BARBOTLYE, Artemisia santonica. 
BARBULA CAPRINA, Spiraea ulmaria. 
BARDADIA, Pound. 

BARDANA, Arctium lappa — b. Minor, Xan- 
thium. 

BARDANE PETITE, Xanthium. 
BAREGES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bareges is a village in the department of 
Hautes Pyrenees, near which are several 
springs. They are sulphureous and thermal, 
the heat varying from 73° to 120° Fahrenheit. 
They contain muriates of magnesia and soda, 
sulphates of magnesia and lime, carbonate of 
lime, sulphur, &c. 

These springs have long enjoyed a high re- 
putation, and are daily advised in cutaneous 
and scrofulous affections, &c. 

Factitious Bareges Water, Aqua Bare- 
ginen'sis, (F.) Eau de Bareges, is made by 
adding, hydrosulphuretted water, ^ iv, to pure 
water, 5 xvijss, carbonate of soda, gr. xvj, mu- 
riate of soda, gr. ss. Bottle closely. 
BARGADA, Convolvulus pes caprice. 
BARIGLIA, Soda. 

BARILLA, Soda— b. Alicant, Soda— b. Car- 
thagena, Soda — b. Turkey, Soda. 
BARILLOR. Soda. 

BARIUM, CHLORIDE OF, Baryta, muriate 
of — b. Protoxide of, Baryta. 

BARK, Cinchona — b. Calisaya, Cinchona 
cordifolia cortex — b. Caribasan, Cinchonas Ca- 
ribeeae cortex — b. Crown, Cinchonas lancifoliae 
cortex — b. Elk, Magnolia glauca — b. Essentia] 
salt of, see Cinchona — b. Georgia, Pinckneya 
pubescens — b. Indian, Magnolia glauca — b. 
Jesuit's, Cinchona — b. Loxa, Cinchonas lanci- 
folise cortex — b. Pale, Cinchonas lancifoliae cor- 
tex — b. Peruvian, Cinchona — b. Pitaya, Cin- 
chonas Caribasae cortex — b. Red, Cinchonas ob- 
longifoliae cortex — b. Saint Lucia, Cinchonas 



Caribaeae cortex — b. Yellow, Cinchonas cordi- 
foliae cortex. 

BARLERIA BUXIFOLIA, Cara schulli. 

BARLEY, PEARL, see Hordeum— b. 
Scotch, Hordeum. 

BARM, Yest. 

BARNET, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bar- 
net is not far from London. The water is of a 
purging quality, like that of Epsom, and about 
half the strength. 

BAROMACROM'ETER. Baromaerom'et- 
rum, from (iunog, ' weight,' fiuxQoc, 'long,' and 
uiTiiov, ' measure.' An instrument, invented 
by Stein to indicate the length and weight of a 
new-born infant. 

BAROM'ETER, from (Suno?, ' weight,' and 
fitrqov, ' measure.' (F.) Barometre. An instru- 
ment which measures the weight of the air. 
A certain degree of density in this medium is 
necessary for health : when we ascend high 
mountains great inconvenience is experienced, 
owing to the diminished density. Changes of 
this character are indicated by the Barometer 
or Weatherglass. 

BA'ROS, punas, ' heaviness.' Employed by 
the Greek physicians to designate the feeling 
of lassitude and heaviness observable in many 
diseases. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

BAROSMA CRENATA, Diosma crenata. 

BAROTES SALITUS, Baryta, muriate of. 

BARRAS. See Pinus sylvestris. 

BARRE (F.) Bar'rure, Vara. Projection or 
prolongation of the symphysis pubis; — a defor- 
mity rendering delivery difficult. 

BARRE (F.) A term applied, in France, 
to females whose pelves have the deformity 
described under , Barre. 

Dents Barrees. The molar teeth, when 
the roots are spread or tortuous, so that they 
cannot be extracted without being broken ; or 
without a portion of the alveolar arch being re- 
moved. 

BARRE, MINERAL WATERS OF. Barre 
is a small town, six leagues from Strasburg. 
The waters are thermal, and contain much 
iron, calcareous salt, &c. They are diuretic 
and tonic. 

BARREL OF THE EAR, Tympanum. 

BARRENNESS, Sterilitas. 

BARROS, Terra Portugallica. 

BARRURE, Barre. 

BARYCOCCALON, Datura stramonium. 

BARYCOITA, Baryecoia. 

BARYECOIA, Deafness. 

BARYECOFA or BARYCOFTA, Paracu- 
sia obtu'sa, Disccoi'a, Dyseca/a, Audi'tus diffic"- 
His, Obavd'tf'tio, A. gravis, A. imminu'tus, Hy- 
pocopho'sis, (F.) Durete d , Oreille, from puqvc, 
' heavy,' and uxoyj, ' hearing.' Hardness of 
hearing, incomplete deafness. See Cophosis. 

BARYGFOSSIA, Balbuties. 

BARYI HYDRAS IODATI, Baryta, hydri- 
odate of. 

BARYOD'YNE, from (i« ?w? , 'heavy,' and 
odwij, ' pain.' A dull heavy pain. 

BARYPHO'NIA, from paqvg, ' heavy,' and 
iptavtj, ' voice.' Difficulty of speech. 

BARYPICRON, Artemisia abrotanum. 

BAR'YTA, from P<xqvq, ' heavy,' Terra pon- 
der o'sa, Barytes, Protox'ide of Ba'rium, Heavy 
Earth, Ponderous Earth, (F.) Baryle, Terre 



BARYUM 



91 



BASIO-CERATO-GLOSSUS 



pesante. This earth and its soluble salts are 
all highly corrosive poisons. It is never em- 
ployed in medicine in the pure state. When 
externally applied, it is caustic, like potassaand 
soda. 

The Mi/riate or Hydrochlorate of Ba- 
ryta, Chlo'ride of Ba'rium, Chlo'ruret of Bd- 
rium, Terra pondero'sa sali'ta seu muria'ta, Sal 
muriai'icum barot'icum, Baro'les sali'tus, is the 
combination chiefly used. It is given in the 
form of the Solu'tio Muria'tis Baryta:, (F.) So- 
lution de Muriate de Buryte. (Barytm Murias, 
one part; distilled water, three parts.) It is 
employed in scrofulous cases, worms, and 
cutaneous diseases. Externally, to fungous 
ulcers and to specks on the cornea. 

The Hydriodate of Baryta, Baryta, Hy- 
driodas, Baryta Hydriod'ica, Hydras Baryi 
loda'ti, (in the dry state, — the Iodide of Ba- 
ryum, B. Ioda'tum, Baryum iodi'dum) has been 
given in scrofulous and similar morbid con- 
ditions. It may be administered internally in 
the dose of one-eighth of a grain three or four 
times a day, and applied externally to scrofu- 
lous swellings, in the form of ointment, (gr. iv. 
to Hji of lard.) 

Baryta Hydriodica, Baryta, hydriodate 
of. 

BARYUM, chloruret of, Baryta, muriate 
of — b. Iodide of, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

BAS-FOND. See Urinary bladder. 

BAS LASSE, Stocking laced. 

BAS VENTRE, Abdomen. 

BASAAL. The name of an Indian tree, 
the decoction of whose leaves, in water, with 
ginger, is used as a gargle in diseases of the 
fauces. The kernels of the fruit are vermi- 
fuge. 

BASANASTRA'GALA, from paaaro;, ' tor- 
ture,' and anrnayaXog, the ' astragalus.' Pain 
in the ankle joint, gout in the foot. 

BASANIS'MOS, from (iaaavituv, 'to ex- 
plore.' ' A touch-stone.' Investigation or ex- 
amination. — Hippocr., Galen. 

BASE, Ba'sis, from pairo, 'I proceed,' 'I 
rest,' ' I support myself.' That which serves 
as a foundation or support. That which en- 
ters, as a principal matter, into a mixture or 
combination. In Anatomy, it is employed in 
the former sense, as Base of the Cranium, Base 
of a Process, fyc, Base of the Heart, Basis vel 
coro'na cor'dis. In the art of prescribing, Basis 
is the chief substance which enters into a com- 
pound formula. 

BASIATIO, Coition. 

BASIATOR, Orbicularis oris. 

BASIL, BUSH, Ocymum caryophyllatum — 
b. Citron, Ocymum basilicum — b. Common, 
Ocymum Basilicum — b. Small, Ocymum caryo- 
phyllatum — b. Wild, Chenopodium vulgare. 

BAS'ILARY, Basila'ris, (F.) Basilaire. 
That which belongs to the Base, from ^uaig, 
' base.' 

This name has been given to several parts, 
which seem to serve as bases to others. The 
sacrum and sphenoid have been hence so 
called. 

The Basilary Vertebra is the last verte- 
bra of the loins. 

The Basilary Process, Processus basila'ris 
ossis occip'itis, P. cuneifor'mis ossis occip'itis, 



(F.) Apophyse Basilaire, Prolongernent sous-oc- 
cipital, Cu'neiform Prod'ess, is the bony projec- 
tion, formed by the inferior angle of the os oc- 
cipitis, which is articulated with the sphenoid. 

Basilary Surface, (F.) Surface basilaire, 
is the inferior surface of this process. It is 
covered by the mucous membrane of the pha- 
rynx. 

Basilary Fossa, (F.) Gout1.ie.re ou Fosse 
basilaire, is the upper surface of the same pro- 
cess, — so called because it is channeled like a 
Fossa or Gutter. The Tuber annulare rests 
upon it. 

Basilary Ar'tery, A. basila'ris, A. ccrvicaf- 
lis, (F.) Arterc ou Tronc basilaire, A. mesoci.- 
jjhaliquc (Ch.) : the union of the two vertebral 
arteries. It is larger than either of these, but 
smaller than the two taken together. It as- 
cends along the middle groove on the inferior 
surface of the tuber, and is supported, beneath, 
by the Fossa basilaris. It terminates in the 
posterior cerebral arteries. 

BASIL'IC, Basil'icus, from ^aaiXixo?, ' royal.' 
This name was given, by the ancients, to parts, 
which they conceived to play an important part 
in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein, Vena Basilica, V. Cu'bitiinte'- 
rior, (F.) Vcine Basilique, Vcine cubitalc cutanic 
of Chaussier. This vein is one of those on 
which the operation of blood-letting is per- 
formed. It is situate at the internal part of the 
fold of the elbow, in front of the humeral ar- 
tery, and is formed by the anterior and posterior 
cubital veins, and by the median basilic. It ter- 
minates, in the armpit, in the axillary vein. 
The ancients thought, that the basilic of the 
right arm had some connexion with the liver, 
and hence they called it hepatic. The vein of 
the left arm, for a similar reason, they called 
splenic. The Median Basilic Vein, (F.) Vcine 
mediane basilique, is one of the branches of the 
preceding vein. It joins the median cephalic 
at an acute angle, or rather by a transverse 
branch, and receives some branches of the deep 
radial and cubital veins, and a considerable sub- 
cutaneous vein — the common median. 

BASILIC COMMUJY, Ocymum basilicum. 

BASILIC SAUVAGE, GRAND, Chenopo- 
dium vulgare. 

BASIL/ICON or BASIL'ICUM. « Royal,' 
or of great virtue. An ointment, composed of 
yellow wax, black pitch, and resin, of each one 
part, olive oil four parts. Hence it was called 
Unguen'tum Tclraphar'macum, (ziTQtMpanfiaxa, 
' four drugs.') — Celsus. Scribonius Largus. 

The Basilicon or Basilicum, of the Parisian 
Codex, is the Ongucnt de Poix el de Cire. In 
most Pharmacopoeias, it is represented by the 
Unguen'tum or Ccra'tum Rcsi'na:. It is used as 
a stimulating ointment. See Ceratum Resinae, 
and Unguentum Resinoe Nigra. 

BASILICUM, Ocymum basilicum— b. Ci- 
tratum, Ocymum basilicum — b. Majus, Ocy- 
mum basilicum. 

BASIO-CERATO-CHONDRO-GLOSSUS, 
Hyoglossus. 

BA'SIO-CER'ATO-GLOSSUS, from (Saai?, 
'base,' y.tw;, ' cornu,' and yluwoa, 'tongue.' 
A name given to a part of the hyoglossus, 
which is inserted into the cornu of the os hy- 
oides and base of the tongue. 



BASIOCESTRUM 



92 



BATH RON 



BASIOCES'TRUM, from pact?, « the base,' 
and xtoTQa, ' a dart.' An instrument for open- 
ing the head of the foetus in utero, invented by 
Mesler, a German. 

BA'SIO-GLOS'SUS, Hypseloglos'sus, Hyo- 
basioglossus, Ypseloglos'sus, from (tooig, ' base,' 
and ylwaact, ' the tongue.' A name formerly 
given to the portion of the hyoglossus, which 
is inserted into the base of the os hyoides. — 
Riolan, Thomas Bartholine. See Lingual. 
Muscle. 

BASIO-PHARYNG^E'US, from /Saff.c, 
'base,' and (faQvyt, 'the pharynx.' A name 
given to some fibres of the constrictor pharyn- 
gis medius. — Winslow. 

BASSI-COL'ICA. Name of a medicine 
composed of aromatics and honey. — Scribonius 
Largus. 

BASSIN, Pelvis — b. Oculaire, Scaphium ocu- 
lare. 

BASSIJYER, to Foment. 

BASSINET, Pelvis of the kidney, Ranuncu- 
lus bulbosus. 

BAT A, Musa paradisiaca. 

BATABAS, Solanum tuberosum. 

BATA'TAS. The inhabitants of Peru gave 
this appellation to several tuberous roots, espe- 
cially to the Convolvulus Batatas or Sweet Po- 
tato, (q. v.) Our word, Potato, comes from 
this. 

BATERION, Bathron. 

BATH, Balneum, Balane'um, Loutron, (F.) 
Bain. Immersion, or slay, for a longer or 
shorter duration, of the whole or a part of the 
body in another medium than the atmosphere. 

Immersion, total or partial, of the body in 
water. 

Act of plunging into a liquid, sand, or other 
substance, in which it is the custom to bathe. 

Also, the vessel in which the water is put for 
bathing. 

A public or private establishment for bathing. 

In Pharmacy, a vessel, placed over a fire, and 
filled with any substance, into which another 
vessel is placed, containing matters for diges- 
tion, evaporation or distillation. 

The Hot Bath, Balneum cal'idum, (F.) Bain 
chaud, is a bath, the temperature of which is 
98° and upwards ; the Tepid or Warm Bath, 
(F.) Bain tiede, B. tempM, Balneum tep'idum, 
from 62° to 98°; the Cold Bath, Balneum 
frig"idum, Frigida'rium, (F.) Bain froid, be- 
low 62° ; and the Vapour Bath Balneum Va- 
po'ris, (F.) Bain de Vapeur, Etuve Humide, 
from 100° to 130°, and upwards. See Vapo- 
rarium. 

Bath, Earth, Arenatio. 

An Elec'tric Bath, (F.) Bain electrique, con- 
sists in placing the person upon an insulated 
stool, communicating, by a metallic wire, with 
the principal conductor of the electrical ma- 
chine in action. The Electric Bath produces 
general excitement of all the functions, and 
especially of the circulation and secretions. See 
Electricity. 

A Gk.neral Bath, (F.) Bain entier, is one, 
in which the whole body is plunged except the 
head ; in contradistinction to the partial bath, 
Merobalane'um, Merobal'neum. 

A Hip Bath, Coxalu'vium, (F.) Bain de Fuu- 
leuil, Bain de Silge, is one in which the lower 



part of the trunk and upper part of the thighs 
are immersed. 

The Hand Bath, Manulu'vium, (F.) Bain de 
Mains ou Manuluve, is a bath l'or the hands. 

The Foot Bath, Pedilu'vium, (F.) Bain de 
Picds, a bath for the feet : and the 

Head Bath, Capiiilu'vium. (F.) Bain de 
Tele ou Capitiluve, a bath for the head. 

A Half Bath, Semicu'pium, Excathis'ma, 
Inccs'sio, is one adapted for half the body. 
One, for receiving only the hips or extremi- 
ties, is also so called. 

A Shower Bath, is one in which the water 
is made to fall like a shower on the body. See 
Douche. 

A Medicated Bath, Balneum medica'tum, 
(F.) Bain midicinal , is a bath, formed of decoc- 
tions or infusions of vegetable substances, or of 
any ingredient, introduced into the water for 
therapeutical purposes. 

An Animal Bath, Balneum Animdle, con- 
sists in wrapping an animal, recently killed, or 
its skin, around the body or some part of it. 

A Sea Water Bath, Balneum Mar'iai, (F.) 
Bain Marie, consists of a vessel filled with boil- 
ing sea water, or salt water, in which the ves- 
sel is placed, that contains the substance to be 
evaporated. 

A Steam Bath maybe formed by introducing 
steam into the first of those vessels, properly 
closed, in place of water. 

A Sand Bath, Balneum Are'nat, (F.) Bain 
de Sable, consists of a vessel filled with sand, 
and placed over the fire. Into this vessel, the 
one is put, whicli contains the substance to be 
evaporated. 

A Dry Bath is one made of ashes, salt, sand, 
&c. The ancients used these frequently for 
therapeutical purposes. 

Bathing is much employed in the treatment 
of disease. The cold bath is a sedative and in- 
direct tonic, and especially the cold sea bath : 
the warm bath is a relaxant; and the hot bath 
stimulates. 

The regular use of the bath is extremely con- 
ducive to health : but if too much indulged in, 
it is apt to produce injurious effects. 

Bath, Nitro-muriatic Acid, Scott's acid 
bath — b. Vapour, Vaporarium. 

BATH, MINERAL WATERS OF, Aqua 
Batho'nia. vel Bad'iza, Aqua Solis, Aquce Bad- 
iguce. Celebrated thermal springs at Bath, in 
England. They contain but little impregnation, 
and are chiefly indebted to their temperature, 
which is about 116° Fahrenheit, for their utility. 

These waters are employed in the most hete- 
rogeneous cases ; and are serviceable where the 
simple thermal springs are indicated, as in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, &c. 

BATHER, Balnea'rius, Balinea/tor, Balnea'- 
tor. (F.) Baigneur. One who bathes. An- 
ciently, the name was given to those, that ad- 
ministered baths to the diseased,— the Etuvistes 
of the French. 

BATHMIS, Bathma, 'base, support.' The 
cavity of a bone, which receives the eminence 
of another ; and especially the two Fossettes at 
the inferior extremity of the humerus ; into 
which the processes of the ulna are received, 
during the flexion and extension of the fore arm. 

BATHRON. Sramnum llippoc'ratis, (q. v.) 



BATIA 



93 



BEBEERU 



Batcfrion, ' a stap, a ladder.' (F.) Banc d'Hip- 
pocrate. An instrument, used for the exten- 
sion of a limb, in cases of fracture or luxation. 
The description of it is found in Galen, Oriba- 
sius, and Scultetus, with a figure. 

BATIA, Retort. 

BATISSE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Batisse is three leagues from Clermont in 
France. The water is tepid, and contains sub- 
carbonate and sulphate of soda, sulphates of 
lime and iron, muriate of magnesia, and carbo- 
nate of lime. 

BATOS, Rubus Idams. 

BATRACHOS, Ranula. 

BATTAR1SMUS, Balbuties. 

BATTATA VIRGINIANA, Solanum tu- 
berosum. 

BATTEMEJYT, Pulsation. 

BAUDRICOURT, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Baudricourt is a town of France, two 
leagues and a half from Mirecourt. The wa- 
ters are sulphureous. 

BAUDRUCHES, Condom. 

BAUHIN, VALVE OF, Valve of Tulpius, 
Fallopius or Varolius, Il'eo-cozcal Valve, Ileo- 
colic Valve, Val'vula Ilei, Valvula Coli, V. Caci, 
Operculum Ilei, Sphincter Ilei. This name is 
given to the valve, situate transversely at the 
place where the ileum opens into the ccecum, 
and which Bauhin says he discovered at Paris, 
in 1759. It had, however, been previously de- 
scribed by several Anatomists ; as by Vidus 
Vidius, Postius, &c. 

BAUME, Balsam — b. d'Acier, Balsam, chaly- 
beate — b. Aromatique, Balsam aromatic — b. 
d' Aiguilles, Balsam, chalybeate — b. Apoplecti- 
quc, Balsam apoplectic — b. d'Arcaus, Arcseus, 
balsam of — b. d'Arcceus, Balsam of Arcasus — b. 
d'Arceus, Unguentum elemi compositum — b. 
Benjoin, Benjamin — b. Blanc, see Amyris Opo- 
balsamum — b. du Brisil, Copaiba — b. de -Can- 
nelle, Laurus cinnamomum — b. de Carpathie, 
Balsam of Carpathia — b. de Carthagenc, see 
Toluifera balsamum — b. de Constantinople blanc, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. de Copahu, Co- 
paiba — b. Cordiale de Sennerte, Balsam, cordial 
of Sennertus — b. d'Eau a feuilles ridecs, Men- 
tha crispa — b. de Fevillet, Balsam, green, of 
Metz — b. de Fioraventi spiritucuse, Balsam, spi- 
rituous, of Fioraventi — b. de Foxircroy ou de 
Labordc, Balsam of Fourcroy or Laborde — b. de 
Galaad, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. de Gene- 
vieve, Balsam of Genevieve — b. Grand, Tana- 
cetum balsamita — b. du Grand Caire, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Hypnotique, Balsam, hyp- 
notic — b. Hysterique, Balsam, hysteric — b. des 
Jardins, Mentha viridis — b. de Lucatel, Balsam, 
Lucatelli's — b. Nervin, Balsam, nervous — b. de 
Perou, see Myroxylon peruiferum — b. du Sa- 
marituin, Balsam of the Samaritan — b. Saxon, 
Balsam, Saxon — b. dc Soufre, Balsam of sul- 
fur — /'. de Sympathie, Balsam of sympathy — 
b. Tranquille, Balsam, tranquil — b. de Tolu, see 
Toluifera balsamum — b. de Vanille, Vanilla — b. 
Vert, see Fagnra octandra — b. Vert de Metz, 
Balsam, green, of Metz — b. de Vie d' Hoff- 
mann, Balsam of Life, of Hoffmann — b. dc 
Vic de Lelievre, Tinctura aloes composita — b. 
Vrai, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Vulnerrtire 
de Mindercr, Balsam, vulnerary, of Mindere- 
rus. 



BAURAC, (Arab.) Nitre, or salt in general. 
From this word comes Borax. 

BAURIN, MINERAL WATERS OF. 

Baurin is a village four leagues from Roye, 
department of Somme. The waters are strong- 
ly chalybeate. 

BAVE, (F.) Sali'va ex ore Jluens, Spuma, Hu- 
mor sali'vus. Frothy, thick, viscid saliva, is- 
suing from the mouth. This driveling, or, 
slavering, (q. v.) we see in children, old peo- 
ple, &c. The term is, also, applied to the 
frothy liquid, which flows from the mouth of 
rabid animals. Sauvages uses it synonymously 
with salivation. 

BAY, ROSE, Rhododendron chrysanthe- 
mum — b. Sweet, Laurus — b. White, Magno- 
lia glauca. 

BDALS1S, Sucking. 

BDELLA, Hirudo. 

BDEL'LIUM, Myrrha imperfec'ta, Bolchon, 
Madeleon, Balchus. A gum resin, brought 
from the Levant and India ; and supposed to be 
obtained from a species of Amyris, little known. 
It. is solid, brittle, of a deep brown colour, of an 
acrid and bitter taste, and sweet odour. It was 
much vaunted by the ancients, but is now little 
employed. 

BDELLOM'ETER, from pStUa, < a leech,' 
and utTQov, ' measure.' An instrument, pro- 
posed as a substitute for the leech ; inasmuch 
as we can tell the quantity of blood obtained 
by it, whilst we cannot by the leech. It con- 
sists of a cupping-glass, to which a scarifica- 
tor and exhausting syringe are attached. 

BDELLUS, Fart. 

BEAD TREE, Melia Azedarach. 

BEAM TREE, WHITE, Crataegus aria. 

BEAN, CARTIIAGENA, Habilla de Car- 
thagena — b. Egyptian, Nymphasa nelumbo — b. 
French, Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Garden, com- 
mon, Vicia faba — b. Kidney, Phaseolus vulga- 
ris — b. Malacca, Avicennia tomentosa — b. Pon- 
tic, Nymphrea nelumbo — b. St. Ignatius's, Igna- 
tia amara — b. Trefoil tree, see Cytisine. 

BEAR'S BREECH, Acanthus mollis. 

BEAR'S FOOT, Helleborus fcetidus. 

BEAR'S WHORTLEBERRY, Arbutus uva 
ursi. 

BEARD, Barba, Pogon, Geneion, Barbitium, 
(F.) Barbe. The hair, which covers a part of 
the cheeks, the lips, and chin of the male sex, 
at the age of puberty. 

BEARWEED, Veratrum viride. 

BEASTINGS, Colostrum. 

BEAUGENCY, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Beaugency is a quarter of a league from 
Orleans. The waters contain subcarbonate of 
soda, iron, magnesia, and lime. They are 
tonic and aperient. 

BEAUMONT ROOT, Gillenia trifoliata. 

BEAUVAIS, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These waters are chalybeate. Beauvais is in 
Picardie. 

BEAVER, Castor fiber— b. Wood, Magnolia 
glauca, 

BEBEERINE. See Bebeeru. 

BEBEERU, a tree of British Guiana, which 
yields an active principle — Bebeerine; and in 
its properties resembles the Cinchona. The 
Sulphate of Bebeerine has been employed in in- 
termittents. 



BEC 



94 



BELLOWS SOUND 



BEC (F.) Rostrum (q. v.; Beak. This name 
has been applied to various parts. 

The Cor'acoid Beak, (F.) Bee Coracoidi.cn, 
is the end of the coracoid process. The beak 
of the Calamus Scripto'rius, (F.) Bee de la 
plume a icrire, is a small cavity at the superior 
part of the medulla oblongata, which forms 
part of the 4th ventricle. 

BEC DE CUILLER, Ham'ulus. An instru- 
ment used for the extraction of balls. It con- 
sists of an iron rod, 7 or 8 inches long, having 
at one extremity a small cavity, into which 
the ball is received to be drawn outwards. See 
Cochleariformis. 

BEC DE GRUE MUSQUti, Geranium Mos- 
chatum — b. de Gruc Robertin, Geranium Ro- 
bertianum — b. de Lievre, Harelip. 

BEC (Le,) MINERAL WATERS OF. Bee 
is six leagues from Rouen in Normandy. The 
water is strongly chalybeate. 

BECCABUNGA, Veronica Beccabunga. 

BE'CHIC, Bechica, Bccha, Bcc'chica, Be'- 
chita, from /?ij£, c cough.' (F.) Bichique. Me- 
dicines adapted for allaying cough. 

BECHITA, Bechic. 

BECHIUM, Tussilago. 

BECHORTHOPNCEA, Pertussis. 

BECU1BA, Ibicuiba. 

BEDEGAR, BEDEGUAR, or BEDE- 
GUARD, Spon'gia Cynos'bati, Fungus Rosa'- 
rum, F. Cynos'bati. (F.) Pomme jnousseuse, 
Eponge d'eglantier. An excrescence, which 
makes its appearance on different species of 
wild roses, and which is produced by the punc- 
ture of a small insect — the Cynips Rosa;. It 
was formerly employed as a lithontriptic and 
vermifuge, but is not now used. It is slightly 
astringent. 

BEE. Sax. beo, Apis, MeUs'sa, Melitta. (F.) 
Abeillc. This insect was formerly exhibited, 
when dried and powdered, as a diuretic. 

BEDFORD, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bedford is a village, situate on the great West- 
ern Turnpike road from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burgh, a few miles east of the chief elevation 
of the Alleghany mountains. There are various 
springs, saline, chalybeate, and sulphureous. 

BEDSTRAW, LADIES', GREATER, Ga- 
lium mollugo, Galium verum. 

BEE BREAD, Propolis. 

BEECH, Fagus sylvatica — b. Drops, Oro- 
banche Virginiana — b. Mast, see Fagus syl- 
vatica. 

BEER, Cerevisia. 

BEET, Beta. 

BEGMEMEKT, Balbuties. 

BEGMA, fay^a, according to some Bregma. 
ftQrflf.t.a, from ftrjOotiv or (iorfioeiv, ' to expectorate 
after coughing.' The sputum or expectorated 
matter. — Hipp. 

BEGO'NIA. The Begonia grandiflora and 
B. tomentosa have astringent roots, which are 
used in Peru in cases of hemorrhage, scurvy, 
low fevers, &c. 

BEGUE, Balbus. 

BEHEN ABIAD, Centaurea behen— b. Al- 
bum, Centaurea behen — b Officinarum, Cucu- 
balus behen — b. Rouge, Statice limonium. 

BEHMEN ACKMAR, Statice limonium. 

BEIAHALALEN, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BEIDELSAR, Asclepias procera. 



BEJUIO, Habilla de Carthagena. 

BELA-AYE or BE-LAHE. A tonic and 
astringent bark of a Madagascar tree. Du- 
petit-Thouars and Sonnerat think it may be 
substituted for the Simarouba. 

BE-LAHE, Belaaye. 

BEL'S EYE, Belloculus. 

BELADAMBOC. A species of convolvulus 
of the Malabar coast, which contains an acrid 
milky juice. From this a liniment is formed 
with oil and ginger, which is used against the 
bites of rabid animals. 

BELA-MODAGAM. A kind of Scavola of 
the Malabar coast, the leaves of which are con- 
sidered diuretic and emmenagogue. 

BEL ANDRE, (F.) A litter, surrounded 
with curtains, in which patients are sometimes 
carried to hospitals. 

BELCHING, Eructation. 

BELEMNOID, Belenoid. 

BELEMNOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid 
processes. 

BEL'ENOID, BEL'ONOID, BELEM'- 
NOID or BELOID, Belenoi'des or Belemnoi'des 
Proces'sus, from (leXo;, ' an arrow,' and aSog, 
' shape.' This name has been given to the sty- 
loid processes in general. 

BELONOID, Belenoid. 

BELESON, Balsam, Mussamda frondosa. 

BELI OCULUS, Belloculus. 

BELILLA, Mussamda frondosa. 

BELINUM, Apium graveolens. 

BELL, CANTERBURY, Campanula tra- 
chelium. 

BELLADONNA, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLE DAME, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLEGU, Myrobalanus. 

BELLEREGI, Myrobalanus. 

BELLESME, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bellesme is about three leagues from Mon- 
tagne in France. The waters are chalybeate. 

BELLEY, MINERAL WATERS OF. The 
waters at Belley, department of Ain, in France, 
are saline aperients. 

BELLIDOIDES, Chrysanthemum leucan- 
themum. 

BELLIS, B- pcrcn'nis, B. minor, Bruise- 
wort, Common Daisy. (F.) Paquerctte vivace, 
petite Marguerite. The leaves and flowers are 
rather acrid. They were, at one time, con- 
sidered to cure different species of wounds. It 
is called also Sym'phytum min'imum. 

Bellis Major, Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 
mum. 

BELL METAL, CaV coats. (F.) Airain, 
Metal des cloches. An alloy of copper, zinc, 
tin, and a small quantity of antimony, used for 
making bells. The mortars of the apothecary 
are often formed of this material. They re- 
quire to be kept clean, to avoid the formation 
of verdigris. 

BELLOCULUS, Beli Oculus. A kind of 
gem, which the Assyrians considered effica- 
cious in the cure of many diseases. They ima- 
gined that the figure of an eye could be seen 
in it, and hence its name, Bel's Em. 

BELLON, Colic, metallic. 

BELLOTAS. See Hex major. 

BELLOWS' SOUND, Bruit de soufflet—b. 
Encephalic, see Bruit dc sovffiet—b. Placental, 
Bruit placentaire. 



BELLYACHE 



95 



BETA 



BELLYACHE, Colica— b. Dry, Colic, me- 
tallic. 

BELMUSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BELNILEG, Myrobalanus. 

BELOID, Belenoid. 

BELOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid pro- 
cesses. 

BELONE. Needle. 

BELONODES, Styloid. 

BELUL'CUM, from (itXoc, 'a dart,' and 
tlxu), 'I draw out.' An instrument, used for 
extracting darts or arrows. Many instruments 
of this kind have been noticed by surgeons. — 
Ambrose Pare, Fabricius ab Acquapendente. 

BELZOE, Benjamin. 

BELZOIM, Benjamin. 

BELZOINUM, Benjamin. 

BEN, Guilandina moringa — b. of Judaea, 
Benjamin— b. Nut, Guilandina moringa. 

BENMOENJA. A Malabar tree. An alex- 
ipharmic decoction is made of its roots, in the 
country, which is much praised in cases of 
malignant fever. Its bark, boiled with Cala- 
mus aromaticus and salt, forms a decoction used 
in bites of poisonous serpents. 

BENATH, Pustule. 

BENEDICTUM LAXATIVUM, Confectio 
sennas. 

BENEFICE DE LA NATURE, Beneficium 
naturae — b. de Ventre, see Beneficium natura. 

BENEFICIUM NATU'R^E. (F.) Benefice 
de la Nature. This term is used, by the French 
Pathologists, for cases, in which diseases have 
got well without medical treatment. With 
them, Benefice de nature or B. de ventre, is syno- 
nymous also with Alvi Proflu'vium ; a sponta- 
neous diarrhoea, acting favourably either in the 
prevention or cure of disease, 

BEN EL, Croton racemosum. 

BENEOLEN'TIA, from bene, < well,' and 
oldre, ' to smell.' Euodes. Sweet-scented me- 
dicines, as gums, &c. 

BENG, Bangue. 

BENGALE INDORUM, Cassumuniar. 

BENGAL ROOT, Cassumuniar. 

BENGI, Hyoscyamus. 

BENIGN', Benig'nus, Euethes, (F.) B6nin, 
Binigne. Diseases of a mild character are so 
called ; as well as medicines, whose action is 
not violent, as a Benign Fever, Febris benig'na 
imputris, &c. 

BtiNIN, Benign. 

BEN'JAMIN or BENZOIN, Bcnzo'inum, 
Benzo' inum verum, Belzo'inum, Assa odora'ta, 
Benjui, Bcnjuin, Assa dulcis, Ben'jaoy, Bcnjo'- 
inuin, Belzoe, Belzoim, Bcnzoe, Sti/racis Ben- 
zo'ini Bal'samum, Liquor Cyrcniacus, Croton 
Bcnzoe, Ben of Juda/a, Acor Benzo'inus, Sal 
Ad'idum seu esscnlia'le seu volatile Bcnzoes. 
(F.) Benjoin, Bavme Bcnjoin, Assa doux. A 
resinous, dry, brittle substance, obtained from 
the Slyrax Benzoin, Arbor Benivi, of Sumatra. 
The odour is extremely fragrant, and taste 
slightly aromatic. It is principally used for 
the preparation of the acid which it contains. 
It is also employed in some vulnerary tinc- 
tures, and as an expectorant. The Benzoic 
Acid is obtained from it by sublimation. The 
purest is in amygdaloid masses: hence called 
(F.) Bcnjoin amygdaloide. 
Ben'jamin, Flowers ok, or Benzo'ic Acid, 



Ad'idum Benzo'icum Flares Benzoes, Flores 
Benzo'ini, Ac'idum Benzo'icum -per sublima- 
tio'nem. (F.) Acide Benzoique. This acid 
exists in all the balsams, but chiefly in 
the Benzoin. It is in the vanilla, canella, the 
urine of infants, and of herbivorous animals. 
Its odour is aromatic and fragrant; taste hot, 
slightly acidulous, and agreeable. The crys- 
tals consist of white, satiny flakes, slightly 
ductile. It is probably stimulant; and has 
been used, as such, in chronic catarrh ; but it 
has little efficacy. 

BENJOINUM, Benjamin. 

BENJAOY, Benjamin 

BENJUI, Benjamin. 

BENNE, Sesamum orientale. 

BENJNET, HERB, Geum urbanum. 

BENOITE, Geum Urbanum — b. Aquatique, 
Geum rivale — b. des Ruisseaux, Geum rivale. 

BENZOE, Benjamin. 

BENZOENIL, Vanilla. 

BENZOIN, Benjamin. 

BERBERIS, Oxycantha Galeni. 

BERCE, Heracleum spondylium. 

BERENDAROS, Ocymum basilicum. 

BERENICE, Succinum. 

BERENICIUM, Potassa? nitras. 

BEREN1SECUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BERGAMOTE, Bergamot'ta, (F.) Bcrga- 
motte. A small orange, of a very agreeable 
taste ; and a peculiar odour. From its bark an 
oil is obtained, which is much employed as a 
perfume, and sometimes in medicine. 

BERIBERI, Beribe'ria, Syn'clonus Beribe'- 
ria, Paral'ysis Ber'iberi. This word is said to 
be Hindusthanee, and to mean a sheep. — Bon- 
tius. The Beriberi is an Indian disease, little 
known in Europe. It consists in debility and 
tremors of the limbs, — sometimes, indeed, of 
the whole body ; with painful numbness of 
the affected parts, &c. : — the patient walking 
doubled ; and imitating the movements of 
sheep ! Some authors have esteemed it rheu- 
matic ; others, paralytic ; others, to be a kind 
of chorea. It is, almost always, incurable, but 
rarely fatal ; and is treated by exercise, stimu- 
lant frictions, sudorifics, &c. It is sometimes 
called Bar'bicrs. 

BER1COCCE, Prunus armeniaca. 

BERLE NODIFLORE, Sium. 

BERLUE, Metamorphopsia. 

BERNARD THE HERMIT, Cancellus. 

BERRIES, INDIAN, see Menispermum coc- 
culus — b. Turkey, yellow, see Piper cubeba. 

BERS. A sort of electuary, composed of 
pepper, seed of the white hyoscyamus, opium, 
euphorbium, saffron, &c. The Egyptians used 
it as an excitant. — Prospero Alpini. 

BERU, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bern 
is in Champagne, France. The waters are 
slightly chalybeate. 

BESASA, Ruta. 

BESICLES, Spectacles. 

BESOIN, Want— b, de la Vie, Necessary of 
life. 

BESSANEM. A word used by Avicenna 
for redness of the skin, limbs, and face, pro- 
duced by the action of cold. 

B%fsONNE. } See Gemellus " 

BETA. The Beet, Sidula, (F.) Bettc, Bet- 



BETEL 



96 



BEZOARD IC 



terave. Family, Chenopodeje. Sex. Syst. Pentan- 
dria Digynia. A genus of plants, of which the 
following are the chief varieties. 

1. Beta Vulga'ris Alba, White Beet. The 
root yields sugar, and the leaves are eaten as a 
substitute for spinach. 

2. Beta Vulga'ris Rubra, Red Beet. Rootred 
and nutritive : yields a small quantity of sugar. 

3. Beta Hyb'rida, Root of Scarcity. Root 
red, outside ; white, within. Very nutritive ; 
yields sugar. 

BETEL, Piper Betel. A species of pepper, 
cultivated in several parts of India. The In- 
dians are in the habit of chewing the leaves 
with lime and areca ; and they give the name 
Betel to this preparation. It is used in all the 
equatorial countries of Asia. Betel is said to 
be tonic and astringent. It is also called Bettc, 
Betre, Betle. See Areca. 

B&T1SE, Dementia. 

BtiTOINE, Betonica officinalis— b. des Mon- 
tagues, Arnica montana. 

BETON, Colostrum. 

BETONICA AQUATICA, Scrophularia 
aquatica. 

Beton'ica Officina'lis, Cestron, Beton'- 
ica purpu'rea, Veton'ica Cordi, &c, Bet'ony, 
Psychol' rophum, Vcroni'ca purpu'rea, (F.) Be- 
toine. Family, Labiata?. Sex. Syst. Didynamia 
Gymnospermia. Betony was in much esteem 
amongst the ancients, who employed the flow- 
ers and leaves in decoction, in gout, sciatica, 
cephalalgia, &c. Antonius Musa is said to 
have written a volume in praise of it ; recom- 
mending it in no less than 47 different diseases. 
It has, however, little or no virtue. The leaves 
are said to be aperient, and the root emetic. 

Betonica Pauli, Veronica. 

BETONY, Betonica officinalis— b. Water, 
Scrophularia aquatica. 

BETRE, Betel. 

BETTE, Beta. 

BETTER AVE, Beta. 

BET'ULA ALBA. The Birch, (F.) Boulcau 
commun. The young leaves are slightly odo- 
rous, astringent, and bitter. They are applied 
to wounds and ulcers. They have been re- 
garded as antiscorbutic and anthelmintic. The 
tree furnishes a saccharine juice, which is con- 
sidered antiscorbutic and diuretic. 

BEURRE, Butter — b. de Bambouc, Butter of 
bambouc— b. de Cacao, Butter of cacao— b. de 
Coco, Butter of cocoa. 

BEUVRIGNY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Beuvrigny is in the vicinity of Bayeux in Nor- 
mandy. The water is chalybeate. 

BEVUE, Diplopia. 

BEX, Tussis— b. Convulsiva, Pertussis— b. 
Humida, Expectoration— b. Theriodes, Per- 
tussis. 

BEXIS, Tussis. 

BEXU'GO. Under this name a purgative 
root was introduced into Europe, formerly from 
Peru. It is supposed to have been the root of 
a Hippocratea. _ 

BEZ'OAR, BEZ'AAR, BEZ'EHARD, PA'- 
ZAHAR, from Persian Pa, 'against,' and 
zahar, ' poison.' Lapis Bezoar'dicus, Enterol'- 
ithus Bezoar'dus, Bezoard. A calculous concre- 
tion, found in the stomach, intestines, and 
bladder of animals. Wonderful virtues were 



formerly attributed to these Bezoars. There 
were two great varieties : the Bez'oar onenta'le, 
An'imal Bezoar'ticum orienta'lc, formed in the 
fourth stomach of the gazelle of India (Gazella 
Indica, or rather Antilope cervicapra ;) and 
the Bez'oar occidenta'le, An'.imal Bezoar ticum 
occidenta'lc, found in the fourth stomach of the 
wild goat or chamois of Peru. These substances 
were°esteemed to be powerful alexipharmics; 
but the former was the more valued. It was 
believed that no poison, and no eruptive, pesti- 
lential, or putrid disease could resist its influ- 
ence. As so many virtues were ascribed to it, 
other animal concretions were substituted for 
it; and factitious Bezoards were made of crabs' 
eves and claws, bruised and mixed with musk, 
ambergris, &c. 

Bez'oar Bovi'num, (F.) Bezoard dc Bauf, 
Bezoard of the Beef. A concretion formed in 
the fourth stomach of beeves ; also, a biliary 
calculus found in the gall-bladder. 

Bez'oard of Cayman. This was once much 
prized. It is now unknown. 

The Bez'oar of the Chamois, Horse, &c. 
exhibit their origin in their names. 

The Bez'oard of the Indian Por'cupine, 
Bez'oar Hys'tricis, Lapis Porcinus, Lafis 
Malucen'sis, Petro del Porco, (F.) Bizoard dc 
Pore-Epic, was formerly the dearest of all the 
Bezoards, and was sold at an enormous price in 
Spain and Portugal. 

BEZOARD d'ALLEMAGNE, ^gagrophila 
— b. Mineral, Antimonium diaphoreticum — b. 
Vegetable, see Calappite. 

BEZOAR'DIC, Bezoar'dicus, (F.) Bizoar- 
dique, concerning the Bezoard. Bezoardic me- 
dicines are those supposed to possess the same 
properties with the Bezoard ; as antidotes, alexi- 
teria, alexipharmics, cordials. 

BEZOARDIC A RADIX, Dorstenia contra - 
yerva. 

BEZOAR'DICUM SATURNI. A pharma- 
ceutical preparation, regarded by the ancients 
as antihysteric. It was formed of protoxide of 
lead, butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Ven'eris. A pharmaceutical 
preparation, formerly employed in lepra, dis- 
eases of the brain, &c. ; and which was made 
from filings of copper, butter of antimony, and 
nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Huma'num. Urinary calculi 
were formerly employed under this name as 
powerful alexipharmics. 

Bezoar'dicum Jovia'le. A sort of greenish 
powder, used as a diaphoretic, and formed of 
antimony, tin, mercury, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Luna're. A medicine for- 
merly regarded as a specific in epilepsy, con- 
vulsions, megrim, &c. It was prepared of ni- 
trate of silver, and butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Martia'le. A tonic medi- 
cine, used by the ancients in diarrhoea. It was 
prepared from the tritoxide of iron and butter 
of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Mercuria'le. A medicine, 
formerly vaunted as an antisyphilitic, and pre- 
pared from the submuriate of mercury, butter 
of antimqny, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Minera'le. The deutoxide of 
antimony, so called, because its properties were 
supposed to resemble those of animal Bezoard. 



BI 



97 



BILIARY APPARATUS 



Bezoar'dicum Sola're. A diaphoretic me- 
dicine, prepared of gold filings, nitric acid, and 
butter of antimony. 

BI, as a prefix to words, has the same signi- 
fication as Di. 

BIBITORIUS, Rectus internus oculi. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, MEDICAL, from fa- 
/9Aos, ' a book,' and yQatpo, ' I describe.' Skill in 
the knowledge of medical books. The most 
distinguished medical bihliographers have been: 
J. A. Van der Linden, Amstelod. 1662, 8vo. 
(L.) M. Lipenius, Francf. ad Mcen. 1679, fol. 
(L.) G. A. Mercklein, Norimb. 168G, (L.) 
J. J. Manget, Genev. 1695 to 1731, (L.) Ta- 
rin (anatomical,) Paris, 1753, (F.) A. Von 
Haller, Zurich, 1774, &c. (L.) Vigiliis Von 
Creutzenfei.d (surgical), Vindob. 1781, (L.) 
C. G. Kuhn, Lips. 1794, (L.) C. L. Schweick- 
ard (anat., phys., and legal medicine,) Stutt- 
gard, 1796 to 1800, (L.) G. G. Ploucquet, 
Tubing. 1808 to 1814, (L.) C. F. Burdach, 
Gotha, 1810 to 1821, (G.) J. S. Ersch, (since 
1750.) Leipz. 1822, (G.) Th. Ch. Fr. Enslin, 
(of Germany, since 1750,) Berlin, 1826, (G.) 
J. B. Montfalcon, Paris, 1827, (F.) J. Forbes, 
M. D., F. R. S., Lond. 1835. 

BICAUDAL1S, Retrahens auris. 

BICEPHA'LIUM. A hybrid word, from hi 
and xi(fuXi], ' head.' Sauvages applies this epi- 
thet to a very large sarcoma on the head, which 
seems to form a double head. Also, a monster 
with two heads, Diceph'alon, DicephaV ion. 

BICEPS, from bis, ' twice,' and caput, ' head.' 
That which has two heads. This name has 
been particularly given to two muscles; one 
belonging to the arm, the other to the thigh. 

Biceps Flexor Cruris, Biceps Cruris, Bi- 
ceps, (F.) Biceps Crural, Biceps Fem'oris, Is 1 - 
chio-fem'oro pero'nicr — (Ch.) A muscle on the 
posterior part of the thigh ; one head arising 
from the tuberosity of the ischium, and the 
other from a great part of the linea aspera. It 
is inserted into the top of the fibula. It serves 
to bend the leg on the thigh. 

Biceps Flexor Cu'biti, Biceps Brachii, 
Cor 1 'aco-rudid 'lis or Biceps, Biceps manus, Bi- 
ceps inter'nus, Biceps inter'nus hu'meri, (F.) 
Scap'ulo-radial (Ch.,) — Biceps Brachial. A mus- 
cle, situate at the anterior and internal part of 
the arm ; and extending from the edge of the 
glenoid cavity and from the top of the coracoid 
process to the tuberosity of the radius. It bends 
the fore-arm upon the arm. 

Biceps Exter'nus, Mus'culus. The long 
portion of the Triceps Brachia'lis. — Douglas. 

BICHET, Terra Orleana. 

BICHICH'IiE. Pectoral medicines, com- 
posed of liquorice juice, sugar, blanched al- 
monds, &c. — Rhazes. 

BICHIOS, Dracunculus. 

BICHO, Dracunculus. 

BICHO DI CULO, (S.) A disease about 
the anus, said to be endemic in Brazil. It is 
attributed to bad food ; the use of pimento, &c; 
and is treated by astringents. 

BICHOS ; a Portuguese name for the worms 
that get under the toes of people in the Indies ; 
and which are destroyed by the oil of the 
cashew nut. 

BICIPITAL, Bicipita' lis ; relating to the 
biceps. 

13 



The Bicipital Groove, (F.) Coulisse ou 
gouttihe hicipitale, Coulisse humerale, (Ch.,) is 
a longitudinal groove, situate between the tube- 
rosities of the os humeri, and which lodges the 
long head of the biceps. 

Bicipital Tu'bercle or Tuberosity, (F.) 
Tubirositi Bicipitale ; — a prominence near the 
upper extremity of the radius, to which the ten- 
don of the biceps is attached. 

BICORNE RUDE, Ditrachyceros. 

EICUS'PID, Bicuspida'tus, from his, ' twice,' 
and cuspis, ' a spear.' That which has two 
points or tubercles. 

The Bicus'pid Teeth, Denies Bicuspida'ti, 
(F.) Dents hicuspid6es, are the small molares. 
See Molar. 

BIECHO, Bische. 

BIERE, Cerevisia. 

BIESTINGS, Colustrum. 

BIFEMORO- CJ1LCJ1MEN, Gastrocnemii. 

BIFURCA'TION,J5t/Mrca^o;from6w,'twice,' 
andfurca, ' a fork.' Division of a trunk into 
two branches; as the bifurcation of the trachea, 
aorta, &c. 

BIGASTER, Digastricus. 

BIGGjIR. A disease of Bengal, remarkable 
for the intensity and danger of the cerebral 
symptoms. — Twining. 

BIGLES. See Strabismus. 

BIGNONIA CATALPA, Catalpa. 

Bigno'nia In'dica. The leaves are employed 
in India, as emollients, to ulcers. 

BIJON. See Pinus sylvestris. 

BILAZAY, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bi- 
lazay is a town in France, two leagues from 
Thouar, department of Deux Sevres, near 
which is a thermal sulphureous spring. Tem- 
perature about 77° Fahrenheit. 

BILBERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus— b. Red, 
Vaccinium vitis idaea. 

BILE, Bilis, Eel, Chol'os, CholS, (F.) Bile, 
Fiel. A yellow, greenish, viscid, bitter, nau- 
seous fluid, secreted by the liver. It is distin- 
guished into hepatfic and cystic ; according as it 
flows immediately into the duodenum from the 
liver or from the gall-bladder. It contains soda; 
phosphate, sulphate, and muriate of soda: — a 
little phosphate of lime and oxide of iron : — 
albumen, and a yellowish and resinous matter. 
Its use is, — to complete the digestive process in 
the small intestines, by aiding in the separa- 
tion of the chyle. 

Bile, Furunculus — b. Black, Atrabilis — b. 
de Bwuf, see Bile — b. R'epandue, Icterus. 

The Gall of the Ox, Ox Gall, Eel Tauri, 
Eel Bovis, (F.) Bile de Bauf, was once reputed 
cosmetic and detergent, antiotalgic and em- 
menagogue ; as well as to possess the power of 
facilitating labour. It has also been given as a 
bitter stomachic and anthelmintic. 

The Gall of the Bear, Eel Ursi, was 
thought to be antiepileptic, and that of the Eel, 
Fel anguiUlce, to facilitate labour. 

BIL'IARY, Bilia'ris, Bilia'rius. That which 
relates to" bile. 

Bil'iary Apparatus, B. organs, B. passages. 
The collection of parts, that concur in the 
secretion and excretion of bile: — viz. the 
liver, pori biliarii or tubuli biliferi ; hepa- 
tocystic, and choledoch ducts and gall-blad- 
der. 



BILIEUX 



98 



BISTOVRI 



Bil'iary Concre'tions are concretions found 
in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 
BILIEUX, Bilious. 
BILIMBI, Averrhoa bilimbi. 
BILIMBING TERES, Averrhoa bilimbi. 
^\\J\0\}^,Bilio'sus,Epich'olos,Picroch'olos, 
(F.) Bilieux. That which relates to bile, con- 
tains bile, or is produced by bile. An epithet 
given to certain constitutions and diseases, 
which are believed to be the effect of super- 
abundance of the biliary secretion ; as Bilious 
temperament, B Symptoms, B- fever. 

B1LUMBI B1TING-BING, Malus Indica. 
BIM'ANUS. One that has two hands. A 
term applied only to man, because he is the 
sole mammiferous animal that possesses two 
perfect hands. 

BINDWEED, GREAT, Convolvulus sept- 
um — b. Lavender-leaved, Convolvulus canta- 
brica — b. Sea, Convolvulus soldanella. 
BINKOHUMBA, Phyllanthus urinaria. 
BINOCULUS, Bin'ocle, Diophthal'mica Fas- 
cia, Oculis duplex, from bis, ' twice,' and oculus, 
1 an eye.' (F.) CEil double. A bandage applied 
over both eyes. It was, also, formerly called 
Diophthal'mus. 

BIN'SICA. Disorder of the mind. According 
to Van Helmont, an atrophy of the organ of 
imagination. 

BIODYNAM'ICS, Biodynam'ica, Biodynam'- 
ice ; from j?(oc, 'life,' and Swafuc, 'power,' 
force. The doctrine of the vital activity, or 
forces. 

BIOGAMIA, Magnetism, animal. 

BIOLOGY, Physiology. 

BIOLYCHNION, Animal heat. 

BIOLYCITNIUM, from (iiog, 'life,' and 
JLv/nor, ' a lamp.' Innate heat, vital heat. Also, 
a secret preparation of which Beguin and Bur- 
grave make mention. 

BIOMAGNETISMUS, Magnetism, animal. 

BIOS, (9(0?. Life, (q. v.) Also, what is neces- 
sary for the preservation of life. 

BIOTE, Life. 

BIOTHAN'ATI,— from Stoe, ' life,' and #«- 
tktos, ' death.' Those who die very suddenly, or 
as if there was no space between life and death. 

BIR, Thorax. 

BIRA, Cerevisia. 

BIRCH, Betulaalba. 

BIRTH, CROSS, Presentation, preternatu- 

BIRTHWORT, Aristolochia. 

BISCHE, Biecho. A malignant kind of dy- 
sentery, which often prevails in the Island of 
Trinidad. 

BIS'CUIT, Biscoctus, ' twice baked.' A kind 
of dry, hard bread, or cake, which is variously 
made; and, when without eggs or butter, is 
easy of digestion. It was formerly called Dipy- 
ri'tes, SurvQiTtjc, and Dip'yros. 

B1SERMAS, Salvia sclarea. 

BISFERIENS, Dicrotus. 

BISHOP'S WEED, Ammi. 

B1SLINGUA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BISMALVA, Althcea. 

BISPIRUS, Dipnoos. 

BISMUTH, Bismu'thum, Wismu'thum, Reg'- 
ulus of Bisfmuth, Marcasi'ta, Tin Glass. (F.) 
Etain gris, E. d.e Glace. A metal, in spicular 
plates, of a yellowish-white colour; s. gr. 



9.822. Fusible at 400 " Fahrenheit, and volati- 
lizable at a high temperature. It is used only 
in the preparation of the subnitrate. 

Bismuth, Subnitrate of, Oxyd of Bismuth, 
Marcasi'ta alba, Plumbum cindreum, Mag''/s- 
tery of Bismuth, Pearl White, Spanish White, 
Magiste'rium Marcasi'ta 1 , Bismu'thum JS'il'ri- 
cum, B. Subnit'ricum, Nilras Subbismu'thieum, 
Mtras Bismuthi, Calx Vismu'thi, Bismu'thum 
oxydula'tum album, (F.) Sousnitratc dc bismuth, 
Oxide blanc de B., Blanc defard, Blanc dc perle. 
It is considered to be tonic and antispasmodic, 
and has been chiefly used in gastrodynia. 

BISSUS. The silky filaments, which fix the 
Pinna Mari'na to the rocks. In Italy and Cor- 
sica, clothes are made of these, which are con- 
sidered to favour perspiration, and are recom- 
mended to be worn next the skin in rheuma- 
tism, gout, &c. — See Byssus. 

BISTORT, OFFICINAL, Polygonum bis- 
torta. 

BISTORTA, Polygonum bistorta. 
BISTORTIER, (F.) A name given, by the 
Pharmacien, to a long wooden pestle used for 
reducing soft substances to powder, and in the 
preparation of electuaries. 

BISTOVRI, (F.) Pistorien'sis gla'dius, Scal- 
pel' lus ; from scal'pere, ' to cut.' A Bistoury. 
A small cutting knife, used in Surgery, so 
called, according to Huet, from the town of 
Pistori, which was formerly celebrated for the 
manufacture of those instruments. A bistoury 
has the form of a small knife, and is composed 
of a blade and handle. The blade, which is 
most commonly movable in the handle, may be 
fixed by a button, spring, &c. When fixed in 
the handle, the bistouri is called by the French, 
B. a lame fixe ou dormante. 

The chief Bistouries are : — 1. The straight 
B. (F.) B. droit, in which the blade and cutting 
edge are straight : the point being fine, round, 
or square. 2. The convex B. (F.) B. convexe; 
the blade of which is convex at the cutting 
edge, concave at the back. 3. The concave 
B. (F.) B. concave; the blade of which is con- 
cave at its edge, and convex at the back. 4. 
blunt-pointed B. (F.) B. boutonnd ; the blade 
of which has a button at its extremity. 5. The 

BLUNT OR PROBE-POINTED BISTOURI OF PoTT is 

concave at its cutting edge, and its point is 
blunt; so that it can be carried on the palmar 
surface of the index finger, to divide the stric- 
ture, in strangulated hernia. Sir Astley Cooper 
has recommended a useful modification of this, 
to avoid wounding the intestine, should it come 
in contact with the edge of the knife. His 
Bistouri has an edge of not more than eight 
lines in length, and situate about five lines 
from the point. G. Bistouri a i.a lime, (F.) is 
a straight Bistoury ; the blade fixed in the han- 
dle ; the extremity witli a button, and the edge 
made with a file. It is chiefly used for dilating 
parts. 7. Bistouri royal, (F.) A Bistouri, 
used in operating upon Louis XIV., for fistula 
in ano. 8. Bistouri gastrique, (F.) A com- 
plicated instrument, invented by Morand, for di- 
lating wounds of the abdomen. 9. The Bistouri 
cache, B.herniaire, ou Mtrape-lourdaudde Bien- 
naise. A curved bistouri, the blade of which 
is placed in a canula, whence it issues on press- 
ing a spring. 



BIT NOBEN 



99 



BLENNEMES1S 



The word Bistouri is used by the French, at 
times, where we would employ knife. 

BIT NOBEN, Salt of Bitumen, Padnoon, 
Soucherloon, Khnla mimuc. A white, saline 
substance, which is a Hindoo preparation of 
great antiquity, and has been supposed to be 
the Sal Asphalti'tes and Sal Sodome'nus of the 
ancients. It is used by the Hindoo in the pre- 
vention or cure of almost all diseases. 

BITHNIMAL'CA or GAS'TERANAX. Two 
words, used by DoIceus, to designate an active 
principle supposed to have its seat in the sto- 
mach, and preside over chymification, &c. 

BITTER, Amarus— b Holy, Hiera picra. 

BITTERNESS, Amaritu'do, Amarit'ies, Am- 
a'ror, Picria, (F.) Jlmcrlumc. A particular 
taste, which belongs to many substances. In 
some diseases there is a sense of bitterness felt 
in the mouth. 

BITTERSWEET, Solanum dulcamara. 

BITTERS, COLUMBO, Tinctura Calumbse 
— b. Spirit, Tinctura gentiana; composita — b. 
Wine, Vinum gentiana: comp. 

DITTOS. A disease, in which the chief 
symptom is an acute pain in the anus. — Chomel. 

BITUMEN, GLUTINOUS, Pissasphaltum 
— b. Judaicum, Asphaltum — b. of Judaea, As- 
phaltum — b. Petroleum, Petrolatum — b. Malta, 
Pissasphaltum — b. Salt of, Bitnoben — b. Soli- 
dum. Asphaltum. 

BI VENTER, Digastricus— b. Cervicis, Corn- 
plexus musculus. 

BIXA ORLEANA, Terra Orleana. 

BLABE, Wound. 

BLACCLE, Rubeola. 

BLACKBERRY, AMERICAN. SeeRubus 
fruticosus. 

BLACK WATER, Pyrosis. 

BLADUM, Bit. 

BL.ESITAS, Balbuties. 

BLiE'SITAS, Blaisa lingua. Some authors 
have used this word as synonymous with stam- 
mering. See Balbuties. Sauvages understands 
by it a defect in pronunciation, which consists 
in substituting soft consonants for those that 
are hard ; as the z for s, the d for t, the s for 
g and j, &c. Also, Lisping, Traulis'mus, 
Trau'lotes, (F .) BUsM, Bid (parler.) 

BLjESUS. A distortion; especially the out- 
ward distortion of the legs. Also, a stammerer. 

BLAFARD, (F.) Pal'lidus, Pallid'ulvs. This 
epithet is sometimes given to the skin, when 
pale and dull ; but, most frequently, to the 
flesh of a wound, when it has lost its colour, 
and become white. The word is, also, some- 
times used synonymously with Albino, (q. v.) 

BLANC DE BALEINE, Cetaceum— b. dc 
Fard, Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. de Vail, Scle- 
rotic — b. d'auf, Albumen ovi — b. de Perlc, Bis- 
muth, subnitrate of. 

BLANC MANGER, (F.) Cibus albus, Leu- 
copha'gium, Argyrot.rophe'ma. An animal jelly, 
(so called on account of its colour,) combined 
with an emulsion of sweet almonds, to which 
sugar has been added, and some aromatic. It 
is sometimes prescribed as a nutrient in conva- 
lescence and chronic diseases. 

BLANC RHAZ1S or BLANC-RAISIN. An 
ointment composed of cerusse, white wax, and 
olive oil. 

BLANCA, Plnmbi subcarbonas. 

TO BLANCH, from(F.) blanchir, 1 to whiten 



to bleach.' To deprive of the outer rind ; as 
' to blanch almonds ;' i.e. to peel them. 

BLANCHET, (F.) A blanket. A term 
given, by the French Pharmaciens, to the wool- 
len strainer, through which they filter syrup 
and other thick fluids. 

BLANCNON OR1BASII, Polypodium filix 
mas. 

BLAS; an unmeaning term, invented by 
Van Helmont, to designate a kind of movement 
in the body ; at times, local, at others, under 
extraneous influence. Thus he speaks of the 
Bias meteoros, or of the heavenly bodies, and 
the Bias huma'num, that which operates in man. 

BLASE, (F.) An epithet given to one whom 
the abuse of enjoyment has prevented from 
any longer deriving satisfaction or pleasure 
from it. 

BLASTE'MA, Blaste'sis, from piaaravw, ' I 
bud.' A germ, (q. v.) The sense of this word, 
which is often used by Hippocrates, is obscure. 
Castelli thinks it means the eruption of some 
morbific principle at the surface of the body. 

BLASTODERMA. See Molecule. 

BLATTA BYZAN'TIA, Unguis odora'tus, 
(F.) Blattc de Byzance. This name seems, for- 
merly, to have been given to a marine produc- 
tion, from some of the Conchylia. It had an 
agreeable smell, a reddish tint, and the shape 
of a nail. It was prescribed in epilepsy, hys- 
teria, and hepatic obstructions. Rondelet af- 
firms that it was the production of the shell- 
fish murex or purpura ; and that the name Blatta 
is derived from the Greek (iXarrog, 'purple.' 

BLAVELLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAVAOLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAVEROLLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLlt, Bladum. This word answers, in 
France, to the word Corn (q. v.) in England; 
i. e. any kind of grain employed for making 
bread. Wheat being most commonly used for 
this purpose, Bit is sometimes restricted to this. 
Bid mtteil is a mixture of wheat and rye. 

BLE, CORNU, Ergot— b. d'Espagne, Zea 
mays — b. d'ltalie, Zea mays — b. Noir, Polygo- 
num fagopyrum — b. de Turquie, Zea, mays. 

BLA B (PARLER,) Blcesitas. 

BLEABERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 

BLEACHING LIQUID, Eau dcjavelle. 

BLEAR EYE, Lippitudo. 

HLEB, Bulla. 

BLECHNON, Polypodium filix mas. 

BLECHNUM LIGNIFOLIUM, Asplenium 
scolopendrium — b. Squamosum, Asplenium ce- 
terach. 

BLECHROPYRA. See Blechros. 

BLECHROPYRUS, Typhus mitior. 

BLECHROS, (fcijxfiog, ' weak, feeble, slow.' 
An epithet, applied to different affections, and 
particularly to fevers. Hence Bleehrop'yra, ' a 
slow fever :' Blcchrosphyo J mia, ' a slow pulse.' 

BLECHROSPHYGM1A. See Blechros. 

BLED, Corn. 

BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE, Epistaxis. 

BLEME, (F.) This word has nearly the same 
signification as Blafard. Generally, however, it 
includes, also, emaciation of the countenance. 

BLENNA, Mucus — b. Narium, Nasal mucus. 

BLENNELYT'RIA, IromJXtwa, 'mucus,' 
and eZvTQor, ' a sheath.' A discharge of mucus 
from the vagina. Leucorrhoea. (q. v.) Alibert. 

BLENNEM'ESIS, Blennoem'esis, 1 r om'itus 



BLENNEiNTERIA 



100 



BLOOD 



pituito'sus, from (IXevva, ' mucus,' and tptois, 
' vomiting.' Vomiting of mucus. 
BLENNENTERIA, Dysentery. 
BLENNISTH'MIA, from pi t vva, 'mucus,' 
and todjioe, ' the gullet' Increased flow of 
mucus from the pharynx and larynx. — Alibert. 
BLENNOEMESJS, Blennemesis. 
BLENNOG"ENOUS, Blcnnog"enus, from 
(iXerra, ' mucus,' and yiruw, ' I form.' Forming 
or generating mucus. Breschet and Roussel 
de Vauzeme describe an apparatus of this kind 
for the secretion of the mucous matter that 
constitutes the cuticle, composed of a glandu- 
lar parenchyma or organ of secretion situate in 
the substance of the true skin, and of excretory 
ducts, which issue from the organ, and depo- 
site the mucous matter between the papillae. 

BLENNOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia, (pu- 
rulent.) 

BLENNOP'TYSIS, from (IXsrva, and tttww, 
'lspit.' Expectoration of mucus. Catarrh (q. v.) 
BLENNOPYR'IA, from pXtwa, and nvn, 
' fire.' Alibert has classed, under this head, 
various fevers with mucous complications ; as 
Mesenteric fever , Adeno-meningeal fever, &c. 

BLENNORRHAGIA, Gonorrhoea— b. Ge- 
nitalium, Leucorrhcea— b. Notha, Gonorrhoea 
jspuria — b. Spuria, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BLENNORRHAGIC EPIDIDYMITIS, Her- 
nia humoralis. 

BLENNORRHAGIE FAUSSE, Gonorrhoea 
spuria — b. du Gland, Gonorrhoea spuria. 
BLENNORRHINIA, Coryza, 
BLENNORRHCE'A, Blennorrhoe, Blennor- 
rhag'ia, Phlcgmorrhaa, Phlcgmorrhag"ia, from 
(IXivra, ' mucus,' and (jew, ' I flow.' Inordinate 
secretion and discharge of mucus. 

Blennorrhea, Gonorrhoea — b. Chronica, 
(gleet,) see Gonorrhoea — b. Genitalium, Leu- 
corrhcea — b. Luodes, Gonorrhoea impura — 
b. Nasalis, Coryza — b. Urethralis, Gonorrhoea 
— b. Urinalis, Cystorrhoea — b. Vesicae, Cystor- 
rhoea. 

BLENNO'SES, from piura, ' mucus.' Af- 
fections of the mucous membranes. — Alibert. 

BLEiNNOTIIORAX, Catarrh, Peripneumo- 
nia notha — b. Chronicus, Asthma humidum. 
BLENNOTORRHCEA, Otirrhoea. 
BLENNURETHRIA, Gonorrhoea. 
BLENNURIA, Cystorrhoea. 
BLEPHARELOS1S, Entropion. 
BLEPHARIDES, Cilia. 
BLEPHARIDOPLASTICE, Blepharoplas- 
tlce. 

BLEPHARITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 
BLEPHAROBLENNORRHCEA, Ophthal- 
mia, purulent. 

BLEPHARCEDEMA AQUOSUM, Hydro- 
blepharon. 

BLEPHARON, Palpebra— b. Atoniaton, 
Blepharoptosis. 

BLEPHARONCO'SIS, Palpebrarum Tumor, 
from (ttupaqor, 'eyelid. A tumour on the 
eyelid. 

BLEPHAROPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia 
tarsi. _ 

BLEPHAROPLAS'TICE, Blepharidoplas'- 
ticE, Insisio Cilio'rum from pXttpuqov, ' the eye- 
lid,' and TtXaanxog, ' forming,' 'formative.' 
The formation of a new eyelid. 

BLEPHAROPLEG1 A, Blepharoptosis. 



BLEPHAROSPAS'MUS ; from fitqaqoy, 
'eyelid;' and arraauo?, 'spasm,' a spasmodic 
action of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 

BLEPHAROPTO'SIS, BIcpharople' gla, Ca- 
sus pal'pebrce supcri'oris, Delap'sus pal'pebrce, 
Prolap'sus pal'pebrce, Propto'sis pal'pcbra, 
Pt.o'sis pal'pebra, Ato'niaton blepharon, from 
(iXtipctQor, the eyelid,' and nrtoaig, 'fall.' A 
falling down of the upper eyelid over the eye, 
caused by a paralysis of the Levator pal 'peine 
superioris muscle. This paralysis is an unfavour- 
able symptom, as it is generally connected with 
a state of the brain favouring apoplexy or palsy. 

Blepharoptosis Ectkopium, Ectropium — b. 
Entropion, Entropion. 

BLEPHAROTIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

BLEPHAROTITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

BLEPHAROTOSIS, Ectropium. 

BLEPHAROXYS'TUM, from (IXtyaQor, 
'eyelid,' and %vv>, ' I scrape.' An instrument 
used, by the ancients, for removing callosities, 
which made their appearance in the affection 
called, by the Greeks, rqaj(u>fia. — Paulus of 
iEgina, Gorreeus. 

BLESITlt, Bkesitas. 

BLESSURE, Abortion, Wound. 

BLESTRIS'MOS. Restlessness of the sick. 
— Hippocr. 

BLETA. A word, used by Paracelsus for 
white or milky urine, arising from diseased 
kidneys. Biota alba has the same meaning. 

BLEV1LLE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bleville is a village about two miles from 
Havre. The waters are acidulous chalybe- 
ate s. 

BLINDNESS, Csecitas. 

BLISTER, Vesicato'rium, Emplas'trum Vesi- 
cato'rium, Emplas'trum Lyttce, Epispas'ticum, 
from Vesi'ca, ' a bladder,' (F.) Ve'sicatoire, Ve- 
sicant. Any substance which, when applied to 
the skin, irritates it, and occasions a serous se- 
cretion, raising the epidermis, and constituting 
a vesicle. Various articles produce this effect, 
as cantharides, mustard, garou, euphorbium, gar- 
lic, ammonia, &c. 

Blisters are used as counter-irritants. By 
exciting a disease artificially on the surface, we 
can often remove another, which may be at the 
time existing internally. 

A perpetual blister is one, that is kept open 
for a longer or shorter time by means of appro- 
priate dressings. 

Blister or vesication also means the vesicle 
produced by vesicatories. 

BLISTERING FLY, Cantharis. 

BLOOD, Sanguis, Cruor, Lapis anima'lis, 
Hmma, tliua, (F.) Sang. An animal fluid, 
formed chiefly from the chyle ; acquiring im- 
portant properties during respiration ; entering 
every organ through the circulation; distribu- 
ting the nutritive principles to every texture, 
and the source of every secretion. The blood 
is white, in the molluscous and inferior ani- 
mals, which have been, hence, called white- 
blooded, to distinguish them from the red- 
blooded; which class includes the mammalia, 
birds, reptiles, and fishes. Human blood is 
composed of water, albumen, fibrine, an animal 
colouring substance, a little fatty matter, and 
different salts ; as muriates of potass and soda, 
phosphate of lime, subcarbonate of soda, lime # 



BLOOD BLACK 



101 



BODY 



magnesia, oxide of iron, and lactate of soda, 
united with an animal matter. 

Arterial blood is of a florid red colour, strong 
smell, temp. 100°; s. g. 1.049. Venous blood 
is of a brownish-red; temp. 98°; s. g. 1.051. 
This difference in colour has given occasion to 
the first being called red blood; the latter black. 
The former, which is distributed from the heart, 
is nearly the same through its whole extent : 
the latter is the remains of the arterial blood 
after the different elements have been taken 
from it, in nutrition, and probably differs in 
composition. It likewise contains different 
substances absorbed. Venous blood, taken 
from a vessel and left to itself, becomes solid ; 
and separates into two distinct parts ; — the 
serum or watery, supernatant fluid: and the 
cruor, coag'ulum, crassamen'tum, hepar sangui- 
nis, placen'ta, in'sula, or clot. The serum is 
chiefly water, holding albumen in solution and 
the salts of the blood. The clot contains the 
fibrine, colouring matter, a little serum, and a 
small quantity of salts. The colouring portion 
of the blood consists of red globules, which 
contain iron ; and this is probably one of the 
agents of the coloration operated in the lungs : 
— the oxygen of the air combining with the 
venous blood in the pulmonary artery. In dia- 
betes, the blood contains a large quantity of 
sugar formed at the expense of the system. 

M. Lecanu found the blood to be composed 
—in 1000 parts— of water 785.590; albumen, 
69.415; fibrine, 3.565; colouring matter, 119.- 
626; crystallizable fatty matter, 4.300; oily 
matter, 2.270 ; extractive matter soluble in alco 
hoi and water, 1.920; albumen combined with 
soda, 2010; chlorides of sodium and potassium, 
alkaline phosphate, sulphate, and subcarbonates, 
7.304 ; subcarbonate of lime and magnesia, phos 
phate of lime, magnesia and iron, peroxide of 
iron, 1.414 ; loss, 2.586. 

The following table exhibits the computations 
of different physiologists regarding the weight 
of the circulating fluid — arterial and venous. 
Harvey, ~\ lbs. 

Lister, f o 

Mun I ins, I 

Abil guard, J 

Blumenbach, ) 

Lobb, \ 10 

Lower, ) 

Sprengel 10 to 15 

Miiller and Burdacl), 20 

Quesnai, 27 

F. Hoffman, 28 

Haller, 28 to 30 

Young, 40 

Hamberger, 80 

Kiel 100 

The proportion of arterial blood to venous is 
about as 4 to 9. 

Dried human blood was, at one time, con- 
sidered to be antiepileptic. That of the goat, 
dried, Sanguis hirci sicca' tus, is sudorific, and 
antipleuritic. 

Blood, Black, vascular system of, see 
Vascular — b. Loss of, Hsemorrhagia — b. Red. 
system of, see Vascular — b. Spitting of, Haemop- 
tysis — b. Vomiting of, Haematemesis — b. White, 
Lymph. 

BLOOD-LETTING, Missio Sanguinis, Ha- 
maxis. (F.) Saignde. A discharge of a certain 
quantity of blood produced by art: — an opera- 
tion, which consists in making an opening into 



a vessel to draw blood from it. When practised 
on an artery, it is called Arteriot'omy ; on a 
vein, Phlebotomy ; and on the capillary vessels, 
local or capillary, in contradistinction to the 
former, which is termed general. 

Blood-letting is used both during the exist- 
ence of a disease, as in inflammation, and in 
the way of prophylaxis. It is employed to ful- 
fil various indications. 1. To diminish the 
actual mass of blood ; — when it is termed, by 
the French Pathologists, Saignie evacuative. 
In such case, fluids ought not to be allowed too 
freely afterwards. 2. To diminish the tumes- 
cence in any particular organ — ( (F.) Saignic 
revulsive, when performed far from the part 
affected ; and Saignee derivative, when near.) 
3. To diminish the consistence, or the red par- 
ticles, of the blood, ( (F.) Saignie spoliative.) 
The immediate effects of blood-letting are : di- 
minution of the mass of blood and of heat; re- 
tardation of the pulse, and sometimes syncope. 
Blood-letting from the veins, or phlebotomy, is 
practised on the subcutaneous veins of the neck, 
the face, the fore-arm, and the leg; sometimes 
on those of the hand or foot. The necessary 
apparatus consists of a bandage or riband, a 
compress of rag, and a lancet or phleam. 

The veins selected for the operation, are, 1. 
In the fold of the arm, five ; — the cephalic, ba- 
silic, the two median, and the anterior cubital. 
2. In the hand, the cephalic and salvatella. 3. 
In the foot, the great and little saphena. 4. In 
the neck, the external jugular. 5. In the fore- 
head, the frontal. 6. In the mouth, the ranine. 
The operation of phlebotomy in the limbs is per- 
formed by tying a circular bandage round the 
limb, in order that the subcutaneous veins may 
become turgid, by the course of the blood being 
obstructed : the bandage not being so tight, 
however, as to compress the arteries of the 
limb. A puncture is made into the vein, and 
the desired quantity allowed to flow. The liga- 
ture is now removed ; and a compress and re- 
taining bandage applied. Capillary or local 
blood-letting is practised on the skin or mucous 
membranes, by means of leeches, the lancet, or 
cupping. 

BLOODROOT, Sanguinaria canadensis. 
BLOODSTONE, Hematites. 
BLOTA ALBA,Bleta. 

BLOW, Ictus, PlegS, (F.) Coup. Effect pro- 
duced by one body striking another. The im- 
pression made by any body, which strikes us, 
or against which we strike ; — a common cause 
of wounds, contusions, fractures, &c. 

BLUE BOTTLE, Centaurea cyanus, Cya- 
nus seiretum. 
BLUE STONE, Cupri sulphas. 
BLUET DESMOISSONS, Cyanus segetum. 
BLUSH, CUTANEOUS. See Efflorescence 
BOA. An eruption of red, ichorous pimples. 
Pliny. See, also, Hydra and Sudamina. 
Boa Upas, Upas. 
BOBERRI, Curcuma longa. 
BOCIUM, Bronchocele. 
BOCHIUM, Bronchocele. 
BODY, Corpus, Soma,(F.) Corps. The hu- 
man body is the collection of organs, which 
compose the frame. At times, however, body 
is used synonymously with trunk. We say, 
also, the body of the femur , of thc*$phenoid , &c, 



BOETIIEMA 



102 



BONE 



to designate the shaft or middle portion of those 
bones; the body of the uterus, &c. 

Body, coming down of the, Proctocele. 

BOETHKMA, Medicament. 

BOGBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata. 

BOHON UPAS, Upas. 

BOIL, Furunculus — b. Gum, Parulis. 

BOISDE CAMPkCHE, Hcematoxylon Cam- 
pechianum— b. de Chypre, Rhodium lignum — 
b. de Couleuvrc, see Strychnos — b. Puant, Pru- 
nus padus — b. de Rose, Rhodium lignum — b. de 
Sappun, C.Tsalpinia sappan — b. Sudorifique, 
Wood sudorific. 

BOISSE, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
waters are situate about half a league from Fon- 
tenay-le-Comte in France. They are purga- 
tive, and seem to contain carbonate and sul- 
phate of lime and muriate of soda. 

BOISSOJY, Drink. 

BOITE (F ) A box or case, Capsa, Pyxis. 
An apparatus for the reception of any matters, 
which it may be desirable to preserve. In Sur- 
gery and Anatomy, Boites a dissection, B. a am- 
putation, B. a, trepan, B. a cataracte, &c. mean 
the cases in which these various instruments 
are kept. Boite du Crane is the bony case 
which receives the brain. Boite is, also, the 
portion of the stem of the trephine, which re- 
ceives the pyramid or centrepin. Boite de Petit 
is a machine, invented by M. Petit, to retain 
the fractured portions of bone in apposition, 
when the leg has been fractured in a compli- 
cated manner. Boite is, also, a kind of case 
put before an artificial anus to receive the faeces, 
which are continually being discharged. The 
vulgar, in France, give the name Boite to va- 
rious articulations, — B. de genou, B. de la 
hanche ; Knee-joint, Hip-joint. 

BOITEMENT, Claudication. 

BOITIER (F.) Cap'sula ungucnta'ria. A 
Dressing-case. A box, containing salves and 
different apparatus, used more particularly by 
the dressers in hospitals. 

BOL, Bolus — b. d'Arminie, Bole, Armenian 
— b. Blanc, Bolus alba. 

BOLA, Myrrha. 

BOLBID'ION, BOLBID'EON, BOLBIT'- 
ION, poXfiiTiov, poXSidtuv. A species of polypus, 
recommended by Hippocrates to be boiled in oil 
and wine, and to be given in different diseases, 
and especially in amenorrhcea. 

BOLBITION, Bolbidion. 

BOLCHON, Bdellium. 

BOLE ARME'NIAN, BOLE ARME'NIAC 
or B. AR'MENIC, Argil'la ferrugin'ea rubra, 
Sinapi'sis, Arena'men, Bolus Orienta'lis, Bolus 
Armena, B. Arme'nia, B. rubra. (F.) Bol d'Ar- 
mtnie. A red, clayey earth, found, not only in 
Armenia, but in several countries of Europe, — 
in Tuscany, Silesia, France, &c. It was once 
esteemed atonic and astringent, and was applied 
as a styptic. It is now scarcely, if ever, used. It 
consists of Argil, mixed with lime and iron. 

BOLESIS, Coral. 

BOLESON, Balsam. 

BOLET ODORAJVT, Doedalea suaveolens. 

BOLETUS ALBUS, Boletus laricis. 

Bole'tus Esculen'tus, (F.) Morelle. An 
eatable mushroom, found in the woods in Eu- 
rope, and much admired by Gastronomes. It 
was formerly esteemed to be aphrodisiac. 



Bole'tus Ignia'rius. The systematic name 
for the Agaricus of the Pharmacopoeias. Agar'- 
icus Chtrurgo'rum, Agar'icus Qucrcus, Is'ca, 
iaxa, Boletus Ungula'tus, Spunk, Am'adou, 
Punk, Fungus Ignia'rius, fungus Querci'nus, 
Agaric of the Oak, Touchwood Boletus, Female 
Agaric. (F.) Agaric de chenc, Amadouvicr. 
It was formerly much used by surgeons as a 
styptic. 

Bolf/tus Lar'icis, B. Larici'nus, Fun'gus 
La'ricis, Polyporus officinalis, Agar'icus albus, A. 
albus op'timus,B. purgans, B. albus, (F.) Agaric 
blanc. On the continent of Europe it has been 
given as a cathartic and emetic, as well as to 
moderate the sweats in phthisis — (De Haen.) 
Externally, styptic. 

Boletus Purgans, Boletus laricis — b. Salicis, 
Dffidalea suaveolens. 

Bole'tus Suav'eolens, Fungus sal'icis, Fun- 
gus albus salig'neus, Dadale'a suav'eolens. (F.) 
Agaric odorant. It has been used in phthisis 
pulmonalis, and asthma, in powder. Dose, from 

3 SS t0 3 j J- 

Boletus Touchwood, Boletus igniarius. 

BOLT MARTIS, Ferrum tartarisatum. 

BOLISMOS, Boulimia. 

BOLFTES. The mushroom; perhaps the 
Agar'icus Aurantiacus. — Pliny, Martial, Seu- 
tonius, Galen. It was so called, in consequence 
of its shape, from Bolus. 

BOLUS, flwlog, a morsel, a mouthful, a bole. 
(F.) Bol. A pharmaceutical preparation, hav- 
ing a pilular shape, but larger: capable, how- 
ever, of being swallowed as a pill. 

Bolus Alba, Terra sigilla'ta, Argil'la pallid 1 '- 
ior : — called sigilla'ta, from being commonly 
made into small cakes or flat masses and stamp- 
ed or sealed with certain impressions. (F.) Bol 
blanc, Terre sigillee, Argile ochreusc pale. It 
was used like the Bolus Armenia, and was 
brought from Etruria. See Terra. 

Bolus Alimen'tary. Bolus alimenta'rius. 
The bole, formed by the food, after it has un- 
dergone mastication and insalivation, in the 
mouth; and been collected upon the tongue 
prior to deglutition. 

Bolus Orienta'lis. A kind of Bolar earth 
only distinguished from Bole Armenian, in be- 
ing brought from Constantinople. See Bole, 
Armenian. 

Boi.us Rubra, Bole, Armenian. 

BOMA'REA SALSIL'LA. The inhabitants 
of Chili use this plant as a sudorific. It is 
given in infusion, in cutaneous diseases. 

BOMBAX, Gossypium. 

BOMBEMENT, Bombus. 

BOMBXJS, Au'rium fluctua'tio, A. sib'ilus,A. 
son'itus, A. susur'rus^F.) Bombement. A kind of 
ringing or buzzing in the ears ; — characterized, 
according to Sauvages, by the perception of 
blows or beating repeated at certain intervals. 
See Flatulence, and Tinnitus Aurium. 

BOMBYX MORI, See Sericum. 

BON, Coffea Arabica. 

BONA, Phascolus vulgaris. 

BONE, Os, Osteon, octsov, (F.) Os. The 
bones are the solid and hard parts, which form 
the basis of the bodies of animals, of the supe- 
rior classes; and the union of which constitutes 
the skeleton. The human body has at the adult 
age, 208 bones, without including the 32 teeth, 



BONE 



103 



BORAX 



the ossa wormiana and the sesamoid bones. 
Anatomists divide them, from their shape, into, 
1. Long Bones, which form part of the limbs 
and represent columns, for supporting the 
weight of the body, or levers of different kinds 
for the muscles to act upon. 2. Flat Bones, 
which form the parietes of splanchnic cavities: 
and, 3. Short Bones, met with in parts of the 
body, where solidity and some mobility are ne- 
cessary. Bones are formed of two different tex- 
tures ; the spongy and compact. They afford, 
on analysis, much phosphate and carbonate of 
lime, a little phosphate of magnesia, phosphate 
of ammonia, oxides of iron and manganese, 
some traces of alumine and silica, gelatine, fat, 
and water. The uses of the bones are men- 
tioned under each bone. They give shape to 
the body, contain and defend the viscera: and 
act as levers to the muscles. 



BONE3 OF 
THE 

Head. 



TABLE OF THE BONES. 

fFrontal 

Bones of the |£ arietiU , " 
Cranium or \ ° cc 'P 1(a l " " 

***"■ HZS? : : 

[Sphenoid 
("Superior Maxillary 

Jugal or Cheek 
I Nasal - - - 
Bones of the l Lachrymal - 
Face. ; Palatine 

Inferior Spongy - 
I Vomer 
[inferior Maxillary 

Incisores 

Cuspidati 

Molares 



Dentes or 
Teeth. 



Bones of 

THE 

Trunk. 



Bone of the 
Tongue. 



bones of the 
Ear. 



Sacrum 
*> Os Coccygis. 

The Thorax 

\ The Pelvis. 



Hyoid - 

f Malleus 
j Incus 
J Orbiculare 
I Stapes - 
( Cervical 
} Dorsal - 
( Lumbar 



est. 

•tRi 



Sternum 
bs - 
Innominatum 



f The Shoul- 
der. 
| The Arm. 

Forearm. 



BONE9 OF 

the Up- J 

PER Ex- < 
TREMITY. 



f 



B0NE9 OF 

the Low- 
er Extre- 
mity. 



I Clavicle 
j Scapula 

Humerus 
t Ulna - 
j Radius 
("Naviculare 
j Lunare 
j Cuneiforme 
,' Orbicularo 
| Trapezium 
Trapezoides 
Magnum 
[Unci forme 
Metacarpus 
\ Phalanges 
The Thigh. Femur 
r Patella 
\ Tibia - 
( Fibula 
fCalcis Os 
Astragalus 
Cuboides 
Naviculare 
t. Cuneiforme 
i Metatarsus 
\ Phalanges 



Carpus 

or 
Wrist. 



The Leg. 



Tarsus 



or 
J Instep . 



Total 210 



Bone, Back, Vertebral column— b. Blade, 
Scapula — b. Boat-like, Os scaphoides — b. Breast, 
Sternum — b. Haunch, Ilion — b. Share, Pubis — 
b. Splinter, Fibula. 

Bone Nippers, Tcnac'uhi, from te'nco, 'I 
hold.' (F.) Tenaillc incisive. An instrument 
used for cutting off splinters and cartilages. 
It is a kind of forceps, the handles of which 
are strong, and the edges, which touch each 
other, cutting. 

BONES, BRITTLENESS OF THE, Fra- 
gilitas ossiuni — b. Friability of the, Fragilitas 
ossium — b. Salt of. Ammonias carbonas — b. Sof- 
tening of the, Mollities ossium. 
BONEBINDER, Osteocolla. 
BONESET, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 
BONIFAC1A, Ruscus hypoglossum. 
BOJYNE DAME, Atriplex bortensis. 
BONNES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bonnes is a village six leagues from Pau, in the 
department Basses Pyrin&cs, France. Here are 
several thermal springs. They were celebrated 
as early as the time of Francis I., under the 
name Eaux d Arquebusade. They contain mu- 
riates of soda and magnesia, sulphates of mag- 
nesia and lime, sulphur, and silica. The tem- 
perature is from 86° to 90° Fahrenheit. 

The factitious Eau de Bonnes is made of 
Hydrosulpliuretted looter, §iv: pure water, ftij 
and §ss; muriate of soda, 30 grains ; sulphate 
of magnesia, 1 grain. 
BONNET, Reticulum. 

BOJYJVET A DEUX GLOBES, Bonnet 
d'Hippocrate. 

BOJYJVET D'HIPPOCRATE, Cap of Hip- 
pocrates, Mitra Hippocrat'ica., Fascia capila'lis, 
Pileus Hippocrat'icus. A kind of bandage, the 
invention of which is ascribed to Hippocrates. 
It consists of a double-headed roller, passed 
over the head, so as to envelop it, like a cap. 
The French, also, name it, Bonnet a deux 
globes, Capcline de la tete. 

BONN YCLAB'BER,from Irish, tame, 'milk,' 
and clabar, ' mire.' Sour milk. 

BONPLANDIA TRIFOLIATA, Cusparia 
febrifuga 

BONUS GENIUS, Peucedanum— b. Hen- 
ricus, Chenopodium Bonus Henricus. 
BOON UPAS, Upas. 
BOONA. Phaseolus vulgaris. 
BORAC'TC ACID, Ad'idum Borac"icum, 
Sal sedati'vusHoMBEii'Gii. Boric Acid. An acid 
obtained from Borax, which was once looked 
upon as sedative. It was also called Acor 
Borac" icus, Sal vstrioli narcoticum, Sal volatile 
Bora'cis, and Flares Bora'cis. 
BORAGE, Borago officinalis. 
BORA'GO OFFICINALIS, Buglos'sum vc- 
rum, Bug. latifo'lium, Borra'go, Corra'go, Bo- 
rag, horten'sis, Borage, (F.) Bourrache. Nat, 
Ord. Boragineae. Sex. St/st. Pentandria Mono- 
gynia. The leaves and flowers have been con- 
sidered aperient. 

BORAS SUPERSODICUS, Borax. 
BORATHRON, Juniperus Sabina. 
BORAX, Boras Sodec, Subboras Soda, Boras 
supcrsat'uras soda:, Soda Boraxata, Chrysocol'Ia, 
Caqris'triim auri, Subborate of protox'ide of So- 
dium, Subprotobo'ratc of Sodium, Boras Soda 
alcales' cens seu alcali'num, Boras superso'dicus, 
Borax Ven'ctus, Subbo'ras JYa'tricum, Borax'- 



BORAXTRION 



104 



BOUGIE 



trion, Nitrum facW'tium, &c. The Suhbo'rate 
of Soda, (F.) Sous-borate de Sonde, Borate sur- 
saturt" de soude. It is found in an impure state 
in Thibet and Persia. It is inodorous ; taste 
cool, and somewhat alkaline; soluble in 12 
parts of water. Borax is seldom used except 
as a lotion in aphthse. 

The Borate of Mercury has been recommend- 
ed as an antisyphilitic. 

BORAXTRION, Borax. 

BORBORYG'MUSjfrom^oouuo, 'I make 
a dull noise.' Murmur, Motus Intcstino'rum, 
(F.) Gargouillement, Grouillemcnt d'Entruilles. 
The noise made by flatus in the intestines. 
This happens often in health, especially in 
nervous individuals. 

BORD, (F.) Margo, Edge, Margin. Anato- 
mists have so named the boundaries of an or- 
gan. Thus, the bones, muscles, &c. have lords 
as well as bodies. The ' free edge,' Lord libre, 
is one not connected with any part ; the ' ad- 
hering edge,' bord adhirent, one that is con- 
nected ; and the bord articulaire, or ' articular 
margin, or edge,' that which is joined to ano- 
ther bone. 

BORD CILTAIRE, Ciliary margin. 

BORDEAUX, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Near this great city, in the south-west of 
France, is a saline, chalybeate spring. It con- 
tains oxide of iron, carbonate and sulphate of 
lime, muriates of soda and lime, subcarbonate 
of soda, and sulphate of magnesia. 

BORGJVE, (F.) Codes, Unodulus, Luscus. 
One who has only one eye, or sees only with 
one. The word has been used, figuratively, for 
blind, in Surgery and Anatomy. See Caecus. 

BOR'OSAIL, Zael. ^Ethiopian names for 
a disease, very common there, which attacks 
the organs of generation, and appears to have 
considerable analogy with syphilis. 

BORRAGO, Borrago officinalis. 

BORRI, Curcuma longa. 

BORRIBERRI, Curcuma longa. 

BORSE, MINERAL WATERS OF. Borse 
is a village in Beam. The waters are chaly- 
beate. 

BO'SA. An .^Egyptian name for a mass, 
made of the meal of darnel, hempseed, and 
water. It is inebriating. — Prospero Alpini. 

BOSOM. See Mamma. 

BOSSE, Hump, Protuberance — b. JYasale, 
Nasal protuberance. 

BOSWELLIA SERRATA. See Juniperus 
lycia. 

BOTAL FORAMEN, Fora'men Bota'le; the 
Fora'men ovale, (F.) Trou de Botal. A large 
opening, which exists in the foetus in the par- 
tition between the two auricles of the heart; 
and by means of which the blood passes from 
one to the other. Its discovery is generally 
attributed to Leonard Botallus or Botal, who 
wrote in 1562. It was spoken of, however, by 
Vesalius, and even by Galen. 

BOTAJVIQUE M&DWALE, Botany, medi- 
cal. 

BOT'ANY, MEDTCAL, Botan'ica Med'ica, 
Medici'na Botan'ica, from poravr,, ' an herb,' (F.) 
Botanique Midicale. The knowledge of the 
properties, differences, &c, of those vegetables 
which are used in Medicine. 

BOTAR'GO, (F.) Botarguc. A preparation 



made in Italy and the south of France, with 
the e<rg-s and blood of the Mugilceph'alus or 
Mullet; r strongly salted, after it has become pu- 
trescent It is used as a condiment. 

BOTARGUE, Botargo. 

BOTHOR. An Arabic term for abscess in 
the nares. It means, also, tumours in general ; 
especially those which are without solution of 
continuity. 

BOTHRION, from (iudfjo?, 'a pit, cavity,' 
&c. An alveolus, (q. v.) or small fossa. A 
small, deep ulcer on the cornea. — Galen, Pau- 
lus of jEgina. See Fossette. 

BOTHRIOCEPH'ALUS or BOTRIO- 
CEPH'ALUS LATUS, from potior, < a small 
pit," and y.eipu/Lt], ' head,' Taenia lata, T. vulga! - 
ris, Lumbri'cus latus, Plate'a, T. os'culis latc- 
ral'ibus gem'inis, T. grisea, T. membrana'cea, 
T. tenel'la, T. denta'ta, T. huma'na iner'mis, 
Hal'ysis membrana'cea, T. prima, T. os'culis 
lateral 'ibus solitariis, T. aceph'ala, T. os'culis 
superficial' ibus, T. a anneaux courts, Vcr soli- 
taire, the Broad Tape Worm. Common in Swit- 
zerland, Russia, and some parts of France. It 
inhabits the intestines of man, and extends to 
an enormous length. A broken specimen has 
been obtained 60 yards long. — Goeze. 

BOTHRIUM, Fossette. 

BOTHROS, Fovea. 

BOTIN, Terebinthina. 

BOTIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOTOTHINUM. An obscure term, used 
by Paracelsns to denote the most striking 
symptom of a disease : — the Flos Morbi. 

BOTOU, Pareira brava. 

BOTRIOCEPHALUS, Bothriocephalus. 

BOTRION, Alveolus. 

BOTRYS, Chenopodium botrys, see Vitis 
vinifera — b. Ambrosioides, Chenopodium am- 
brosioides — b. Americana, Chenopodium am- 
brosioides — b. Mexicana, Chenopodium ambro- 
sioides. 

BOTTIJYE, (F.) A thin boot or buskin, 
O'crea le'vior. An instrument, which resem- 
bles a small boot, furnished with springs, straps, 
buckles, &c, and used to obviate distortions of 
the lower extremities in children. 

BOUBALIOS, Momordica elaterium, Vulva. 

BOUBON, Bubo. 

BOUCAGE MAJEUR, Pimpinella magna— 
b. Mineur, Pimpinella saxifraga — b. Petit, Pim- 
pinella saxifraga. 

BOUCHE, Mouth. 

BOUCLEMEJYT, Infibulation. 

BOUES DES EAUX, (F.) Balnea Cceno'sa, 
Boucs Minirales. The mud or swamp, formed 
near mineral springs ; impregnated with the 
substances contained in such springs, and con- 
sequently possessing similar properties. The 
Boues are applied generally and topically, in 
France, at the springs of St. Amand, Bagneres 
de Luchon, Bagnols, Bareges, — White Sul- 
phur, Virginia, &c. 

BOUES MIKiiRALES, Boues des caux. 

BOUFFE, (F.) The small eminence, formed 
by the junction of the two lips. — Dulaurens. 

BOUFFISSURE, Puffiness. 

! BOUGIE, (F.) A wax candle, Candel'ula, 

Candc'la ce'rea, Cande'la medica'ta, Ce'reum 

ymedica'tum, Ccreolus Chirurgo'rum, Dafdion, 

' Spcdll'um ce'reum. Virga ce'rea, Ccreola. A 



BOUILLIE 



105 



BOYAU 



flexible cylinder, variable in size, to be intro- 
duced into the urethra, oesophagus, rectum, &c, 
for the purpose of dilating these canals, when 
contracted. 

A Simple Bougie is composed of solid and 
insoluble substances ; as plaster, elastic gum, 
catgut, &c. It acts of course only mechanically. 

A Medicated Bougie, (F .) B . mddicamcnteuse, 
has the addition of some escharotic or other 
substance to destroy the obstacle ; as in the 
Caustic Bougie, which has a small portion of 
Lunar Caustic or Common Caustic, inserted in 
its extremity. Ducamp has recommended a 
Bougie, which swells out near its extremity for 
the better dilating of the urethra. This he calls 
B. a ventre. The metallic Bougie, invented by 
Smyth, is a composition of metal, allowing of 
great flexibility ; and a holloio Bougie is one, 
with a channel running through it, to be used 
in the same manner as the catheter, or other- 
wise. 

BOUILLIE, (F.) PultiJula, Pap, from (F.) 
bouillir, ' to boil.' Flour, beaten and boiled with 
milk. It is a common food for infants. 
*■' BOUILLON, (F.) from bouillir, 'to boil,' 
Jus, Sorbi"do. A liquid food, made by boiling 
the flesh of animals in water. The osmazome 
gelatine, and soluble salts dissolve; the fat 
melts, and the albumen coagulates. B. is 
nourishing, owing to the gelatine and osma- 
zome. The Jus de Viandc is a very concentrated 
Bouillon, prepared of beef, mutton, veal, &c. 

Bouillons medicinaux ou pharmaceutiques, 
medicinal or pharmaceutic Bouillons, contain 
infusions or decoctions of medicinal herbs. The 
Bouillon aux herbes is generally composed of 
sorrel or beet. 

Bouillon Blanc, Verbascum nigrum. 

Bouillon, in common language, in France, 
means a round fleshy excrescence, sometimes 
seen in the centre of a venereal ulcer. 

Bouillon d'Os,(F.) or Bouillon from Bones, 
is obtained by treating bones with muriatic 
acid, in order to dissolve the earthy parts. The 
gelatine, which remains, is then boiled with a 
little meat and vegetables. — D'Arcet. Bouil- 
lon, however, can be easily obtained from the 
bones of roast meat by simple coction. 

BOUILLONNEMENT, Ebullition. 

BOUIS, Buxus. 

BOULE D'ACIER, Ferrum tartarizatum— 
b. de Mars, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Mol- 
sheim, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Nancy, Fer- 
rum tartarizatum. 

BOULEAU COMMUN, Betula alba. 

BOULIM'IA, Bulim'ia, or Bulim'ius, Bouli- 
mos, Bulimiasis, Bolismos, Fames, cani'na, Ap- 
peti'tus cani'nus, Appcten'tia cani'na, Adepha'- 
gia, Cynorex'ia, Bupei'na, Phaga/na, Phagede- 
na, Fames Bovi'na, F. Lupi'na, from (lovg, ' an 
ox,' and Xtpog, ' hunger ;' or from pu, augmenta- 
tive particle, and Xiuoq, ' hunger.' (F.) Bouli- 
mie, Faim canine. An almost insatiable hunger. 
A canine appetite. It is sometimes seen in hys- 
teria and pregnancy ; rarely under other cir- 
cumstances. 

BOULIM1E, Boulimia. 

BOULOGNE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
B. is in the department, Pas-de-Calais, France. 
The waters are chalybeate. 

BOUQUET ANATOMIQUE DE RIOLAN 
14 



(F,) from bouquet, a collection of flowers or 
other substances tied together. A name given, 
by some Anatomists, to the collection of liga- 
ments and muscles, inserted into the styloid 
process of the temporal bone. 

Bouquet Fever, Dengue. 

BOURBILLOJY. See Furunculus (core.) 

BOURBON -LANCY, MINERAL WA- 
TERS OF. Bourbon-Lancy is a small village 
in the department of Saone-et-Loire, France ; 
where there are thermal, saline springs, con- 
taining carbonic acid, muriate and sulphate of 
soda, muriate and carbonate of lime, iron, and 
silica. Their heat is from 106° to 135° Fah- 
renheit. 

BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAUT, MINE- 
RAL WATERS OF. This town is in the de- 
partment of the Allier, and has been long cele- 
brated for its thermal chalybeate waters. They 
contain muriate and sulphate of soda, magne- 
sia, and lime, carbonate of iron, and silica. 
Their temperature varies between 140° and 
145° Fahrenheit. 

BOURBONNE-LES- BAINS, MINERAL 
WATERS OF. These springs are seven 
leagues from Langres, department of Haute- 
Mcrne, France. They are thermal and saline, 
and have been long celebrated. Temperature 
from 106° to 133° Fahrenheit. The Factitious 
water, (F.) Eau de Bourbonne-lcs- Bains, Aqua 
Borvoncn' sis , is composed of water, containing 
twice its bulk of carbonic acid,g xxss ; muriate 
of soda 2 j, muriate of lime, gr. x, «&c. 

BOURBOULE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A village near Mont d'Or, where there are two 
thermal saline springs. 

BOURDAINE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURDONNEMENT (F.) Bruissement, 
Murmur, Susurrus. A sensation of buzzing or 
humming in the ear, which may be either de- 
pendent on some modified condition of the ear 
itself, or may be seated in the brain. 

BOURDONNET, Tent. 

BOURGENE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURGEON, Granulation, Papula— b. Char- 
nu, Granulation. 

BOURGEONS, Gutta rosea. 

BOURRACHE, Borago officinalis. 

BOURRELET (F.) ~A Pad, a Border. A 
fibro-cartilaginous border, which surrounds 
certain articular cavities, such as the glenoid 
cavity of the scapula and the acetabulum ; and 
by which the depth of those cavities is aug- 
mented. 

BOURRELET ROULE, Cornu ammonis. 

BOURSES, LES, Scrotum. 

BOURSOUFLURE, Pufliness. 

BOUTON, Papula— b. d'Alep,see Anthrax— 
b. d'Or, Ranunculus acris. 

BOUTONNIERE (F.) ; Fissu'ra, Incis'io. A 
small incision made in the urethra to extract a 
calculus from the canal, when it is too large to 
be discharged. 

Also, a small incision or puncture, made in 
the peritoneum, or above the pubis, to pene- 
trate the bladder in certain cases of retention 
of urine. 

BOVILL^E, Rubeola. 

BO VISTA, Lycoperdon. 

BOXWOOD, Cornus Florida. 

BOY A t/, Intestine. 



BRABYLON 



10G 



BRA NOV 



BRABYLON, Prunum Damascenuin. 

BRACHERIOLUM, Truss. 

BRACHER1UM, Truss. 

BRACHIiEUS, Brachial— b. Internus, Bra- 
chialis anterior. 

BRA'CHIAL, Brachia'lis, Brachia'us, from 
Bra'chium, ' the arm.' What belongs to the 
arm. 

Mus'culus Brachia'lis Ante'rior, Bral- 
chia'lis internus, Brachia'us, Brachial us intc.r'- 
nus, (F.) Muscle brachial interne, Humero- cubi- 
tal — (Ch.) This muscle is situate at the ante- 
rior and inferior part of the arm, and before the 
elbow-joint. It arises, fleshy, from the middle 
of the os humeri ; and is inserted into the coro- 
noid process of the ulna. Use. To bend the 
forearm. 

The Brachial Artery, Arte'ria brachia'lis, 
Humeral Artery, (F.) Artere ou Tronc brachial. 
The artery, which extends from the axilla to 
the bend of the elbow ; where it divides into 
A. cubitalis and A. radialis. It passes along 
the internal edge of the biceps, behind the 
median nerve and between the accompanying 
veins. Under the name Brachial Artery, M. 
Chaussier includes the subclavian, axillary, 
and humeral; the last being the brachial pro- 
per. 

The Brachial Veins are two in number, 
and accompany the artery, — frequently anas- 
tomosing with each other: they terminate in 
the axillary. Under the term Brachial Vein, 
Chaussier includes the humeral, axillary, and 
subclavian. 

Brachial Aponeurosis. An aponeurosis, 
formed particularly by expansions of the ten- 
dons of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, 
and deltoides muscles, and which completely 
envelops the muscles of the arm. 

The Brachial Plexus, Plexus Brachia'lis, 
is a nervous plexus, formed by the interlacing 
of the anterior branches of the four last cervi- 
cal pairs and the first dorsal. It is deeply seat- 
ed in the hollow of the axilla, and extends as 
far as the inferior and lateral part of the neck. 
It gives off the thoracic nerves, supra and infra 
scapular, and the brachial (which are six in 
number,) the axillary, cutaneous, musculo-cula- 
neous, radial, cubital, and median. 

BRACHIALE, Carpus. 

BRACHIALIS EXTERNUS. See Triceps 
extensor cubiti. 

BRACHIO-CU'BITAL, Brachio - cubita'lis. 
That which belongs both to the arm and cubi- 
tus. This name has been given to the internal 
lateral ligament at the elbow-joint ; because it 
is attached to the os brachii or os humeri and 
to the cubitus or ulna. 

BRACHIO-RADIAL, Brachio-radia'lis. That 
which belongs to the brachium and radius. 
This name, has been applied to the external 
lateral ligament of the elbow-joint, because it 
is attached to the humerus and to the radius. 
See Supinator Radii longus. 

BRACHIUM, Laccr'tus, (F.) Bras, the arm. 
The arm from the shoulder to the wrist, or the 
part between the shoulder and elbow. See 
Humeri, Os. 

Brachium Movens Quartus, Latissimus 
dorsi. 

BRACHUNA, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 



BRACHYAU'CHEN, from faaxvs, ' short,' 
and avyj]v, 'neck.' One who has a short 
neck. 

BRACHYCH RO'NIUS, from p»«x"?> ' short,' 
and xQorug, ' time.' That which continues but 
a short time. A term applied to diseases which 
are of a short duration. — Galen. 

BRACHYNSIS, Abbreviation. 

BRACHYFNCEA, Dyspnoea. 

BRACHYP'OTL from fcaxvg, ' short,' and 
ttot>,c, 'drinker.' They who drink little, or 
who drink rarely. — Hippocr.. Galen, Foesius. 

BRACHYSMOS, Abbreviation. 

BRACING, Corroborant. 

BRADYMASE'SIS, Bradymasse'sis, from 
pQadvc, 'difficult,' and uaaiqaig, 'mastication.' 
Difficult mastication. See Dysmasesis. 

BRADYPEP'SIA, Tarda cibo'rum concoc'tio, 
from (iouSve, ' slow,' and tti.itu), ' I digest.' 
Slow digestion. — Galen. See Dyspepsia. 

BRADYSPERMATIS'MLTS, from pquSvg, 
' slow,' and annua, ' sperm." A slow emission 
of sperm. 

BRADYSU'RIA, Tenesmus vesi'ece, from 
pnadvg, 'difficult,' and ovqiiv, 'to pass the 
urine.' Painful evacuation of the urine, with 
perpetual desire to void it. 

BRAG'GAT, Braggart. A name formerly 
applied to a tisan of honey and water. See 
Hydromeli. 

BRAI, LIQUIDE, see Pinus sylvestris— b. 
Sec, Colophonia. 

BRAIN, LITTLE, Cerebellum. 

BRAINE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Braine is a small village, three leagues from 
Soissons, France, which has purgative waters 
similar to those of Passy. 

BRAKE, COMMON, Pteris aquilina. 

BRAMBLE, COMMON, Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAN, Furfur. 

BRAJ\'C URSIJYE BATARDE, Heracleura 
spondylium. 

BRANCA URSINA, Acanthus mollis— b. 
Germanica, Heracleum spondylium. 

BRANCH, from (F.) Branche, originally 
probably from (S^a^iwv, 'an arm;' because 
branches of trees, &c., go off like arms. A 
term, applied, generally, to the principal divi- 
sion of an artery or nerve. The word is com- 
monly used synonymously with Ramus: but 
often, with the French, Branche signifies the 
great division ; — Rameau, Lat. Ramus, the di- 
vision of the branches ; and Ramusculcs, Lat. 
Ramusculi, the divisions of these last. 

The French, also, speak of the branches of 
the pubis, for the Rami of that bone, branches 
of the ischium, for the rami of the I., &c. 

BRANCHES DE LA MOELLE ALLON- 
GEE (PETITES,) Corpora restiformia. 

BRANCH1 or BRANCHJE. Swellings of 
the tonsils, or parotid, according to some; — of 
the thyroid gland, according to others. 

BRANCH US, pQuyxoc, Rauce'do (q. v.) A 
catarrhal affection of the mucous membrane of 
the fauces, trachea, &c. — Galen. 

BRANCIA, Vitrum. 

BRANDY. (G.) Br ant we in, 'burnt 
wine.' Aqua Vila. (F.) Eau de vie. The first 
liquid product obtained by distilling wine. It 
is composed of water, alcohol, and ah aromatic, 
oily matter, which gives it ils flavour. Brandy 



BRANKS 



107 



BRISE-P/ERRE ARTICVLlt 



is a powerful and diffusible stimulant, and as 
such is used in medicine. It has been also 
called Liquor Jlquilc'gius. See Spirit. 

BRANKiS, Cynanche parotide. 

BRANKURS1NE, Acanthus mollis. 

BRAS, Brachium — b. du Ccrcelct, Corpora 
restiforrnia. 

BRASEGUR, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Brasegur is a place in the diocess of Rhodez, 
where there are cathartic waters. 

BRAS1UM, Malt. 

BRASMOS, Fermentation. 

BRASS. Sax. bpa r , Welsh, pres. A yellow 
metal, formed by mixing copper with calamine. 
Aurichal' cum, Orichal' cum, JEsecavum, Chryso- 
chalcos. (F.) Airain. The same remarks apply 
to it as to copper. See Cuprum. 

BRAS'SICA. The Cabbage. The Bras' sica 
olcra'cca; the B. capita' ta or cuma'na of the 
old Romans. (F.) C/wu potagcr. Family, Cru- 
ciferse. Sex. Syst. TetradynamiaSiliquosa. Cato 
wrote a book on its virtues. It is a vegetable 
by no means easy of digestion when boiled ; 
raw, it appears to be more digestible. When 
forming a solid globular mass, like a head, it 
is the B. Capita'la, (F.) Chou-Cabus, Chou- 
Pomm'e. 

Brassica Canina, Mercurialis perennis. 

Bras'sica Flor'ida. The Bras'sica Pom- 
peia!na of the ancients — the Cauliflower, Caulis 
Flor'ida, (F.) Chou-fleur , is a more tender and 
digestible variety. 

The Broc'coli belongs to this variety, the 
B. Sabel'/ica of the Romans — B. Ital'ica. 

Brassica Marina, Convolvulus soldanella — 
b. Pompeiana, Brassica Florida. 

Bras'sica Rap a, Rapa rotun'da, Rapum 
majus, Rapa napus, the Turnip. (F.) Chou- 
navet, Navet, Rave. The turnip is liable to the 
same objection (but to a less extent) as the 
cabbage. 

Bras'sica* Napus, Napus Svlves'tris or 
Bu'nias, Rape. (F.) Navctte. The seed yields 
a quantity of oil. 

Bras'sica Eru'ca, Eru'ca, Garden Rocket, 
Roman Rocket, &c (F.) Chou-Roquette, Ro- 
quette. This was considered, by the Romans, 
an aphrodisiac. — Columella. The seeds were 
ordinarily used. 

BRATHU, Juniperus sabina. 

BRATHYS, Juniperus sabina. 

BRA YER, Truss. 

BRAYERA ANTHELMIN'TICA. An Abys- 
sinian plant; of the Family Rosaceae. Sex. Syst. 
Ieosandria Digynia. The flowers have been 
highly extolled as anthelmintic, especially in 
cases of Tapeworm. They are given in decoc- 
tion. 

BRAZIL WOOD, Csesalpinia sappan. 

BREAD. See Triticum — b. Household, Syn- 
comistos. 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE, Artocarpus. 

BREAST, Thorax — b. Abscess of the, Mas- 
tody nia apostematosa. . 

BREATH, llal'itus, Jlnhel'ilus, An'imus, 
Spir'itus, Atmis. (F.) Halcine. The air ex- 
pelled from the chest, at each expiration. It 
requires to be studied in the diagnosis of tho- 
racic diseases especially. 

Breath, Offensive; Fattor Oris. An of- 
fensive condition, which is usually dependent 



upon carious teeth, or some faulty state of 
the secretions of the air passages. The inter- 
nal use of the chlorides may be advantageous. 

Breath, short, Dyspnoea. 

BREATHING, DIFFICULTY OF, Dysp- 
noea. 

BRJ£CHET(F.) The Brisket. This name 
is given, in some parts of France, to the carti- 
lago ensiformis, and sometimes to the sternum 
itself. 

BREDISSURE (F.) Trismus Capistra'tus. 
Incapacity of opening the mouth, in conse- 
quence of preternatural adhesion between the 
internal part of the cheek and gums; often oc- 
casioned by the abuse of mercury. 

BREDOU1LLEMENT (F.) Tituban'tia. A 
precipitate and indistinct mode of utterance, in 
which a part only of the words is pronounced, 
and several of tne syllables viciously changed. 
This defect is analogous to stuttering, but dif- 
fers from it in being dependent on too great 
rapidity of speech ; whilst stammering is cha- 
racterized by continual hesitation, and frequent 
repetition of the same syllables. 

BREGMA, from fat/civ, ' to sprinkle.' Fon- 
tanell'a (q. v.), Sin'ciput (q. v.) The top of 
the head was thus called, because it was be- 
lieved to be humid in infants, and, according 
to some, because it was conceived to corres- 
pond to the most humid part of the brain. 

BRENNING, Burning. 

BREPHOCTONON, Conyza squarrosa. 

BRESILLET, Cajsalpinia sappan. 

BRE'VIA VASA, Short Vessels. This name 
has been given to several branches of the 
splenic arteries and veins, which are distri- 
buted to the great cul-de-sac of the stomach. 

B RE VIS CUBIT I. See Anconeus. 

BRIAR, WILD, Rosa canina. 

BRICK, (F.) Brique. Hot bricks are some- 
times used to apply heat to a part, as to the ab- 
domen in colic, or after the operation for popli- 
teal aneurism : or, reduced to very fine powder, 
and mixed with fat, as an application to herpe- 
tic and psoric affections. 

Bricks, Forna'ccaz Testa, or Tiles, were for- 
merly bruised in vinegar, and the liquid used 
as a specific in cutaneous affections. They en- 
tered, also, into a cerate used for scrofulous 
tumours, &c. 

To the Terra Forna'cum, the same virtues 
were assigned. 

BRICUMUM, Artemisia. 

BRIDE, (F.) A bridle. Frenulum, Retinac- 
ulum. This term is given, in the plural, to 
membraneous filaments, which are found within 
abscesses or in deep-seated wounds, and which 
prevent the exit of pus. The term is, also, ap- 
plied to preternatural adhesions, which occur 
in cicatrices in the skin, in the urethra, or in 
inflamed serous or synovial membranes. 

BRIGHT'S DISEASE OF THE KIDNEY, 
see Kidney, Bright's disease of the. 

BRIMSTONE, Sulphur. 

BRINE, Muria. 

BRION, Corallina. 

BRIQUE, Brick. 

BRIQUEBEC, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
This town is three leagues from Cherbourg, in 
Franco. The water contains muriate of iron. 

RRlSE-riEEUE ARTICVLK, (F.) An in- 



BRISTOL HOT WELL 



108 



BRONCHIAL 



strument invented by Jacobson for crushing the 
stone in the bladder. 

BRISTOL HOT WELL, Bristolierisis 
Aqua. Bristol is about thirteen miles from 
Bath, in England. The water is a pure ther- 
mal ; slightly acidulated. Temperature, 74° 
Fahrenheit. The Hot Well has been long cele- 
brated. Its action is like that of the thermal 
waters in general. The climate of Bristol is 
mild ; and hence the water has been cele- 
brated for the cure of incipient pulmonary 
consumption. 

BROAD. Sax. bpao, Latus, (F.) Large. Any 
body is so termed whose transverse extent is 
considerable compared witli its length. The 
Broad Bones, such as the frontal, parietal, occi- 
pital, iliac, aid in forming the parietes of 
splanchnic cavities. Broad Muscles generally 
occupy the parietes of cavities, and especially 
those of the chest and abdomen. The epithet 
has also been applied to other parts — as to the 
broad ligaments of the womb, &c. 

BROCCOLI, Brassica sabellica. 

BROCHOS, fiQoxog. Laqueus, (q. v.), a ban- 
dage. 

BROCH'THUS, pqo X $og, Gula. The throat. 
Also, a small kind of drinking-vessel. — Hip- 
pocr. 

BROCHUS, fiQo/og. This name has been 
given to one who has a very prominent upper 
lip. — Castelli. According to others, it means 
one, whose teeth project in front of the mouth. 

BRO'DIUM. A synonyme of Jus or Jus'- 
culum. Broth, or the liquor in which any 
thing is boiled. Bro'dium Salts — a decoction 
of salt. 

BROIEMEKT. See Cataract. 

BROKEN-WINDEDNESS, Asthma. 

BROMA, Aliment. 

BROMATOG'RAPHY, from PQwfia, 'food,' 
and yQacft], ' a description.' Bromography 
A description of aliments. 

BROM ATOL'OGY, (iQuua, < food,' and Xoyog, 
1 a discourse.' A treatise on food. Sitiol'- 

°gy- 

BROME, Bromine. 

BROME'LIA ANA'NAS, Car'duus Brazil- 
ia'nus, Ana'nas acostai ova'ta seu aculeatus, 
Anas' sa, Ca' pa- lsiak'ka, Ana'nas or Bine Apple. 
A West Indian tree, which produces the most 
delicious of fruits. 

Brome'lia Pinguin, Ana'nas America'na, 
Pinguin, Broad-leaved wild Ana'nas, &c. The 
West India plant, which affords the Pinguin 
fruit. The fruit is refrigerant, and the juice, 
when ripe, very austere. It is used to acidu- 
late punch. A wine is made from the Pinguin, 
which is very intoxicating, and has a good fla- 
vour. 

BROMIDE OF IRON, see Bromine— b. of 
Mercury, see Bromine — b. of Potassium, see 
Bromine. 

BROMINE, Brominum, Brome, a simple 
body, of a very volatile nature, and highly of- 
fensive and suffocating odour, whence its name, 
from jSocmio;, ' a stench.' It is met with chiefly 
in sea-water, and in many animal and vegeta- 
ble bodies that live therein. It has likewise 
been found in many mineral waters of this and 
other countries. 

In its chemical relations, it may be placed 



between chlorine and iodine. With oxygen it 
forms an acid, the Bromic, and with hydrogen 
another — the Hydrobromic. 

The pure Bromine, the Bromide of Iran, 
(dose gr. i or ij) and the Bromide of Potassium 
or Hydrobr ornate of Potassa, (dose gr. iv to viij 
in the day,) have been used medicinally, and 
chiefly in scrofulosis, internally as well as 
applied externally. Bromine maybe dissolved 
in forty parts of distilled water, and six drops 
be commenced with, as a dose. The Bromide 
of Mercury (Hydrar'gyri Bromidum) has been 
given in syphilis. 

BROMOS, powfio;. One of the cere- 
alia, supposed, by some, to be oats, see 
Avena. 

BRONCHES, Bronchia— b. Ganglions lym- 
phatiques des, Bronchial glands. 

BRON'CHIA, Brorichia, Bronchi, from 
PQ o YX S) ' the throat.' The Latins used the 
term Bronchus, for the whole of the trachea ; 
whilst they called its ramifications Bronchia. 
Bronchia, Bronchia;, and Bronchi, (F.) Bronchcs, 
now mean the two tubes, with their ramifica- 
tions, which arise from the bifurcation of the 
trachea, and carry air into the lungs. 

Bronchia, Dilatation of the. Diluted 
Bronchia. The physical signs of this conditipn 
are the following : 

Percussion usually clear, but not unfrequently 
less so than natural, although very seldom 
quite dull. 

Auscultation detects coarse mucous or gur- 
gling ronchi, increased by the cough, combined 
with, or replaced by, bronchial or cavernous 
respiration, which is often effected as if by a 
sudden puff or whiff. The resonance of the 
voice is increased, but it seldom amounts to 
perfect pectoriloquy. 

The most common situations for dilated 
bronchia, are the scapular, mammary, or lateral 
regions. They are almost always confined to 
one side. 

Bronchia, Obliteration or Compression 
of the. The inspiratory murmur on auscul- 
tation is weaker or wholly suppressed over a 
limited portion of the chest; the expiration is 
generally more distinct and prolonged : all the 
other conditions are natural. 

BRON'CHIAL or BRONCHIC. That which 
relates to the bronchia. 

Bron'chial Arteries, (F.) Artcrcs Bron- 
chiques. These are generally two in num- 
ber, one going to each lung. They arise from 
the thoracic aorta, and accompany the bronchia 
in all their ramifications. 

Bron'chial Cells, (F.) Cellules bronchi qncs, 
the Air-cells; the terminations of the bron- 
chia. 

Bron'chial Cough, (F.) Toux bronchique, 
T. tubairo. This generally accompanies bron- 
chial respiration. They both indicate obstruc- 
tion to the entrance of air into the air-cells. 

Bron'chial Glands, (F.) Glandcs bron- 
chiqucs ou Ganglions lymphatiques des bronchcs, 
are numerous glands of an ovoid shape ; of a 
reddish hue in the infant, and subsequently 
brown and black, seated in the course of the 
bronchia. Their functions are unknown. The 
Bronchial glands may be presumed to be af- 
fected by scrofulosis, when, in addition to the 



BRONCHIC 



109 



BRUIT DE CUIR NEUF 



existence of tumours in the neck, percussion 
gives a dull sound under the upper and central 
part of the sternum, whilst there is no appre- 
ciable lesion of the lungs. 

The Bron'chial Veins arise from the last 
divisions of the arteries of the same name, and 
pass, on the right side, into the vena azygos ; 
on the left, into the superior intercostal. 

The Bron'chial Nerves, (F.) Kerfs Bron- 
chiques, are furnished by the two pulmonary 
plexuses. 

Bron'chial Respiration. See Murmur, 
Respiratory. 

BRONCHIC, Bronchial. 

BRONCHI'TIS, Angi'na bronchialis. In- 
flammation of the lining membrane of the 
bronchial tubes. 

This is always more or less present in cases 
of pulmonary catarrh ; and is accompanied by 
cough, mucous expectoration, dyspnoea, and 
more or less uneasiness in breathing. The 
acute form is accompanied with all the signs of 
internal inflammation, and requires the em- 
ployment of antiphlogistics followed by re- 
vulsives. 

The chronic form may be confounded with 
phthisis : from which it must be distinguished 
mainly by the absence of hectic fever and of 
the physical signs that are characteristic of the 
latter, as well as by the nature of the expectora- 
tion, which is generally mucous, although at 
times muco-purulent. 

Peripneumonia Notha, (q. v.) is nothing more 
than chronic bronchitis. 

Bronchitis, Catarrh — b. Asthenica, Perip- 
neumonia notha. 

BRONCHIUS, Sterno-thyroideus. 

BRONCHLEMM1TIS, Polypus bronchialis. 

BRONCHOCE'LE, from ^oy X oc, 'a bron- 
chus,' and xijh], ' tumour.' An inaccurate name 
for the affection which is called, also, Bo' chium, 
Botium, Hernia gut'turis, Guttur tu'midum, 
Trachelophy' rna, Hernia guttura'lis, Thy'rocele, 
Thyreocc'le, Thyremphraxis, Thyreon'cus, Thy- 
ron'cus, Thyrophrax'ia, Gossum, Exechebron'- 
chus, Gongro'na, Struma, Bocium, Hernia bron- 
chia'lis, Tracheloce'ie, &c, the Derbyshire neck, 
Swelled neck, &c, (F.) Goitre, Gouetre. This 
is no rupture, but consists of an enlargement 
of the thyroid gland. It is common at the 
base of lofty mountains in every part of the 
world ; and has been supposed to be owing to 
the drinking of snow-water, but it occurs where 
there is no snow. The tumour is, sometimes, 
very extensive. Iodine has great power over it, 
and will generally occasion its absorption, 
when the case has not been of such duration 
as to be of a cartilaginous condition. 

BRONCHOPHONY, Resonance. 

BRONCHOPLAS'TIC, Bronchoplas!ticus ; 
from (iQoyxog, * the throat,' and nXaaavi, ' I 
form.' An epithet given to the operation 
for closing fistula? in the trachea. 

BRON'CHOTOME, Bronchot' omus , from 
figoy/o? and rtfivtiv, ' to cut.' A kind of lancet, 
with a blunt and rounded point, mounted on a 
handle, and fitted to a canula, which passes in 
along with it, and is allowed to remain in the 
opening made in the trachea. The instrument 
is not used. 

BRONCIIOT'OMY, Bronchotomic. Same 



etymology. A surgical operation, which con- 
sists in making an opening either into the tra- 
chea, (Tracheot'omy:) into the larynx, (Lar in- 
got' oniy;) or into both, (Trachco-laryngot'omy,) 
to extract foreign bodies or to permit the pas- 
sage of air to the lungs. These different parts 
are divided transversely or vertically, accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

BRONCHUS, Trachea. 

BROOKLIME, Veronica beccabunga. 

BROOM, Sophora tinctoria, Spartium scopa- 
rium — b. Butcher's, Ruscus — b. rape of Virginia, 
Orobanche Virginiana. 

BROSSARDIERE, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Brossardiere is a chateau in Bas-Poitou, 
France. The waters contain carbonates of 
iron and lime, muriate of soda, and sulphate of 
lime. They are aperient. 

BROSSE, Brush. 

BROW-AGUE, Neuralgia frontalis. 

BROU1LLJ1RD, Caligo. 

BROUSSAIST. One who is a believer in, 
and professor of, the physiological and patho- 
logical opinions of Broussais. The system itself 
is called Broussaism or the Physiological Doc- 
trine. 

BROW, Front. 

BROWN RED, Colcothar. 

BROWNIAN or BRUNO'NIAN. Relating 
to the system or opinions of John Brown. 

BROWN1SM or BRUNONIANISM. The 
doctrines of Brown. 

BROWNIST or BRUNO'NIAN. A follower 
of the system of Brown. 

BRUCEA ANTI-DYSENTER'ICA. B.fer- 
rugin'ea, Angustu'ra spuria, (F.) Fausse An- 
gusture, A. Ferrugineuse. The systematic 
name of the plant, whence is obtained the false 
Angustura Bark. It affords the Brucine. 

BRUCIA, Brucine. 

BRUCINE, BRUCIA, BRUCINA. An or- 
ganic, salifiable base, discovered in the false 
Angustura — Brucca anti-dys enter ica, and ob- 
tained from the Strijchnos nux vomica. It is of 
a pearly white ; crystallized in oblique prisms 
with a parallelogrammatic base ; very bitter, 
slightly acrid and styptic, and soluble in water, 
but more so in alcohol. 

Brucine is a less active poison than strych- 
nine. It resembles it, however, and may be 
used as a substitute for the extract of nux vomi- 
ca. Dose, half a grain. 

BRUCOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Brucourt is three leagues and a half from Caen 
in Normandy. The waters contain carbonic 
acid, muriate and sulphate of soda, much sul- 
phate of lime, &c. 

BRUISE, Contusion. 

BRUISEWORT, Bellis, Saponaria. 

BRUISSEMEKT(F.) Frem'itus. This word 
has much the same signification as Bourdonne- 
ment, (q. v.) as well as Bruit. 

BRUIT (FA < Sound.' A term applied to va- 
rious sounds heard on percussion and ausculta- 
tion, viz. 

Bruit de Craquement, B. de Tiraillemcnt, 
Bruit decuir neuf, ' sound of crackling, or burst- 
ing, or of new leather.' A sound produced by 
the friction of the pericardium, when dried and 
roughened by inflammation. 

Bruit he Cuir Neuf, Bruit de craqurment. 



Bill LURE 



110 



BU 



Bruit de Diable, Ronjlcment de Diable, 
' noise of the diable or humming-top.' A high 
degree of Bruit de soufflet, heard on auscultating 
the arteries. It denotes an impoverished state 
of the blood. 

Bruit de frottement ascendant et de- 
scendant, ' Sound of friction of ascent and de- 
scent.' Sounds said to be produced by the rub- 
bing of the lung against the parietes of the chest, 
as it rises and falls during inspiration and expi 
ration. They are distinctly heard in pleuritis, 
when the pleura has become roughened by the 
disease. 

Bruit Humorique, B. Hydropneumatique. 
The sound afforded on percussion when organs 
are filled with liquid and air. 

Bruit Hvdropneumatique, Bruit humor iquc. 

Bruit de Parchemin, ' Parchment tone.' A 
sound as if produced by two sheets of parch 
ment applied to each other. It is said to be 
produced by thickening and rigidity of the 
valves of the heart. 

Bruit Placentaire,!?. de soufflet placentairc, 
Placental bellows' sound. The bellows' sound 
heard on auscultating over the site of the placenta 
in a pregnant female.^ 

Bruit de pot fele, ' Sound of a cracked 
vessel.' This sound is heard on percussion, 
when a cavern in the lungs is filled with air 
and has a narrow outlet. 

Bruit de Raclement, ' Sound of scraping.' 
A sound produced by the scraping of a hard, 
bony substance against the pericardium. 

Bruit de Rape, ' Sound of a rasp.' A sound 
heard during the contraction of either the auri- 
cles or ventricles. It is constant; and the contrac- 
tion of the cavity is more prolonged than natu- 
ral, and emits a hard, rough, and — as it were 
— stifled sound. 

It indicates contraction of the valvular orifices, 
by cartilaginous deposites or ossification, and 
accompanies the contraction of the auricles if 
the auriculo-ventricular valves are concerned, 
— that of the ventricles if the semilunar valves 
be the seat of the disease. 

The Bruit de Scie, or ' saw-sound,' and the 
Bruit de lime a Bois,or ' file-sound,' resemble 
the last. 

Bruit de Soufflet, 'bellows sound.' A 
sound like that of a bellows, heard occasionally 
by the ear applied to the chest during the con- 
traction of the ventricles, auricles, or large ar- 
teries. It coexists with affections of the heart, 
but is heard, also, without any disease in that 
organ, — whenever, indeed, an artery is com- 
pressed. 

An Encephalic bellows'' sound has been de- 
scribed by Dr. Fisher, of Boston. It is heard 
on applying the ear to the occiput or to the top 
of the head ; and is considered to indicate tur- 
gescence of vessels, or inflammation. When 
such turgescence exists, the vessels are com- 
pressed, and the compression gives rise to the 
sound in question. 

Bruit de Soufflet placentaire,/?? - ^^*!- 
ccntaire, — b. de Tiraillemcnt, Bruit de craqucment. 

Bruit Tvmpanique, ' Tympanic sound.' The 
clear sound afforded by percussing the stomach 
and intestines when containing air. 

BRULURE, Burn. 
BRUNELLE, Prunella. 



BRUNNER'S GLANDS. Brunneri Glan'- 
dulfe, GlanduUe solita'ria. Muciparous follicles 
of a small size, seated between the mucous and 
muscular coats of the stomach, along the two 
curvatures of that organ, and in the small in- 
testines, especially the duodenum ; so called 
from their discovery having generally been at- 
tributed to Brunner. See Peyeri Glanduke. 

BRUNON1AN, Brownian. 

BRUNONIAN1SM, Brownism. 

BRUNUS, Erysipelas. 

BRUSCUS, Ruscus. 

BRUSH, Scop'ula, (F.) Brosse. A well 
known instrument, used in Medicine chiefly 
for the following purposes. 1. To clean the 
teeth. 2. To remove the sawdust, which ad- 
heres to the teeth of the trephine, during the 
operation of trephining. 3. To rub the surface 
of the body, for the purpose of exciting the 
skin, and favouring transpiration. Westring, 
a Swedish physician, has recommended me- 
tallic brushes for the purpose of conveying gal- 
vanism to a part. These brushes consist of a 
plate of ebony fitted to another of gold, in which 
threads of the same metal are fixed ; — the brush 
being connected with one of the poles of the 
galvanic pile. 

Brush, Stomach, Excutia ventriculi. 

BRUTA, Juniperus sabina. 

BRUTIA. A sort of thick pitch, obtained 
from Brutia in Italy. From the Fix Brutia was 
obtained the Oleum Picinum. 

Brutia, Instinct. 

BRUTINO, Terebinthina. 

BRUXANELI. A Malabar, tree, the bark 
and leaves of which have a strong smell, and 
are astringent. On the coast of Malabar, its 
juice, mixed with butter, is applied to boils. 
Its bark is esteemed to be diuretic, and its roots 
anti-arthritic. 

BRUYkRE VULGAIRE, Erica vulgaris. 

BRUYERES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bruyeres is a small village, 71 leagues from 
Luneville. The waters are acidulous and cha- 
lybeate. 

BRYCHETHMOS, Rugitus. 

BRYGMUS, pqvyifiog, Stridor Dcn'tium. (q.v.) 
Grinding of the teeth. 

BRYO'NIA ALBA. White Bryony, Vitis 
alba syhes'tris, Agros'tis, Agriam'pclos, Am'pe- 
los agria, Archcos'tris, Echctro'sis, Bryo'nia as 1 - 
pera, Ccdros'tis, Chelido'nium, Labrus'ca, Me- 
lo' thrum, Ophrostaph'ylon, Psilo 1 'thrum, Bryonia 
Dioica. Nat. Old. Cucurbitacece. Sex. Syst. 
MonoBcia Monadelphia, (F.) Couleuvric, Vigne 
merge, V blanche. The root, is large and succu- 
lent, and has an acrid, bitter, and disagreeable 
taste. It is a drastic cathartic. Externally, it 
has been applied, in form of cataplasm, in gout. 
When repeatedly washed, a good starch is ob- 
tained from it. The active principle has been 
separated from it, and called Bry'onine. 

Bryonia Mechoacanna Nigricans, Con- 
volvulus jalapa— b. Peruviana, Convolvulus 
jalapa. 

BRYONINE. See Bryonia alba. 

BRYTIA. Marc of grapes. 

BRYTON, Cerevisia. 

BU, (Sov, abbreviation of [love, 'an ox;' in 
composition expresses, ' excess, greatness.' 
Hence Bulimus, BuphlhaFmia, &c. 



BUBASTECORDIUM 



111 



BUCHU-LEAVES 



BUBASTECORDIUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BUBE, Pustule. 

BUBO, (iovflujr, Pano' chia, Panus inguina'lis, 
Adenophy'ma inguinalis, Bubonopa'nus, Cam- 
bu'ca, Angus, Bonbon, Codocele, Codoscd'la, (F.) 
Bubon, Poulain. In the works of Hippocrates 
and Galen, this word, sometimes, signifies the 
groin; at others, the inguinal glands; and at 
others, again, swelling or inflammation of these 
parts. The moderns apply the term to an in- 
flammatory tumour seated in the groin or axilla, 
and they generally distinguish, 1. Simple or 
sympathetic Bubo which is independent of any 
virus in the economy. 2. Venereal Bubo, (F.) 
Bubon vinerien which is occasioned by the ve- 
nereal virus. 3. Pestilential Bubo or B. symp- 
tomatic of the Plague. The last two have by 
some been called the malignant Bubo, (F.) 
Bubon malin. Primary Bubo, (F.) Bubon primi- 
tif, shows itself with the first symptoms of syphi- 
lis : the consecutive not till afterwards. 

BUBON, Bubo, Inguen — b. Gummiferum, 
eee Ammoniac gum. 

Bubon Gai/banum. The systematic name 
of the plant, which affords the Galbanum. 
Meto'pion. The plant is also called Ferula 
Jlfrica'na, Orcoscli'nuvi Africa! rvwm, Ani'sum 
frutico' sum galbanif crum, Anisum Africa'num 
frutcs'cens. The long-leaved or lovage-leaved 
Gal'banum. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferoe. Galba- 
num is the gummi-resinous juice of this tree. 
Its odour is fetid, and taste bitter and acrid : the 
agglutinated tears are of a white colour, on a 
ground of reddish brown. It forms an emulsion, 
when triturated with water, and is soluble in 
proof spirit of wine, and vinegar: s. g. 1.212. 
It has been given as an antispasmodic, and ex- 
pectorant, in pill or emulsion. Dose, from gr. 
10 to 60. Externally, it is applied as a cata- 
plasm. 

Bubon Macedon'icum, Petroscli'num Macc- 
don'icum, Apiumpetraum, Petra'pium, Maccdo'- 
nian Parsley, (F.) Pcrsil dc Macidoinc. Its pro- 
perties are similar to those of common parsley, 
but weaker and less grateful. The seeds are 
an ingredient in the celebrated compounds — 
Mithridate and Theriac. 

BUBO'NIUM, Aster At'ticus, Golden Star- 
wort. A plant, anciently supposed to be effi- 
cacious in diseases of the groin, from povpw, 
' the groin.' 

BUBONOCE'LE, from povfimv, < the groin,' 
and y.r\kr\, 'tumour,' 'rupture.' Hernia inguina'- 
lis, In'guinal Hernia or Rupture of the Groin, 
(F.) Hemic inguinale. Some surgeons have 
confined this term to hernia when limited to the 
groin, and have called the same affection, when 
it has descended to the scrotum, Os'cheocelc or 
Scrotal Hernia. The rupture passes through 
the abdominal ring : and in consequence of the 
greater size of this opening in the male is more 
frequent in the male sex. 

BUBONOPANUS, Bubo. 

BUBONOREX'IS, from (Sovjiuv, ' the groin,' 
and Qiiiic, ' a rupture.' Aname given to bubo- 
nocele when accompanied with a division of the 
peritoneum, or when, in other words, it is de- 
void of a sac. 

BUBON'ULUS, a diminutive of Bubo, (q. v.) 
A painful swelling of the lymphatics of the 
penis, extending along the dorsum of that or- 



gan to the groin. It is an occasional accom- 
paniment of Gonorrhoea. 

BUCAROS, Terra Portugallica. 

BUCCA, Gnathos ; the mouth. The cheeks 
and hollow of the cheeks. 

BUCCAC'RATON, from Bucca, and xqaw, 
' I mix.' A morsel of bread sopped in wine, 
which served of old for a breakfast — Linden. 

BUCCAL, Bucca'lis, from Bucca, 'the mouth,' 
or rather ' the cheek.' That which concerns 
the mouth, and especially the cheeks. 

Buccal Memrrane, (F.) Membrane Buccale. 
The mucous membrane, which lines the inte- 
rior of the mouth. 

Buccal or Molar Glands. Mucous folli- 
cles, seated in the buccal membrane, opposite 
the molar teeth. They secrete a viscid humour, 
which mixes with the saliva, and lubricates the 
mouth. 

The Buccal Artery, A. Sus-maxillaire, — 
(Ch.,) arises from the internal maxillary or 
from some of its branches, as the Temporalis 
profunda antica, or the Alveolar. It distributes 
its branches to the buccinator muscle, and to 
the buccal membrane. 

The Buccal Vein follows the artery. 

The Buccal Nerve or Buccinator Nerve, 
Bucco-labial — (Ch.,) is given off by the inferior 
maxillary. It sends its branches to the cheek, 
and especially to the buccinator muscle. 

BUCCELA'TON or BUCCELA'TUS. A 
loaf-shaped cathartic medicine ; made chiefly 
ofscammony. — Aetius, Paulus of vEgina". 

BUCCEA and BUCCEL'LA. The fleshy ex- 
crescence of nasal polypus, so called because it 
was believed to proceed from the mouth. — Pa- 
racelsus. Also, a mouthful. 

BUCCINA, Turbinated bones. 

BUCCINA'TOR, from Buccina're, 'to sound 
the trumpet,' The Buccina'tor Muscle, Retrac'tor 
An'guli Oris, Bucco-Alveolo-maxillaire, Alviolo- 
labial — (Ch.,) Manso'rius. This muscle is situ- 
ate in the substance of the cheeks. It extends 
between the posterior portions of the alveolar 
arches of the two jaws and the commissure of 
the lips, which it draws backwards. It assists 
in mastication, by pushing the food back to- 
wards the teeth ; and, if the cheeks are distend- 
ed by air, its contraction forces it out. 

BUCCO. One who is blub-cheeked, or wide- 
mouthed. 

BUCCO-ALVEOLO-MAXILLAIRE, Bucci- 
nator. 

BUCCO-LABIAL NERVE, Buccal nerve. 

BUCCOPHARYNGEAL, Bucco-pharyn- 
ge'us, (F.) Bucco-pharyngien. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. The Bucco-Pharynge'al 
Aponeurosis, or Inter m ax' illary Lig'amcnt, ex- 
tends from the internal ala of the pterygoid 
process to the posterior part of the lower alveo- 
lar arch, and affords attachment, anteriorly, to 
the buccinator, and posteriorly to the constric- 
tor pharyngis superior. 

BUC'CULA, from Bucca, 'the mouth.' A 
small mouth. The fleshy part beneath the 
chin. — Bartholine. 

BUCELLA'TIO. A mode of arresting he- 
morrhage, by applying a pledget of lint to the 
bleeding vessel. — Avicenna, Fallopius. 

BUCERAS, Trigonella fcenum. 

BUCHU-LEAVES, Diosma crenata. 



BUCKBEAN 



\\2 



BURN 



BUCKBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata. 

BUCKEYE, jEsculus hippocastanum. 

BUCKET FEVER, Dengue. 

BUCKHO, Diosma crenata. 

BUCNEMIA. See Elephantiasis— b. Tro- 
pica. See Elephantiasis. 

BUCKTHORN, PURGING, Rhamnus. 

BUCTON, Hymen. 

BUCKWHEAT, Polygonum fagopyrum— b. 
Plant, eastern, Polygonum divaricatum. 

BUFF, INFLAMMATORY, Corium phlo- 
gisticum. 

BUG, BED, Cimex. 

BUGANTIA, Chilblain. 

BUGLE, Prunella — b. Common, Ajuga rep- 
tans — b. Pyramidale, Ajuga — b. Rampante, Aju- 
ga reptans. 

BUGLOSE, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSS, Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — b. 
Garden, Anchusa officinalis— b. Upright, Ajuga. 

BUGLOSSA, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSSUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM MA- 
JUS, Anchusa officinalis— b. Latifolium, Bora- 
go officinalis — b. Sativum, Anchusa officinalis — 
b. Sylvestris, Anchusa officinalis — b. Tincto- 
rum, Anchusa tinctoria — b. Verum, Boracic 
ac id — b. Vulgare majus, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGULA, Ajuga. 

BUGRAJYDE EPIJYEUSE, Ononis spinosa. 

BUGRJ1JYE, Ononis spinosa — b. des Champs, 
Ononis arvensis. 

BU1S, BUXUS. 

BUISARD, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bui- 
sard is two leagues from Chateau-Thierry, in 
France. The water contains muriate and car- 
bonate of lime. 

BULB, Bulbus, (F.) Bulbc. A name, given 
by Anatomists to different parts which resem- 
ble, in shape, certain bulbous roots. The Bulb 
of the Aorta, is the great sinus of the Aorta. 
Bulb of the Teeth; the vascular and nervous 
papilla contained in the cavity of the tooth. 
The Bulb or Root of the Hair, is the part whence 
the hair originates. The Bulb of the Urethra is 
the dilated p°ortion formed by the commencement 
of the Corpus spongiosum towards the root of the 
penis. We say, also, Bulb,i'ov Globe, of the eye. 

Bulb, Rachidian. See. Medulla oblongata. 

BULBE BE LA VOUTE A TROIS PI- 
LIERS, Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBI PRIORUMCRURUM FORNICIS, 
Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBO CAVERNOSUS, Accelerator urinae 
h. Syndesmo-caverncux, Accelerator urina; — b. 
Uretral, Accelerator urina?. 

BULBOCASTANEUM, Bunium bulbocas- 
tanum. 

BULBONACH, Lunaria rediviva. 

BULBUS ESCULENTUS; the Esculent 
bulb; a particular kind, so denominated by the 
ancients. It is supposed to have been the Cepa 
Ascalonica.—D'ioscorides, Celsus, Pliny, &c- 

Bulbus Vomito'rius. A plant, saidbyDios- 
corides to be emetic and diuretic. It is the 
Musk-grape flower, according to Ray : — the 
Hyacinthus Muscari. 

BULIMIA, Boulimia. 

BU'LLTHOS, from fJoug, ' an ox,' and Xi&og, 
* a stone.' A bezoar or stone, found in the kid- 
neys, gall-bladder, or urinary bladder of an ox 
or cow. 



BULLA. A Bleb. (F.) Bulk. A portion of 
the cuticle, detached from the skin by the inter- 
position of a transparent, watery fluid. It forms 
the 4th Order in Willan's and Bateman's ar- 
rangement of cutaneous diseases, and includes 
Erysipelas, Pemphigus, and Pompholyx. By 
some Bulla has been used synonymously with 
Pemphigus See, also, Hydatid. 

BULLACE PLUM, Prunus invitia. 

BULLAE ROTUNDA CERVIC1S UTERI, 
Nabothi glandulae. 

BULLFISTS, Lycoperdon. 

BUMELLIA, Praxinus excelsior. 

BUNA, Coffea Arabica. 

BUNDURH, Corylus avellana. 

BUNIAS, Brassica napus. 

BUNITES VINUM. A wine, made by in- 
fusing the Bunium in must. It is stomachic, 
but scarcely ever used. 

BUNIUM BULBOCAS'TANUM. Balano- 
cas'tanum. The systematic name of a plant, 
whose root is called the Pig-nut, (q. v.) Jlgrio- 
cas'tanum, Nu'cula terres'tris, Bulbocasta'neum, 
Bulbocas 'tanum majus et minus, Earth-nut, 
Hawk-nut, Kipper-nut, (F.) Terrenoix. The 
root is tuberous, and is eaten raw or roasted. 
It has been supposed of use in strangury. It 
is not employed in Medicine. 

BUNNIAN, Bunyon. 

BUN YON, Bun'nian, from povroc, 'an emi- 
nence. '(?) An enlargement and inflammation 
of the Bursa mucosa at the inside of the ball of 
the great toe. 

BUPEINA, Boulimia. 

BUPHTHALMI HERBA, Anthemis tinc- 
toria. 

BUPTHAL'MIA, Bupthal' rnos , from (lovg, 
' an ox,' and ocp&akpog, ' an eye.' Ox eye. 
Under this name the generality of authors have 
designated the first stage of hydropthalmia. 
Others, with Sabatier, mean, by this term, the 
turgescence of the vitreous humour, which, by 
pushing the iris forwards, forms around the 
crystalline a sort of border. 

BUPHTHALMUM MAJUS, Chrysanthe- 
mum leucanthemum. 

Bupthalmum Creticum, Anthemis Pyre- 
thrum. 

BUPHTHALMUS, Hydrophthalmia, Sem- 
pervivum tectorum. 

BUPLEUROIDES, Bupleurum rotundifo- 
lium. 

BUPLEU'RUM ROTUNDIFO'LIUM, Bu- 
pleu'ron, Bupleuroi'des, Round-leaved Harems- 
Ear, or Thorow-wax, (F.) Buplttvre, Percefeuille. 
The herb and seeds are slightly aromatic. It 
was formerly celebrated for curing ruptures, 
being made into a cataplasm with wine and 
oatmeal. 

BVPLkVRE, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

BURAC, Borax. Also, any kind of salt. 
(Arabic .) 

BURDOCK, Arctium lappa — b. Lesser, Xan- 
thium. 

BURIS. Hernia, accompanied by scirrhous 
tumefaction ; or, perhaps, a scirrhous tumour 
only. — Avicenna. 

BURN, Ustio, Jlmbus'tio, Adus'tio, Tresis 
Causis, Erythe'ma Jlmbus'tio, Cuusis, Encau'sis, 
Combustu'ra, Catacau'ma, Combus' tio , (F .) Bru- 
lure. An injury produced by the action of too 



BURNEA. 



113 



BYTHOS 



groat heat on the body. Burns are of greater 
or less extent ; from the simple irritation of the 
integument to the complete destruction of the 
part. The consequences are more or less severe, 
according to the extent of injury and the part 
affected. Burns of the abdomen, when appa- 
rently doing well, are sometimes followed by 
fatal results. Their treatment varies : at times, 
the antiphlogistic being required : at others, 
one more stimulating. 

BURNEA. See Pinus Sylvestris. 

BURNING, or BRENNING. A disease men- 
tioned by old historians, from which authors 
have unsuccessfully endeavoured to demonstrate 
the antiquity of syphilis. — Parr. 

BURRHI SPIR'ITUS MATRICA'LIS. The 
Spirit of Burrhus for diseases of the Womb. It 
is prepared by digesting, in alcohol, equal parts 
of myrrh, olibanum, and mastic. Boerhaave 
frequently prescribed it. 

BURSA TESTIUM, Scrotum— b. Virilis, 
Scrotum. 

BURS.E MUCOSiE, Synovial Crypts or 
Follicles, (F.) Bourses Synoviales. Small mem- 
branous sacs, situate about the joints, particu- 
larly about the large ones of the upper and 
lower extremities, and, for the most part, lying 
under the tendons. They are naturally filled 
with an oily kind of fluid, the use of which is 
to lubricate surfaces over which tendons play. 
In consequence of bruises or sprains, this fluid 
sometimes collects to a great extent. The Bursas 
are, generally, either of a roundish or oval form, 
and they have been arranged under two classes, 
the spherical and vaginal. 

BURSALIS, Obturator internus. 

BURSERA GUMMIF'ERA, Terebinth' us 
gummif'era, Jamaica Bark Tree. A resin ex- 
udes from this tree, which is solid externally, as 
met with in the shops : softish internally : of a 
vitreous fracture : transparent: of a pale yellow 
colour : turpentine smell, and sweet, perfumed 
taste. It has been used like the Balsams and 
Turpentines in general, and is called, by the 
French, Cachibou, Chibou, and Resinc de Go- 
mart. 

BURSULA, Scrotum. 

BUSSANG, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bus- 
sang is a village in the department of Vosges, 
France. The waters are slightly chalybeate. 

BUSSEROLLE, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BUSSII SPIR'ITUS BEZOAR'TICUS. 
The Bezoar'dic Spirit} of Bussius. A prepara- 
tion, regarded as sudorific, diuretic, and anti- 
spasmodic: obtained by distilling subcarbonate 
and muriate of ammonia, amber, oil of cedar or 
juniper, &c. 

BUTEA FRONDOSA. See Kino. 

BUTIGA, Gutta rosea. 

BUTOMON, Iris pseudacorus. 

BUTTER, Butifrum, Pice'rion, (F.) Beurre. 
A sort of concrete oil, obtained from the cream, 
which forms on the surface of the milk fur- 
nished by the females of the mammalia ; espe- 
cially by the cow and the goat. Fresh butter 
is very nutritious, whilst the rancid is irritating. 
The ancient chemists gave the name Butter to 
many of the metallic chlorides. It has also 
15 



been applied to vegetable substances, which 
resemble, in some respects, the butter obtained 
from milk. 

Butter of Bambouc or Bambuc, (F.) Beurre 
dc Bambouc on Bambuh. A vegetable oil ob- 
tained from a species of almond, and used in 
Senegal in neuralgic and rheumatismal pains. 

Butter of Cacao, Oil of Cacao, Oleum Ca- 
cao spissa'tum, O. Theobro'ma; Cacao er.pres'sum, 
(F.) Beurre de Cacao, Huile de Cacao. A fat 
substance of a sweet and agreeable taste, ob- 
tained from the Theobroma cacao, or Chocolate 
Nut. 

Butter of Cocoa, (F.) Beurre de Coco. A 
fatty, concrete substance, which separates from 
the milk of the Cocoa nut. It is sweet and 
agreeable. 

BUTTERBUR, Tussilago petasites. 

BUTTERCUPS, Ranunculus acris. 

BUTTERFLY WEED, Asclepias tuberosa. 

BUTTERMILK, (F.) Babeurre, Lait dc 
Beurre. The thin, sour milk, separated from 
the cream by churning. It contains caseum and 
a little butter. It is a refreshing drink when 
newly made. 

Butterwort, Pinguicola vulgaris. 

BUTUA, Pareira brava. 

BUTYRUM, BUTTER— b. Amygdalarum 
dulcium, Confection (almond) — b. Saturni, 
Unguentum plumbi superacetatis — b. Zinci, 
Zinci chloridum. 

BUVEUR, Rectus internus oculi. 

BUXTON, MINERAL WATERS OF, Buz- 
tonien'ses Aqua. Buxton is a village in Derby- 
shire. The springs are thermal, and about 82° 
Fahrenheit. They are used in cases in which 
thermal springs, in general, are recommended. 
They contain little or no mineral impregnation. 

BUXUS, Buxus sempervi'rens. The Box- 
tree. (F.) Buis ou Bonis. The leaves are bitter 
and aromatic, and, as such, have been used in 
medicine, in cases of worms, dyspepsia, &c, 
in the form of decoction. They are sometimes, 
also, added to beer. The seed was anciently 
called Carthe'gon. 

BYRE'THRUM. A sort of cap or Couvrc- 
chef, filled with cephalic substances. — Forestus. 

BYRSA, (ivQaa. A leather skin to spread 
plasters upon. 

BYRSODEP'SICON. A Tan stuff, with 
which C^elius Aurelianus sprinkled wool, 
which he applied in certain cases to the umbi- 
lical region : from fivQoa, ' leather,' and Sixpiui, 
< I tan.' 

BYSAU'CHEN, from p V w, ' 1 stop up,' and 
avxyv, * the neck.' A morbid stiffness of the 

BYSSOS, Vulva. 

BYSSUS or BYSSUM. The ancients gave 
this name to several vegetable substances, 
which were used for the fabrication of stuffs, 
prized for their fineness, colour, and rarity of 
the material. It is now chiefly applied to the 
filaments, by the aid of which the acephalous 
mollusca attach their shells to the rocks. B. was 
formerly also applied to the female pudendum. 

BYTHOS, {Ivdoc, < depth." An epithet used 
by Hippocrates for the fundus of the stomach. 



CAA-APIA 



114 



CACO-ALEXITER1A 



C. This letter in the chemical alphabet sig- 
nifies Nitre. It is also sometimes used in pre- 
scriptions for Calx. 

CAA-AP'IA, Dorste'nia Brazilien'sis. The 
root, according to Piso, is employed as emetic 
and anti-diarrhceic. 

CAA-ATAY'A. A plant of Brazil, supposed 
to be a species of Gratiola. It is very bitter, 
and considered to be one of the best indigenous 
cathartics. 

CAACICA, Euphorbia capitata. 

CAA-GHIYU'YO, Frutex bac'cifer Brazilien'- 
sis. A shrub of Brazil, whose leaves, in pow- 
der, are considered detersive. 

CAAOPIA, Hypericum bacciferum. 

CAAPEBA, Pareira brava. 

CAAPONGA, Crithmum maritimum. 

CAA'ROBA. A Brazilian tree, whose leaves, 
in decoction, promote perspiration. — See Cera- 
tonia. 

CABAL, Cab'ala, Cabal'la, Cal'bala, Caba- 
lia, Kabala, Gaballa. This word is from the 
Hebrew, and signifies knowledge transmitted 
by tradition. Paracelsus and several authors of 
the IGth and 17th centuries have spoken much 
of this species of magic, which they distin- 
guished into Judaic or Theologian, and hermetic 
or medicinal; the latter being, according to 
them, the art of knowing the most occult pro- 
perties of bodies by an immediate communica- 
tion with spirits : — the knowledge being thus 
acquired by inspiration, and incapable of in- 
ducing error. It was also called Jlrs cabalis'tica, 
* cabalistic art.' 

CABAL/HAU. A plant of Mexico, accord- 
ing to Dalechamps, which passes for an anti- 
dote to white hellebore, and yet is used for poi- 
soning arrows. It is unknown to botanists. 

CABALIST, Cabalisla. One instructed in 
the Cabal. 

CABALLATION, Cynoglossum. 

CABARET, Asarum. 

CABBAGE, Brassica — c. Skunk, Draconti- 
um fcetidum — c. Tree, Geoffrsa inermis — c. 
Bark tree, Geoffraea inermis. 

CABUREIBA, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CABURE1CIBA. See Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum. 

CAC'AGOGUE, Cacago'gus, from [*axx>/, 
'excrement,' and ayttv, 'to expel.' An ointment, 
composed of alum and honey ; which, when 
applied to the anus, produced an evacuation. — 
Paulus of ^Egina. 

CACA'LIA ANTEUPHOR'BIUM, Antcu- 
phor'bium. A plant, which Dodoens and others 
considered to be capable of tempering the caus- 
tic properties of the euphorbium. It is also 
called Klcinia. 

Many varieties of the Cacalia are used, in 
different countries, chiefly as condiments. 

CA'CAO, Ca'coa, Co'coa Cacavif'era, Caca'- 
vi, Quahoil, Cacava'ta. The Cocoa or Choco- 
late Nut ; the fruit of the Thcebro'ma ; Family, 
Malvaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyadelphia Pentan- 
dria. 

CACATION, Defecation. 

CACATORIA, Diarrhoea. 

CACAVATA, Cacao. 



CACAVI, Cacao, Jatropha manihot. 

CAC'ATORY, Cacato'rius, from caca're, ' to 
go to stool.' Fcbris cacato'ria ; a kind of inter- 
mittent fever, accompanied by copious alvine 
evacuations. — Sylvius. 

CACCE, Excrement. 

CACCION'DE. A sort of pill, chiefly form- 
ed of catechu, recommended by Baglivi in dy- 
sentery. 

CACHANG-PARANG. A sort of bean of 
Sumatra, mentioned by Marsden, whose seeds 
are given in pleurisy. Jussieu considers it to 
be the Mimo'sa scandens. 

CACHECTIC, Cachcc'ticus, same etymon 
as Cachexia. One attacked with cachexia. Be- 
longing to cachexia. Cached tica reme'dia, are 
remedies against cachexia. 

CACHEN LAGUEN, Chanchalagua, Chi- 
ronia chilensis. 

CACHEXTA, from xaxos, 'bad,' and e£< ?J 
' habit.' Status cachcc'ticus. A condition in 
which the body is evidently depraved. A bad 
habit of body; chiefly the result of scorbutic, 
cancerous, or venereal diseases when in their 
last stage. Hence we hear of a Scorbutic C, 
Cancerous C, &c. Sauvages and Cullen have 
included under this head a number of diseases 
— consumptions, dropsies, &c. Cachexia has 
been sometimes confounded with diathesis. 
The Cachexia Icterica is jaundice or icterus it- 
self, or a disposition thereto. The fluor albus 
is sometimes called Cachexia Utcrina. 

Cachexia Africana, Chthonophagia. 

Cachexia Alba, Leucorrhcea — c. Calculosa, 
Lilhia. 

Cachexia, Chlorotic, Chlorosis — c. Icterica, 
Icterus — c. Scrophulosa, Scrofula. 

Cachexia Splenica. The state of scorbutic 
Cachexia, which often accompanies diseases of 
the spleen, especially in India. — Twining. 

Cachexia Virginum, Chlorosis. 

CJ1CH1B0U. See Bursera guminifera. 

CACHINNA'TIO, from cochin' no, 'I laugh 
aloud.' A tendency to immoderate laughter, 
as in some hysterical and maniacal affections. 

CACHIRI. A fermented liquor made, in 
Cayenne, from a decoction of the rasped root of 
the manioc. It resembles perry. 

CACHLEX. A small stone or pebble, found 
on the sea-shore. One of these, when heated in 
the fire, and cooled in whey, communicates an 
astringency to the liquid, so that it was an- 
ciently esteemed to be useful in dysentery. — 
Galen. 

CACHOS. An Oriental fruit, apparently of 
a Solanum, which is esteemed lithontriptic. 

CACHOU, Catechu. 

CACHRYS LIBANO'TIS. An umbellife- 
rous plant, which grows in Africa and the South 
of Europe. It is aromatic and astringent. Its 
seeds are extremely acrid. 

CACHUN'DE. An Indian troch or pastile 
composed of amber, mastic, musk, cinnamon, 
aloes, rhubarb, galanga, pearls, rubies, eme- 
ralds, garnets, &c. It is regarded by the peo- 
ple of India as an antidote, stomachic, and anti- 
spasmodic. 

CACO-ALEXITERIA, Alexipharmic. 



CACOCHOLIA 



115 



CiECITAS 



CACOCHO'LIA, from xaxoc, 'bad,' and X oXtf, 
' bile.' Diseases induced by a depraved con- 
dition of the bile. 

CACOCHROI, from xaxoc,' bad,' and ynou, 
' colour.' Diseases in which the complexion is 
morbidly changed in colour. 

CACOCHYL'IA, from y.axoc, 'bad,' and 
%vloc, ' chyle. Depraved chylification. 

CACOCHYM'IA, Corrup'tio Humo'rum, from 
y.axoc, 'bad,' and ^v/uoc, 'juice,' ' humour.' 
Cacoch'ymy. Depravation of the humours. 

Cacochymu Venerea, Syphilis. 

CACOCH'YMUS, Cacochym'icus. One at- 
tacked with cacochymia. Belonging to caco- 
chymia. 

CACOCNE'MOSjJtfafe surisprmdi'tus; from 
xuxoc, ' bad,' and xvyur}, ' the leg.' One who 
has bad legs. 

CACOCORE'MA,from x«zo?,'bad,'and xoqsw, 
' I purge, or cleanse.' A medicine which purges 
off the vitiated humours. 

CACOD.WMON, from xaxoc, ' bad,' and <Jai- 
uu)i>, ' a spirit.' An evil spirit, to which were 
ascribed many disorders. The Nightmare. 

CACODIA, Anosmia. 

CACOETHES, from xaxoc, ' bad,' and y#oc, 
' disposition, habit,' &c. Of a bad or vitiated 
character. 

CACOGALAC'TIA, from xaxoc, fbad,' and 
yuXu, gen. yuluxrog, ' milk.' A bad condition 
of the milk. 

CACOMORPHIA, Deformation. 

CACOPATHI'A, Pas'sio Mala, from xaxoc, 
' bad,' and ;iaSoc, ' affection.' A distressed 
state of mind. — Hippocr. 

CACOPHO'NIA, from xuxoc, 'bad, 'and qium/, 
' the voice.' A dissonant condition of voice : — 
vitia'ta vox. 

CACOPRA'GIA, from xaxoc, 'bad,' and 
TtQar rm, ' I perform.' Depraved condition of the 
chylopoietic organs. 

CACORRHACHI'TIS, from xaxoc, 'bad,' 
and Qa/tc, 'the spine.' Cacorrha'chis, Spon- 
dylalgia. Deformity of the spine. Disease 
of the spine. Spontaneous luxation of the 
vertebra? and ribs dependent upon internal 
causes. 

CACORRHYTITMUS, Arrhyth'mus, from 
xaxoc, ' bad,' and qv&fio?, ' rhythm,' ' order.' 
Irregular. 

CACO'SIS. Vice, Mala disposi"tio. A bad 
condition of body. — Hippocr. 

CACOSIT'IA, from xuxoc, ' bad,' and ainov, 
' aliment.' Disgust or aversion for food. — Fas- 
tid'ium ciho'rum. 

CACOSOMIUM,from xaxoc, 'bad,' and aowu, 
' the body.' An hospital for leprosy, and incu- 
rable affections. 

CACOSPIIYX'IA, from xaxoc, 'bad,' and 
awvltc, 'pulse.' — Vitio'sus pulsus. Bad state of 
pulse. — Galen. 

CACOSTOM'ACHUS, from xaxoc, 'bad,' 
and oroua/og, ' the stomach.' What disagrees 
with the stomach. Indigestible. — Gorraeus. 

CACOSTOMUS, from xaxoc, 'bad,' and 
OToua, ' a mouth.' Having a bad mouth. 

C ACOT HY M.' 1 A, Vit'iumrfn'i mi, from xaxoc, 
' bad,' and Sviioc,' mind,' ' disposition.' A vi- 
tious state of mind. —Linden. 

C U'OTRIBULUS, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

OACOTROPH'IA, from xuxoc, 'bad,' and 



TQo<pt], ' nutrition.' — Vitio'sa nutri"tio ,' — disor- 
dered nutrition.— Galen. 
CJICOU, Cagot, Catechu. 
CACOU'CJ A COCCIN'EA, Coucirica Coccin'- 
ea, Schousba/a coccin'ea, Tikimma. A perennial 
twining shrub of South America ; the plant of 
which, as well as the fruit, is possessed of erne- 
to-cathartic properties. 

CJCTIER, Cactus opuntia. 

CACTUSOPUN'TIA, Opuntia. The Indian 
Fig, (F.) Cactier, Raqucttc, Figuier dTnde. 
This plant grows in South America, Spain, Italy, 
&c. Its fruit, which has the shape of the fig, 
is of a sweetish taste, and colours the urine red 
when eaten. Its leaves are considered refrige- 
rant. 

CADA'BA, Stroe'mia. A genus of the family 
Capparidece, natives of India and Arabia. The 
young shoots of the Cada'ba furino'sa are con- 
sidered to be an antidote against venomous 
bites. 

CADA'VER, Ptoma, Necron, vixqov. A dead 
body ; a subject; a carcass, (F.) Cadavre. The 
word has been supposed to come from cado, ' I 
fall ;' and by some, to be a contraction from 
caro data vermibus, ' flesh given to the worms !' 

CADAVEROUS, Cadavero'sus, Nccro'dcs. 
(F.) Cadavireux. Belonging to the dead body ; 
as cadaverous smell. The Cadav'erous or Hippo- 
cr at' 'ic face (see Face,) is an unfavourable sign 
in disease, and generally denotes a fatal termi- 
nation. 

CADEJI-INDI, Malabathrum. 

CADEL-AVANACU, Croton tiglium. 

CADIA. An Egyptian, leguminous plant. 
The Arabs attribute to its fresh leaves the 
power of relieving colic. 

CADMIA, Calamina, Tutia. 

CAD'JVHI SULPHAS, Cad'mium Sulphu'ri- 
cum, Sulphas Cad'micus, Meli'ni Sulphas, Klap- 
ro'thii Sulphas, Klapro'thium Sulphu'ricum, Me- 
li'num Sulphu'ricum, Sulphate of Cad'mium. 
Used in spots on the Cornea, and in chronic 
torpid inflammation of the conjunctiva, in the 
quantity of half a grain to a grain to the ounce 
of water. 

CADMIUM SULPHURICUM, Cadmii Sul- 
phas. 

CADTCHU, Catechu. 

CADUCA HUNTER1, Decidua. 

CADU'CITY , [mbecil'litas, Dcbil'itas, Cadu'- 
citas. The French use the word Caducile, for 
the portion of human life, which is comprised 
generally between 70 and 80 years. The age, 
which precedes decrepitude. It is so termed 
in consequence of the limbs not usually pos- 
sessing sufficient strength to support the body. 
The precise age must of course vary in indi- 
viduals. 

CADUS, xaSo< . A Greek measure, equal to 
ten gallons English. — Pliny. 

CADUS, Amphora. 

CECAL, Caicalis. Belonging to the crccum, 
from cacus, ' blind, hidden.' The Cmcal arte- 
ries and veins, are the branches of the Jlrteria: 
ct vena coliccc dextraz inferiorcs, distributed to 
the csecum. 

CICATRIX, Cicatrix. 

C^E'CITAS, Blindness, Anap'sia, Typhlotes, 
Typlilo'sis, (F.) Avevglement, Ciciti. C. may 
be dependent upon many different diseases, — 



CiECITAS 



11G 



CAINC^E RADIX 



as upon amaurosis, specks, hypopyon, cataract, 
glaucoma, ophthalmia, atrophy of the eye, 
<&c. 

C&citas Crepuscular! s, Hemeralopia — c. 
Diurna, Nyclatopia. 

CjECUM or CCECUM, Intesti'num caecum,, 
Monom'aclion, Monocolon, Monoculum, Typldo- 
teron monocolon, lni"tium intesti'ni crassi,Saccus, 
Ceecum Caput Coli, Prima cella coli, from caucus, 
' blind.' The Blind Gut, so called from its be- 
ing perforated at one end only. That portion 
of the intestinal canal, which is seated between 
the termination of the ileum and commence- 
ment of the colon ; and which fills, almost 
wholly, the right iliac fossa : where the perito- 
neum retains it immovably. Its length is about 
3 or 4 fingers' breadth. The Jleo-cacal valve 
or Valve o/Bauhin shuts off all communication 
between it and the ileum; and the Appendix 
vermiformis cceci is attached to it. 

CjECUS. < Blind.' One deprived of sight. 
(F.) Aveugle, Borgne. In anatomy, it is used 
to designate certain holes or cavities, which 
end in a cul-de-sac ; or have only one opening. 
The Fora'men Ccecum of the frontal bone is 
a small cavity at the inferior extremity of the 
internal coronal crest or crista — Fronto-ethmoi- 
dalforamen — (Ch.),(F.) Trou aveugle ou borgne. 
Morgagni has given the same name to the small 
cavity, in the middle of the upper surface of the 
tongue, near its base ; the sides of which are 
furnished with mucous follicles — Lacune dc la. 
langue. — (Ch.) 

HjEmorhhoi'des C/ecje, Blind Piles, (F.) 116- 
morrkdides aveuglcs, are those unaccompanied 
by any discharge. 

Blind Ducts of the Ure'thra, (F.) Conduits 
aveuglcs de I'urethrc, are the Mucous Lacu'na of 
the Ure'thra. 

The Foram'ina Cjecx, — Anterius et Pos- 
terius, are situate at the fore and back parts of 
the tuber annulare of the brain, and at the ex- 
tremities of the depression made by the verte- 
bral artery. The^former is placed between the 
nerves of the 3d, and the latter between those 
of the 6th paii. 

CLELA-DOLO, Torenia Asiatica. 
CEMENTUM, Lute. 

C^ERULEUM BEROLINENSE, Prussian 
blue — c. Borussicum, Prussian blue. 

CjERULOSIS NEONATORUM, Cyanopa- 
thy. 

CjESALPI'NIA SAPPAN, (F.) Brcsillct. 
Bois de Sappan. A small Siamese tree, the 
wood of which is used in decoction, in cases of 
contusion. 

The Brazil wood or Fcrnamlnico wood, for- 
merly used as an astringent, is the wood of the 
Casalpin'ia cchina'ta. 

The kernel of the Casalpin'ia Bonducell'a, 
the seed of which is called in India Kutkulcja 
and Kutoo Kurunja is given as a febrifuge tonic. 
Dose ten grains. 

CiESA'REAN SECTION ou OPERA- 
TION, Tomoto'cia, Casa'rea sectio, Partus 
casa'reus, Opera' tio caisarca, Metroto/n'ia, from 
ccedere, ' to cut.' An incision made through 
the parietes of the abdomen and uterus to ex- 
tract the fcetus. In this manner Julius Csnsar 
is said to have been extracted. — Pliny. It is 
also called Uysteroto'mia, ITijstcrotomato'cia, 



and Gastrohysteroi'omy, (F.) Operation C6sari- 
ennc. 

An incision has been made into the uterus 
through the vagina ; constituting the Vaginal 
Cesarean Section, (F.) Operation cisarienne 
vaginale. 

The Csesarean Section may be required when 
the mother dies before delivery ; — when there 
is some invincible obstacle to delivery, from 
the faulty conformation of the pelvis ; or when 
the child has passed into the abdominal cavity 
in consequence of rupture of the uterus. 
CESARIES, Capillus. 
C.ESIUS, Glaucoma. 

CjESONES, C^ESARES. Children brought 
into the world by the Caesarean operation. 
G/ESU'LIiE. They who have gray eyes. 
CiESTJRA, Cut. 
OETCHU, Catechu. 
CAF, Camphor. 
CAFAL, Agrimony. 
CAFAR, Camphor. 
CAFE, Coffea. 

CAFE A LA SULTAJYE. This name has 
been given to an infusion or decoction of the 
ground coqucs or pericarps which surround the 
coffee, j 

Cafe Citrin. The aqueous infusion of un- 
roasted coffee, so called on account of its yel- 
lowish tint. 

CAFEYER, Coffea Arabica. 
CAFFA, Camphor. 
CAFIER, Coffea Arabica. 
CAGAS'TRUM. The principle or germ of 
diseases, which are communicable. Paracel- 
sus. 

CAGJYEUX, Cagot. See Kyllosis. 
CAGOSANGA, Ipecacuanha. 
CAGOT, (F.) A name given to deformed 
and miserable beings, met with in the Pyre- 
nees, Beam, and Upper Gascony in France, 
where they are also called Capots. In other 
districts they are called Gezits, Gizilains, Cre- 
tins, Gahcts, Capons, Coliuerts ,Cacous, Cagneur, 
&c-. See Cretin. The word Cagot is supposed 
to be an abbreviation of Canis Gothus, ' Dog 
of a Goth.' 

CAH1NOE RADIX, Caincee radix. 
CAI'EPUT or CAJ'EPUT, OIL OF. K,ja- 
pnt'ty, Cajupu'ti Oleum, Mchdcu'cai Lcucodcu'- 
dri Oleum. The oil has a strong smell, fra- 
grant, like camphor; taste pungent and aro- 
matic: limpid. It is stimulant, and useful 
where the essential oils in general are employed. 
It has also been called Oil of U'itncben, from 
the person who first distilled it. 
CAILLE, Tetrao coturnix. 
CAILLEBOTTE Curds. 
CAILLELAIT BLANC, Galium mollugo— c. 
Vruie, Galium verum. 
CA1LLOT, Coagulum. 
CAINAN.E RADIX, Caincse radix. 
CAINC.E RADIX, Radix Chiococ'ea, /.'. 
Cainanee, Caninana, Cahincce, Kahinca, Scr- 
penta'rim Brazilien' sis , Cuinca Root. The bark 
of the root of the Chiococda anguif'uga, a plant 
of the Family Ilubiacea', Sex. Syst. Pcntandria 
Monogynia, of Linnssus. It is bitter, tonic, 
and diuretic, but has not been long introduced. 
Dose of the powder from h)j to ^ss. 

Dr. John II. Griscom.'of New York, con- 



CA1NITO 



117 



CALCARIA CHLORATA 



skiers there is a remarkable analogy between 
the Cainca and the Apocynum cannabinum. 

CAINITO, Chrysophyllum Cainito. 

CAIPA SCIIORA. A cucurbitaceous Mala- 
bnr plant, the fruit of which has a pyriform 
shape. The juice is drunk in that country for 
the purpose of arresting hiccough. The fruit, 
when unripe, is emetic. 

CJlISSE. Case— c. du Tambour, Tympanum. 

CA1TCHU, Catechu. 

CAJAN. Phaseolus creticus. 

CAJUPUTI, Cajeput. 

CALABASH TREE, NARROW-LEAVED, 
Crescentia Cujete. 

CALAF, Salix JEgyptiaca. A large-leaved 
Egyptian willow, called, also, Ban. The dis- 
tilled water of the flowers, called Macahalef, 
passes, in that country, for an excellent anti- 
aphrodisiac. It is also used as an antiloimic an- 
tiseptic, and cordial. 

CALAGERI, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGIRAH, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGUA'L^E RADIX, Calague'lcc Ra- 
dix. The root of the Polypo'dium Calagua'la, 
or Aspid'ium coria'ceum. It has been exhibited in 
Italy in dropsy, pleurisy, contusions, abscesses, 
&,c. Its properties are not, however, clear. 

CALAMBAC, Agallochum. 

CALAMANDRINA, Teucrium chamaedrys. 

CALAMBOUK, Agallochum. 

CALAME'DON, from y.alauo?, 'a reed.' 
This word has had various significations. Some 
have used it for an oblique fracture of a bone ; 
the fractured portions having the shape of the 
nib of a pen. Others have used it for a longi- 
tudinal fracture, and others, again, for one that 
is comminuted. — Dictionaries. 

CALAMI'NA, CaL'amine, from cal'amus, ' a 
reed,' so called from its reed-like appearance. 
Cadmia, Cathmir, Cadmia lapido'sa a'ero'sa, 
Cadmia Fos'silis, Lapis A'ero'sus, Calim'ia, La- 
pis Calamina'ris, Calamina'ris, Car'bonas Zinci 
impu'rus, {¥.) Pierre calaminairc,P. c.preparie. 
Calamine is chiefly used for pharmaceutical 
purposes in the form of the Calawina vrbl- 
para'ta, Lapis Calamina'ris prapara'tus, Car'- 
bonas zinci impu'rus prcepara'tus, Prepared Ca- 
lamine ; — Calamine reduced to an impalpable 
powder by roasting. In this state it is sprin- 
kled or dusted on excoriated parts, or to pre- 
vent excoriation, &c. 

CALAMINARIS, Calamina. 

CALAM INT, Melissa Calamintha— c. Field, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Mountain, Melissa grandi- 
flora — c. Spotted, Melissa nepeta. 

CALAMINTA HUMLLIOR, Glecoma hede- 
racea. 

CALAMINTHA. MelissaC.—c.Anglica, Me- 
lissa nepeta — e. Magno flore, Melissa grandiflora 
— c. Montana, Melissa grandiflora — c. Pulegii 
odore, Melissa nepeta. 

CALAMUS ALEXANDRINUS. Celsus 
has thus nailed a medicine, which was long 
confounded with the Calamus Aromaticus. It 
is not a root, however, but the stalk of a plant 
of India and Egypt, probably the Andropo' gon 
Kardus. It entered into the theriaca, and has 
been regarded antihystcric and emmenagogue ; 
< 'alamus aromaticus vcrus. 

Cat amis Akomaticus, Acorus calamus — c. 
aromaticus verus, Calamus Alexandrinus — c. 



Indicus, see Saccharum— c. Odoratus, Acorus 
calamus, Juneus odoratus. 

Calamus Rotang. The systematic name 
of a plant, whence the Dragon's Blood, San- 
guis Draco'nis, is obtained. The Cinnab'aris 
Grceco'rum, Dracontha! ma , (F.) Sang-Dragon. 
It is the red, resinous juice, obtained, in India, 
from wounding the bark of the Calamus Ro- 
tang. It has been used as an astringent in he- 
morrhages, &c. ; but is now rarely employed. 

Calamus Saccharinus, see Saccharum. 

CiLAMus Scripto'rius, Anag / lyphE, Rliom- 
boi'dal Sinus. A Writing pen, (F.) Fosscttc an- 
gulaire du quatrihme ventricule. A small, angu- 
lar cavity, situate at the superior extremity of 
the medulla, in the fourth ventricle of the 
brain, which has been, by some, supposed to 
resemble a pen. 

Calamus Vulgaris, Acorus calamus. 

CALAPP1TE. Rumphius has given this 
name to calculous concretions, found in the 
interior of some cocoa nuts. The cocoa tree 
itself the Malays call Calappa. These stones 
are, likewise, termed Vegetable Bezoards. The 
Malays attribute potent virtues to them, and 
wear them as amulets. 

CALASAYA, Cinchona? cordifoliae cortex. 

CALBALA, Cabal. 

CALBIA'NUM. The name of a plaster in 
Myrepsus, the composition of which we know 
not. 

CALCADINUM, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCAIRE, Calcareous. 

CALCAJYEO-PHALAJYGTEJY DU PETIT 
ORTEII,, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. 
Pkalanginien commun, Extensor brevis digito- 
rum pedis — c. Sous-phalangcttien commun, 
Flexor brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous-phalan- 
ginien commun, Flexor brevis dioritorum pedis 
— c. Sous-phalangien du petit ortcil, see Ab- 
ductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Sus-Phalanget- 
ticn commun, Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

CALCA'NEUM, from calx, < the heel.' Cal- 
caneus, Calcar, Os Calcis, Ptcrna. The largest 
of the tarsal bones; that which forms the heel. 
It is situate at the posterior and inferior part of 
the foot; is articulated above and a little ante- 
riorly with the astragalus; anteriorly, also, 
with the os cuboides. Its posterior surface, — 
called Heel, Talus, Calx, (F.) Talon, — gives at- 
tachment to the tendo achilles : the lower has, 
posteriorly, two tuberosities, to which the su- 
perficial muscles of the sole of the foot are at- 
tached. The small Apoph'ysis or lateral Apophy- 
sis of the Calca'neum, (F.) Petite Apophysc ou 
Apophysc lalerale du Calcaneum, is a projection at 
the upper surface of this bone, on which is formed 
the posterior portion of the cavity, that receives 
the astragalus. The great Apoph'ysis or ante- 
rior Apoph'ysis of the Calca'neum is the projec- 
tion, which corresponds, on one side, with the 
cuboides; and on the other forms the anterior 
part of the facette, which receives the astraga- 
lus. 

CALCANTHON, Atramentum. 

CALCAR. Calcaneum, Ergot. 

CALCA'REOUS, Calca'rius, from calx, 
'lime.' (F.) Calcaire. Containing lime: — 
as calcareous concretions, C, depositions, &c. 

CALrvREiis Cvrronas, Creta. 

CALCARIA CHLORATA, Calcis cblgri. 



CALCARLE CHLORUM 



118 



CALCULI 



dum — c. Chlorica, Calcis chloridum— c. Phos- 
phorica, see Cornu cervi — c. Pura, Calx — c. 
Pura liquida, Liquor calcis. 

CALCARLE CHLORUM,Calcis chloridum. 

CALCATOR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCATREPPOLA, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCE'NA, CALCE'NON, CALCENO'- 
NIA, CALCINO'NIA. Words employed by 
Paracelsus, to designate the concretions of tar- 
trate of lime, which form in the human body. 

CALCENOS,Calcetus. 

CALCEOLA'RIA, from calceolus, ' a small 
slipper;' Slippcrwort. 

The Calceola'ria Primata is used in Peru 
as a laxative. 

The Calceola'ria Trif'ida is esteemed to 
be febrifuge. 

CALCE'TUS, Calccno'nius, Calce'nos. That 
which abounds in tartrate of lime. An adjec- 
tive used, by Paracelsus, in speaking of the 
blood ; Sanguis calce'tus. Hence came the 
expression Calcined blood, Sang calcin6. 

CALCEUM EQUINUM, Tussilago. 

CALCIG/RADUS, Pternobates, from Calx, 
nriQra, ' the heel,' and (Saivia, ' 1 walk.' One 
who walks on his heels. — Hippocr. 

CALCII CHLORURETUM, Calcis chlori- 
dum — c. Oxychloruretum, Calcis chloridum — c. 
Oxydum — c. Calx viva — c. Protohydrosulfatc 
de, Calcis sulphuretum — c. Protochloruretum, 
Calcis chloridum. 

CALCIGEROUS CELL, see Tooth. 

CALCINA'TION, Cakina'tio, Calci'non, Con- 
crema'tio, from calx, ' lime.' The act of sub- 
mitting to a strong heat any infusible mineral 
substance : which we are desirous of depriving 
either of its water, or of any other volatilizable 
substance, that enters into its composition ; or 
which we wish to combine with oxygen. Alum 
is calcined to get rid of its water of crystalli- 
zation ; — chalk, to reduce it to the state of pure 
lime, by driving off the carbonic acid ; and cer- 
tain metals are subjected to this operation to 
oxidize them. 

CALCINATUM MAJUS POTERII, Hy- 
drargyrum praecipitatum. 

CALCLNONIA, Calcena. 

CALCIS BICHLORURETUM, Calcis chlo- 
ridum — c. Carbonas, Creta — c. Hepar, Calcis 
sulphuretum — c. Oxymurias, Calcis chloridum. 

CALC1TEA, Ferri sulphas. 

CALC1TEOSA, Plumbi oxydum semivi- 
treum. 

CALCITHOS, Cupri subacetas. 

CALCITRAPA, Centaurea Calcitrapa — c. 
stellata, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCITRAPPA, Delphinium consolida. 

CALCIUM, PROTOXI-CHLORURET OF, 
Calcis chloridum — c. Protoxide of, Calx. 

CALCO-SUBPHALANGEUS MINIMI DI- 
GiTI, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Sub- 
phalangeus pollicis. Abductor pollicis pedis. 

CALCOCOS, Bellmotal. 

CALCOIDEA, (ossieula,) Cuneiform bones. 

CALCOTAR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCUL, Calculus. 

CALCULEUX, Calculous. 

CAL'CULI, ARTICULAR. See Calculi 
Arthritic, and Concretions, Articular. 

Calculi, Arthrit'ic, Chalk stones, (F.) 



Pierres crayeuses, Calculs arthritiques. Concre- 
tions, which form in the ligaments, and within 
the capsules of the joints, in persons .affected 
with gout. They are composed of uric acid, 
soda, and a little animal matter; very rarely, 
urate of lime and muriate of soda are met with. 
Similar calculi are found in other parts besides 
the joints. 

Bil'iary Cal'culi, Cal'culi bilio'si, Cysthe- 
patolithi'asis, Bil'iary Concre'tions, Gull-stones, 
Cholol'ithus, Cholel'ithus, Cholelith'ia, (F.) Cal- 
culs biliaires, Pierres au jiel. Some of these 
contain all the materials of the bile, and seem 
to be nothing more than that secretion thick- 
ened. Several contain Picromel ; and the 
greater part are composed of from 88 to 94 parts 
of Cholcsterine, and of from G to 12 of the yel- 
low matter of the bile. Biliary calculi are 
most frequently found in the gall-bladder : at 
other times in the substance of the liver : in 
the branches of the Ductus Hepaticus, or in the 
Ductus Communis Choledochus. The first are 
called Cystic; the second Hepatic; and the 
last, sometimes, Hepatocystic'. The causes 
which give rise to them are very obscure. Of- 
ten they occasion no uneasiness, and at other 
times the symptoms may be confounded with 
those of hepatitis. At times, they are rejected 
by the mouth, or by the bowels, along with a 
considerable quantity of bile, which had accu- 
mulated behind them ; at other times, they 
occasion violent abdominal inflammation, ab- 
scesses, and biliary fistulae, rupture of the gall- 
bladder, and fatal effusion into the peritoneum. 
The passage of a gallstone is extremely pain- 
ful ; yet the pulse is not affected. Antiphlo- 
gistics, when there is inflammatory action, and 
strong doses of opium, to allay the pain and 
spasm, with the warm bath, are the chief reme- 
dies. Solvents are not to be depended upon. 
They cannot reach the calculi. 

Cal'culi in the Ears. (F.) Calculs de V 0- 
reille. Hard, light, and inflammable concre- 
tions, which occur in the meatus auditorius ex- 
ternus, and are merely indurated cerumen. 
They are a frequent cause of deafness. They 
can be easily seen, and may be extracted by 
appropriate forceps, after having been detached 
by injections of soap and water. 

Cal'culi Lach'rvmal, (F.) Calculs lacry- 
maux. Concretions sometimes, but rarely, 
form in the lachrymal passages, where they 
occasion abscesses and fistula-, which do not 
heal until they are extracted. JNo analysis has 
been made of them. 

Calculi of the Mammje, (F.) Calculs des 
Mamcllcs. Haller gives a case of a concre- 
tion, of a yellowish-white colour, which had 
the shape of one of the excretory ducts of the 
mammary gland, having been extracted from 
an abscess seated in that organ. 

Cal'culi of the Pancreas, (F.) Calculs da 
Pancreas. These are but little known. Analo- 
gy has induced a belief that they resemble the 
salivary. Some have supposed that certain 
transparent calculi, rejected by vomiting, or 
passed in the evacuations, have proceeded from 
the pancreas, but there seems no reason for 
this belief. 

Cal'culi of TnE Pineal Gland, (F.) Cal- 



CALCULI 



119 



CALCULI 



cuts da la Glande Pinealo. These have been 
frequently met with. No symptom announces 
their presence during life. They are composed 
of phosphate of lime. 

Cal'culi of the Prostate. These are not 
very rare. They have generally the same 
composition as the preceding. They usually 
present the symptoms common to every tume- 
faction of the prostate, and sometimes those of 
calculi in the bladder. 

Cal'culi Pui/monary, Phthisic calculeusc 
of Bayle, (F.) Calculs pulmonaircs. These 
concretions are very frequently met with in 
the dead body, without seeming to have pro- 
duced unpleasant symptoms during life. At 
other times, they are accompanied with all 
the symptoms of phthisis. At times, they 
are expectorated without the supervention of 
any unpleasant symptom. They are usually 
formed of carbonate of lime and animal matter. 

Cal'culi Salivary, (F.) Calculs saliraires. 
Concretions, usually formed of phosphate of 
lime and animal matter, which are developed 
in the substance of the salivary glands or in 
their excretory ducts. In the first case, they 
may be mistaken for a simple swelling of the 
gland: in the second, they may be generally 
detected by the touch. They maybe extracted 
by incision, in the interior of the mouth. 

Cal'culi, Spermat'ic, (F.) Calculs sper- 
matiqucs. These have been sometimes found 
in the vesiculre seminales after death. They 
cannot be detected during life. No analysis 
has been made of them. 

Calculus of the Stomach and Intestines. 
Enterol'ithus, E. Cal'culus, (F.) Calculs de 
Vestomac. Calculi of the stomach are rare, and 
have almost always been carried thither by the 
antiperistaltic action of the intestines. The 
symptoms, occasioned by them, are those of 
chronic gastritis. It has been imagined that 
the continued use of absorbent powders, as 
magnesia, will give occasion to them. 

Intestinal concretions, (F.) Calculs intesti- 
naux, are not uncommon in animals (see Be- 
zoard :) but they are rcre in man. The causes 



which give rise to them are little known : 
sometimes a biliary calculus affords them a 
nucleus. Their composition varies. They are 
light, hard, very fetid, and not inflammable. 
They are formed, ordinarily, between the val- 
vula) of the small intestines, or in the cells of 
the large, and sometimes in old hernia?. Whilst 
they do not obstruct the passage of the alimen- 
tary mass, they produce no unpleasant symp- 
tom. At times, the movable tumour, which 
they form, may be felt through the parietes of 
the abdomen. They are generally evacuated 
per anum. 

Calculi of the Tonsjls. Calculous con- 
cretions, which sometimes form in the ton- 
sils. (F.) Calculs dcs Jlmygdales. They are 
easily recognised by the sight and touch : some- 
times they are discharged by spitting, either 
alone or with the pus of an abscess occasioned 
by their presence. They have not been ana- 
lyzed. 

Cal'culi Urinary, Urol'ithi, (F.) Calculs 
urinaires, Pierres urinaires. Concretions, which 
form from the crystallizable substances in the 
urine, and which are met with not only in the 
whole course of the urinary passages, but in 
fistulous openings wherever the urine stag- 
nates naturally or accidentally. Their causes 
are but little known. They are more common 
at the two extremities of life than at the mid- 
dle, and more so in some countries and dis- 
tricts than in others. At times, a clot of blood, 
a portion of mucus, &c, will form the nucleus. 
The symptoms and treatment vary according 
to the seat of the calculus. There is no such 
thing probably as a medicinal solvent. See 
Urinary Calculi. 

Modern chyinists have demonstrated the ex- 
istence of several components of urinary cal- 
culi, viz. Lithic Acid, Phosphate of Lime, Jlm- 
moniaco- Magncsian Phosphate, Oxalate of Lime, 
Cystic Oxide, and Xanthic Oxide, with an ani- 
mal cementing ingredient. The varieties of 
calculi, produced by the combination or inter- 
mixture of these ingredients, are thus repre- 
sented by Dr. Paris. 



a tabular view of the different species of urinary calculi. 



SPECIES OF 
CALCULI. 


EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 


CHYMICAL COMPOSITION. REMARKS. 


1. Lithic or 
Ubic. 


Form, a flattened oval. S. G. 
generally exceeds 1.500. Colour, 
brownish or fawn-like. Surface, 
smooth. Texture, laminated. 


It consists principally of Lithic 
Acid. When treated wilh nitric 
acid a beautiful pink substance re- 
sults. This calculus is slightly so- 
luble in water, abundantly so in the 
pure alkalies. 


It is the prevailing 
species ; but the sur- 
face sometimes occurs 
finely tuberculated. It 
frequently constitutes 
the nuclei of tho other 
species. 


2. MULRER- 
RY. 


Colour, dark brown. Texture, 
harder than that of the other spe- 
cies. S. G. from 1.428 to 1.976. Sur- 
face, studded with tubercles. 


It is oxalate of lime, and is decom- 
posed in the flame of a spirit lamp, 
swelling out into a white efflores- 
cence, which is quicklime. 


This species in- 
cludes some varieties, 
which are remarka- 
bly smooth anil pale- 
coloured, resembling 
liempseed. 


3. BONE 
EARTH. 


Colour, pale brown or gray ; sur- 
face, smooth and polished ; struc- 
ture, regularly laminated ; the la- 
rains easily separating into con- 
crete crusts. 


Principally phosphate of lime. It 
is soluble in muriatic acid. 




4. TRIPLE. 


Colour, generally brilliant white. 
Surface, uneven, studded with 
shining crystals, less compact than 
the preceding species. Between its 
lamina: small cells occur, tilled with 
sparkling particles. 


It is an ammoniaco-magnesian 
phosphate, generally mixed with 
phosphate of lime. Pure alkalies 
decompose it, extracting its ammo- 
nia. 


This species attains 
a larger size than any 
of the others. 



CALCULI 



120 



CALCULI 



A TABULAR VIEW OF THE DIFFERENT SFECIES OF URINARY CALCULI. 



SPECIES OF 

CALCULI. 


EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 


CHYMICAL COMPOSITION. 


REMARKS. 


5. FUSIBLE. 


Colour. Grayish white. 


A compound of the two foregoing 
species. 


It is very f/u ibl< 
melting into a vitreous 
globule. 


6. CYSTIC. 


Very like the triple calculus, but 
it is unstratitieu and more compact 
and homogeneous. 


It consists of cystic oxide. Un- 
der the blowpipe it yields a pecu- 
liarly fetid odour. It is soluble in 
acids, and in alkalies even if they 
are fully saturated with carbonic 
acid. 


It is a rare species. 


7. ALTER- 
NATING. 


Its section exhibits different con- 
centric lamina. 


Compounded of several species, 
alternating with each other. 




8. COMPOUND. 


No characteristic form. 


The ingredients are separable 
only by chymical analysis. 





1. Renal Calculi, (F.) Calculs renaux. These 
have almost always a very irregular shape ; at 
times, there will be no indication of their pre- 
sence : at others, they occasion attacks of pain 
in the kidneys, sometimes accompanied with 
bloody or turbid urine. Often, they cause in- 
flammation of the kidneys, with all its unplea- 
sant results. They are generally formed of 
uric acid, animal matter, and oxalate of lime, 
with, sometimes, phosphates. The treatment 
will have to vary, according to the absence or 
presence of inflammatory signs, relieving the 
irritation by opiates. A surgical operation can 
rarely be applicable. 

2. Calculi in the Ureters. (F.) Calculs des 
Uretercs. These come from the kidneys, and 
do not produce unpleasant effects, unless they 
are so large as to obstruct the course of the 
urine, and to occasion distention of the whole 
of the ureter above them ; or unless their sur- 
face is so rough as to irritate the mucous mem- 
brane, and occasion pain, hemorrhage, ab- 
scesses, &c. The pain, during the passage, is 
sometimes very violent, extending to the tes- 
ticle of the same side in the male ; and occa- 
sioning a numbness of the thigh in both sexes. 
The treatment consists in general or local 
blood-letting, warm bath and opiates. 

3. Calculi Vesical. Stone in the Bladder, 
Lithia Vesica'lis, Lithi'asis cys'tica, Lithi'asis 
vesica'lis, Cysto-lithi'asis, Dysu'ria calculo'sa, 
D. irrita'ta, Col' cuius vcsi'ca, (F.) Calculs vesi- 
caux. These are the most common. Some- 
times, they proceed from the kidneys : most 
commonly, they are formed in the bladder 
itself. Sense of weight in the perineum, and 
sometimes of a body rolling when the patient 
changes his position ; pain or itching at the 
extremity of the glans in men : frequent de- 
sire to pass the urine ; sudden stoppage to its 
flow; and bloody urine — are the chief signs 
which induce us to suspect their existence. 
We cannot, however, be certain of this with- 
out sounding the patient. Sometimes, when 
of a small size, they are expelled : most com- 
monly, they remain in the bladder, the disor- 
ganization of which they occasion, unless re- 
moved by a surgical operation. 

4. Calculi Urc'thral. They almost always 
proceed from the bladder. The obstruction, 
which they cause to the passage of the urine, 
the hard tumour, and the noise occasioned 
when struck by a sound, indicate their pre- 
sence. They are removed by incision. 

5. Calculi in Fis'luluus Passages. These 



arise when there is some fistulous opening into 
the urethra. They can be readily recognised, 
and may generally be extracted with facility. 
(F.) Calculs places hors des voics urinaircs. 
See Urinary Calculi. 

Calculi of the Uterus. (F.) Calculs de 
I'UtHrus. These are very rare. The signs, which 
indicate them during life, are those of chronic 
engorgement of the uterus. Their existence, 
consequently, cannot be proved till after death. 

CALCULIFRAGUS, Lilhontriptic. 

CAL'CULOUS, (F.) Culculeux, Gravelcux. 
that which relates to calculi, especially to those 
of the bladder. 

CALCULS BILIAIRES, Calculi, biliary— c. 
de V Estomac, Calculi of the stomach — c. de la 
Glande pinealc, Calculi of the pineal gland — c. 
Intestinaux, Calculi of the stomach and intes- 
tines — c. Lacrymaux, Calculi, lachrymal — c. des 
Mamelles, Calculi of the mammae — c. de VO- 
reille, Calculi in the ears — c. du Pancreas t Cn\cu\i 
of the Pancreas — c. Place's hors des voies uri- 
naires, Calculi in fistulous passages — c. Pulmo- 
naires, Calculi, pulmonary — c. Rinaux, Calculi, 
renal — c. Salivaires, Calculi, salivary — c. Sper- 
matiques, Calculi, spermatic — c. Urinaircs, Cal- 
culi, urinary — c. des Uretercs Calculi in the 
ureters — c. de V Uterus, Calculi of the uterus — 
c. Vesicaux, Calculi, vesical. 

CAL'CULUS, Lapis, Lithos, li&oq. A di- 
minutive of calx, a lime-stone. (FJ Calcul, 
Pierre. Calculi are concretions, which may 
form in every part of the animal body, but 
which are most frequently found in the organs 
that act as reservoirs, and in the excretory ca- 
nals. They are met with in the tonsils, joints, 
biliary ducts, digestive passages, lachrymal 
ducts, mammae, ears, pancreas, pineal gland, 
prostate, lungs, salivary, spermatic and urinary 
passages, and in the uterus. The causes which 
give rise to them are obscure. 

Those, that occur in reservoirs or ducts, arc 
supposed to be owing to the deposition of the 
substances which compose them, from the fluid 
as it passes along the duct; and those which 
occur in the substance of an organ are re- 
garded as the product of some chronic irrita- 
tion. Their general effect is to irritate, as ex- 
traneous bodies, the parts with which they are 
in contact ; and to produce retention of the 
fluid, whence they have been formed. The 
symptoms differ, according to the sensibility of 
the organ, and the importance of the particu- 
lar secretion, whose discharge they impede. 
Their solution is generally impracticable 



CALDAS, WATERS OF 



121 



CALORINESES 



spontaneous expulsion or extraction being the 
only ways of getting rid of them. 

Calculus, Encysted, Caicul chatonne — c. 
Vesica?, Calculus, vesical. 

CALDAS, WATERS OF. Caldas is a small 
town, ten leagues from Lisbon, where are mine- 
ral springs; containing carbonic and hydrosul- 
phuric acid gases, carbonates and muriates of 
lime and magnesia, sulphates of soda and lime, 
sulphuret of iron, silica, and alumina. They 
are much used in atonic gout. They are ther- 
mal. Temperature 93° Fahrenheit. 

CALDE'RLE ITAL'ICjE. Warm baths in 
the neighbourhood of Ferrara, in Italy, much 
employed in dysuria. 

CALEBASSES, Cucurbita lagenaria. 

CALEFA'CIFNTS, Calefacien'tia,Therman'- 
tica, from cal'idus, ' warm,' and fa'cio, ' I make.' 
(F.) Echauffants. Substances which excite a 
degree of warmth in the part to which they are 
applied, as mustard, pepper, &c. They belong 
to the class of stimulants. 

CALEFACTIO, Echauffement. 

CALENDULA ALPINA, Arnica montana. 

Calen'dula Officinalis, C. Sati'va, Chry- 
san'thcmum, Sponsa solis, Caltha vulga'ris ; 
Single Mar'igold, Garden Mar'igold. Fa- 
mily, Synanthereaj, Syngenesia necessaria, 
Linn, (F.) Souci. The flowers and leaves have 
been exhibited as aperients, diaphoretics, &c, 
and have been highly extolled, of late, in cancer. 

Calen'dula Arven'sis, Caltha Arven'sis, 
Wild Mar'igold. (F.) Souci des Champs. This 
is, sometimes, preferred to the last. Its juice 
has been given, in the dose of from §j to 31V, 
in jaundice and cachexia. 

CALENDULA MARTIALES, Ferrum am- 
moniatum. 

CALENTU'RA, from calere, ' to be warm.' 
The word, in Spanish, signifies fever. It is a 
species of furious delirium, to which sailors are 
subject in the torrid zone : — a kind of phrenitis, 
the attack of which comes on suddenly after a 
broiling day, and seems to be characterized by 
a desire in the patient, to throw himself into 
the sea. It is only a variety of phrenitis. 

CALENTU'RAS; Palo de Calcntu'ras. Po- 
met and Lemery say, that these words are, 
sometimes, applied to the cinchona. Camelli 
says, they mean, also, a tree of the Philippine 
Isles, the wood of which is bitter and febrifuge. 

CALIDAR1UM. See Stove. 

CALF OF THE LEG, Sura. 

CALICE, Calix. 

CALICES RESALES. See Calix. 

CALICO BUSH, Kalmia latifolia. 

CALIDUM ANIMALE, Animal heat— c. 
Innatum, Animal heat. 
CALIGATIO, Dazzling. 

CALI'GO. 'A mist.' Achlys. (F.) Brouil- 
lard. An obscurity of vision, dependent upon 
a speck on the cornea : also, the speck itself, 
Caligo comae, Macula cornea?, Phtharma caligo, 
C. a nephe'lio, Hebetu'do visits, C. a leuco'mate, 
M. Simipellu'cida, Nebula, (q. v.) Opakc cornea, 
Wcb-eye. (F.) JYouage dc la Comic, Tayc, Ob- 
scurcisscmcnt dc la rue. 

Caligo Lentis, Cataract — c. Pupilla?, Syne- 
zisis — c. Synizesis, Synezisis. 
CALIHACHA CANELLA, Laurus cassia. 
CALIPERS. .See Pelvimetv - 
16 



CALIX. Infundib'ulum, from y.a'ki%, ' a cup.' 
(F.) Calice, Entonnoir. Anatomists have given 
this name to small membranous canals, which 
surround the papilla} of the kidney, and open 
into its pelvis, whither they convey the urine. 
Calices rinalcs, Cylind'ri membrana! ' cei Renum, 
Fis'tula urcterum renum, Canales membra'nei 
Renum, Tu'buli pelvis renum. Their number 
varies from C to 12 in each kidney. 
Calix Vomitoria, Goblet, emetic. 
CALLEUX, Callous. 

CALL1COCCA IPECACUANHA, Ipecacu- 
anha. 

CALLICREAS, Pancreas. 
CALLIOMARCHUS, Tussilago. 
CALLIPiEDIA, from xalog, < beautiful,' and 
Ttctig, naidog, ' a child.' The art of begetting 
beautiful children. This was the title of a poem 
by Claude Quillet, in 1655. Callipadia, sive de 
pulchrm prolis habendm ratione. The author ab- 
surdly supposes, that the beauty of children is 
affected by the sensations which the mother 
experiences during her pregnancy. 
CALLIPESTRIA, Cosmetics. 
CALLIPHYLLUM, Asplenium trichoma- 
noides. 

CALLOS1TAS, Induration — c. Palpebrarum, 
Scleriasis. 

CALLOSTTY, Cullos'ilas, Scyros, Tylo'ma, 
Tylo' sis, Dermatol' ylus, Ecplnjma Callus. Hard- 
ness, induration, and thickness of the skin, 
which assumes a horny consistence, in places 
where it is exposed to constant pressure. (F.) 
Durillon. Also, that induration, which is ob- 
served in old wounds, old ulcers, fistulous pas- 
sages, &c. 

CALLOUS, Callo'sus, Ochtho'des, from cal- 
lus, 'hardness.' (F.) Calleux. That which is 
hard or indurated. A Callous Ulcer is one, 
whose edges are thick and indurated. 
CALLUNA VULGARIS, Erica vulgaris. 
CALLUS or CALUS or CALLUM. (F.) Cal. 
The bony matter, thrown out between the frac- 
tured extremities of a bone, which acts as a 
cement, and as a new bony formation. The 
words are, likewise, used occasionally in the 
same sense as Callosity. 
CALMANTS, Sedatives. 
CALME, (F.) The interval that separates 
the paroxysms of an acute or chronic disease. 
When the type is intermittent, the word inter- 
mission is used. 
CALOMBA, Calumba. 
CALOMELANOS TURQUE'TI. A name 
given, by Riverius, to purgative pills, prepared 
with calomel, sulphur, and resin of jalap. 
CALOMELAS, Hydrargyri submurias. 
CALO'NIA, y.ulwviu. An epithet, formerly 
given to myrrh. — Hippoc. See Myrrha. 

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM. See 
Fagara octandra. 

CALOR, Heat — c. Animalis, Animal heat. 
CALOR1CITE, (F.) Caloric" Has. The faculty, 
possessed by living bodies, of generating a suf- 
ficient quantity of caloric, to enable them to 
resist atmospheric cold, and to preserve, at all 
times and in every part, a temperature nearly 
equal. See Animal Heat. 

CALORIFICA'TION, Calorifica'tio. The 
function of producing animal heat. 
CALORINE'SES, from calor, « heat.' The 



CALOTROPIS MUDARII 



122 



CMlELllE 



name, under which M. Baume? proposes to ar- 
range all diseases, characterized by a sensible 
change in the quantity of animal heat. The 
Calorinescs form the first class of his Nosology. 
CALOTROPIS MUDARII, Mudar. 
CALOTTE, (F.) Pikolum. Anatomists, some- 
times, give the name — Calotte aponivrotique — 
to the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis mus- 
cle, which covers it externally, and that of Ca- 
lotte du crane to the scull, cap. 

Calotte is also applied to an adhesive plaster, 
with which the head of a person, labouring 
under tinea capitis, is sometimes covered, after 
the hair has been shaved off. This plaster 
is pulled suddenly and violently off, in order to 
remove the bulbs of the hair. It means, also, a 
sort of coif made of boiled leather, worn by 
those who have undergone the operation of 
trepan, &c. 

CALTHA ALPINA, Arnica montana — c. 
Arvensis, Calendula arvensis — c. Vulgaris, Ca- 
lendula officinalis. 

CALTROPS. See Trapa natans. 
CALUM'BA, COLOM'BO, CALOM'BA, 
COLOM'BA, Radix Calumbm. (F.) Calumbe 
ou Columbc. The root of the Mcnisper'mum 
palmatum, Coc'culus palma'tus, indigenous in 
India and Africa. Its odour is slightly aro- 
matic ; taste unpleasantly bitter. It is tonic and 
antiseptic. Dose, gr. 10 to gj in powder. 

The Frase'ra Walte'ri, F. Carolinien' sis , 
American or Marietta, Columbo, is used in the 
same cases as the true Calumba. 
CALUS, Callus. 
CALVA, Cranium. 
CALVARIA, Cranium. 
Calva, Calva'ria. The cranium ; — the up- 
per part especially; — the Vault of the Cranium, 
Camara. 

CALVA'TA FERRAMEN'TA. Surgical in- 
struments, which have a head or button. 

CALVP'TIES, Calvi"tium,Phalacro'sis, Gla- 
bri"ties, Ojrhi'asis, Depila'tio Cap'ilis, Phala- 
croma, Madaro'sis, &c, from calvus, 'bald.' 
(F.) Chauvctd. Absence of hair, particularly 
at the top of, and behind, the head. Calvil'tics 
palpebral mm : — loss of the eye-lashes. 

CALX, Lime, Ca'rium Terra, Prolox'ide of 
Cal'cium, Calcafria pur a. 

CALxCHLORiNATA,Calcischloridum — c.Cum 
kali puro, Potassa cum calce — c. Salita, Calcis 
murias — c. Bismuthi, Bismuth, subnitrate of. 

Calx Viva, Ox'idum Calcii, Calx rccens, Fu- 
mans nix, Calx usta, Calx et Calx viva. Lime 
or Quicklime. (F.) Cltaux vive. The external 
operation of the calx viva is escharotic, but it 
is not used as such. Lime is a good disinfect- 
ing agent. It is employed internally in the 
form of Liquor Calcis, (q. v.) 

Calx e Testis; lime prepared from shells. 
It has no advantages over that prepared from 
marble. 

CALCIS CHLO'RIDUM; Chlo'ride of Lime, 
Calx chlorina'ta, Protoxichlor'uret of Calcium, 
Calca' riachl orata ,ChlorumCalca' rim,Chlore' turn 
Ca.lca'ria, Ca.lcaria Chlorica, Oxychlorure'tum 
Calcii, Protochlorure'tum Calcii, Chlorureftum 
Oxidi Calcii, Bichlorurc' turn Calcis, Ox'ymu- 
rias Calcis, Bleaching Powder, TennanVs Pow- 
der. The Chloride of Lime is a most valua- 
ble disinfecting agent, (see Disinfection,) when 



dissolved in the proportion of one pound, to 
six gallons of water. It has likewise been em- 
ployed both internally and externally in various 
diseases, as in scrofula, fcetor oris, foul ulcers, 
&c. &c. 

Calcis Murias; Muriate of Lime, Calx sa- 
lita. Calcii Chlorure'tum seu Chloridum. This 
salt has been given, in solution, as a tonic, 
stimulant, &c, in scrofulous tumours, glan- 
dular obstructions, general debility, &c. The 
Solu'tio Muria'tis Calcis, Liquor Calcis Mu- 
ria'tis, Solution of Muriate of Lime, Liquid Shell, 
is composed of muriate of lime 5J, dissolved in 
distilled water 3jiij. Dose, from g u - xxx to gj in 
a cupful of water. 

Calcis Suli'hure'tbm ; Ilcpar Calcis, Sul- 
phurel of Lime. (F.) Proto-hydrosulfale dc Cal- 
cium, 11 ijdro sulfate dc chaux. Principally used 
in solution, as a bath, in itch and other cuta- 
neous affections. 

CALYSTEGIA SOLDANELLA, Convol- 
vulus soldanella. 
CAMARA, Calva. 

CAMAREZ, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Camarez is a small canton near Silvanes, in 
the department of Aveyron, France, where 
there are some acidulous chalybeates. 

CAMARO'SIS, Camaro'ma, from xauaqa, ' a 
vault.' Camera 'tio, Testudina'tio Cranii. A 
species of fracture of the skull, in which the 
fragments are placed so as to form a vault, with 
its base resting on the dura mater. — Galen, 
Paulus of ^Egina. 

CAMBING. A tree of the Molucca Islands, 
from the bark of which a kind of gum-resin ex- 
udes, which has been highly extolled in dysen- 
tery. It appears to have some resemblance to 
the simarouba. — Rumphius. 

CAMBIUM, < Exchange: A name formerly 
given to a fancied nutritive juice, which was 
supposed to originate in the blood ; to repair 
the losses of every organ, and produce their in- 
crease. — Sennertus. 

CAMBO, MINERAL WATERS OF. A vil- 
lage in the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
France, where there are two mineral springs ; 
the one an acidulous chalybeate, the other sul- 
phureous. Temperature, 73° Fahrenheit. 
CAMBODIA, Cambogia. 
CAMBO'GIA, from Cambodia, in the East 
Indies, where it is obtained. Hence, also, its 
names Cambo'dia, Cambo'gium, Gambo'gia, 
Gambo'gium. It is called, also, Gutta, Gutta 
gamba, Gummi Gutta, CaUigau'na, Cuttagau'- 
ma, Chryso'pus, Laxati'vus Indicus, G. Bogiu, 
Gummi gaman'dra, G. de Goa, G. de Jcmu, 
Ghitta jemoco, Gutta Gamandrm, Gummi ad 
Podagram, Gamboge or Gamboge, &c. (F.) 
Gommc Gutte. Ord. Guttiferae. Camboge is 
the gum of the Stalagmi'tis Cambogio'i'dcs. It 
is inodorous, of an orange-yellow colour ; opake 
and brittle : fracture glassy. It is a drastic ca- 
thartic, emetic, and anthelmintic ; and is used in 
visceral obstructions and dropsy, and wherever 
powerful hydrogogue cathartics are required. 
Dose, from gr. ij to vi in powder, united with 
calomel, squill, &c. 

CAMBU'CA, Cambuc'ca membra'ta. Buboes 
and venereal ulcers, seated in the groin or near 
the genital organs. — Paracelsus. See Bubo. 
CAMELEE, Cneoruin tricoccum. 



CAMERA 



123 



CANAUX VEINEUX. 



CAMERA, Chamber, Fornix, Vault— c. Cor- 
dis, Pericardium. 
CAMERA! IO, Camarosis. 
CAMINGA, Canella alba. 
CAM1S1A FCETUS, Chorion. 
CAMISOLE, Waistcoat, strait. 
CAMMARUS, Crab. 

CAMOM1LLE FKTIDE, Anthemis cotula— 
c. Romainc, Anthemis nobilis — c. des Tcintu- 
ricrs, Anthemis tinctoria — c. Vulgaire, Matri- 
caria chamomilla. 

CAMOSIERS, WATERS OF. C. is a can- 
ton, two leagues from Marseilles, where are 
springs containing carbonate of lime, sulphur, 
muriate of soda, &c. They are purgative, and 
used in skin complaints. 

CAMPAN'ULA. Diminutive of Campa'na. 
A bell. 

The Campanula Trache'lium, Canterbury 
Bell or Throatwort, was formerly used in de- 
coction, in relaxation of the fauces. It is, also, 
called Ccrvica'ria. 
CAMPE, Flexion. 
CAM PHI RE, Camphor. 
CAMPHOR,from Ara.b,Kaphur or Kam'-phur, 
Cam'phora, Cam'phura, Caffa, Caf, Cafar, 
Caph'ora, Altafor, Camphire, Camphor, &c. (F.) 
CampJwe. A concrete substance, prepared, by 
distillation, from the Luurus Cam'phora, an in- 
digenous tree of the East Indies. Order, Lau- 
rineae. Its odour is strong and fragrant: it is 
volatile, not easily pulverizable ; texture crys- 
talline. Soluble in alcohol, ether, oils, vinegar ; 
and slightly so in water. Its properties are nar- 
cotic, diaphoretic, and sedative. Dose, gr. v to 
J}j. Dissolved in oil or alcohol, it is applied ex- 
ternally in rheumatic pains, bruises, sprains, &c. 
CAMPHORATA HIRSUTA SEU MON- 
SPELIENSIUM, Camphorosma monspeliaca. 
CAMPHORA'TED, Camphoru'tus, (F.) 
Camphr6. Relating to camphor; containing 
camphor ; as a camphorated smell, a campho- 
rated draught. 

CAMPHOROS'MA MONSPELIACA. Se- 
hi' go, Camphor a! ta hirsu'ta seu Monspelicn'simu, 
Hairy Camphoros' ma, (F.) Camphrie de Mont- 
pellicr. Family, Atripliceaj. Sex. Syst. Te- 
trandria Monogynia. This plant, as its name 
imports (»n^tj, ' odour,') has an odour of cam- 
phor. It is regarded as diuretic, diaphoretic, 
cephalic, antispasmodic, &c. It is also called 
Chameepeuce and Stinking Ground Pine. 
( .IMP HRE, Camphor. 
CAMPHRK, Camphorated. 
CAMPIIRKE DE MONTPELLIER, Cam- 
phorosma monspeliaca. 

CAMPSIS, xainjic, Flcx'io,Curva'tio, Inftex'- 
io. Bone or cartilage, forcibly bent from its 
proper shape, without breaking. — Good. 
Cahfsis depressio, Depression. 
CAMl'YLOTIS, Cataclasis. 
CAMPYLUM,Cataclasis. 
CAMUS (F.) Simus, Rcsi'mus. One who 
has a short nose. The French speak of a JVez 
camus, a short nose. 

CANAL, Cana'lis, Ductus, Meatus, Poros, 
Och'ctos, (F.) Conduit. A channel, for affording 
passage to liquids or solids or to certain organs. 
Canal, Alimen'tary or Diges'tive. Cana'lis 
ciba'rius vol digestivus, Diges'tive Tube, Alimen- 
tary Duct or Tube, Ductus ciba'rius. The canal, 
extending from the mouth to the anus. 



CANAL ARTliRIEL, Arterial duct— c. de 
Bartholin, Ductus Bartholinus— c. Bullular, of 
Petit, Godronni canal— c. Carolidien, Carotid 
canal— c. ChoUdoquc, Choledoch duct — c. Gou- 
dronne, Godronni, canal — c. Hcpatiquc, Hepatic 
duct — c. Infra-orbitar, Suborbitar canal— c. ln- 
ficxe de Vos temporal, Carotid canal — c. Intcr- 
mediaire des ventricules, Aquaeductus Sylvii — c. 
de Petit, Godronne canal — c. Rachidian, Ver- 
tebral canal. 

Canal, Intes'tinal. Cana'lis or Ductus in- 
testina'lis. The portion of the digestive canal, 
formed by the intestines. 

Canal of Schlemm. A minute circular ca- 
nal, discovered by Professor Schlemm, of Ber- 
lin. It is situate at the point of union of the 
cornea and sclerotica. 

Canal Spinal, Vertebral canal — c. Spiro'idc 
de Vos temporal, Aquseductus Fallopii — c. de 
Stenon, Ductus salivalis superior — c Thoraciquc, 
Thoracic duct — c. Veincux, Canal, venous — c. 
Vulvo-uterine, Vagina — c. de Warthon, Ductus 
salivalis inferior. 

Canal, Venous, Cana'lis or Ductus veno'sus, 
(F. Canal veineux. A canal, which exists only 
in the foetus. It extends from the bifurcation 
of the umbilical vein to the vena cava infe- 
rior, into which it opens, below the diaphragm. 
At times, it ends in one of the infrahepatic 
veins. It. pours into the cava a part of the 
blood, which passes from the placenta by the 
umbilical vein. After birth, it becomes a fibro- 
cellular cord. 

CANALES CIRCULARES, Semicircular 
canals — c. Lachrymales, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Membranei renum, see Calix — c. Tubsformes, 
Semicircular canals. 
CANALICULATUS, CanneU, Grooved. 
CANALICULI LACHRYMALES, Lachry- 
mal ducts — c. Limacum, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Semicirculares, Semicircular canals. 

CAJNALIS ARTERIOSUS, Arterial duct— 
c. Canaliculars, Gorget — c. Caroticus, Carotid 
canal — c. Lacrymalis, Lachrymal or nasal duct 
— c. Medius, Aquaeductus Sylvii — c. Nerveus 
fistulosus renum, Ureter — c. Orbitae nasalis, 
Lachrymal or nasal duct — c. Petitianus, Go- 
dronni canal — c. Sacci lacrymalis, Lachrymal 
or nasal duct — c. Scalarum communis, Infundi- 
bulum of the cochlea — c. Urinarius, Urethra — 
c. Vidianus, Pterygoid canal. 

CANALS, NUTRITIVE, or for the Nutrition 
of Bones, Ductus nutri'tii, (F.) Canaux nourri- 
ciers ou de Nutrition des os. — Conduits nourri- 
ciers ou nutricicrs. The canals, through which 
the vessels pass to the bones. They are lined by 
a very fine lamina of compact texture, or are 
formed in the texture itself. There is, gene- 
rally, one large nutritious canal in a long bone, 
situate towards its middle. 

CANAUX A QUEUX, see Aqueous— c. Demi- 
circulaires, Semicircular canals — c.Iijaculateurs, 
Ejaculatory ducts — c. Nourriciers, Canals, nu- 
tritive — c.dc Nutrition des os, Canals, nutritive. 
CANAUX DE TRANSMISSION. Accord- 
ing to Bichat, the bony canals intended to give 
passage to vessels and nerves going to parts 
more or less distant; as the Cana'lis carot'icus,&c. 
CANAUX VEINEUX. Venous Canals. The 
canals, which convey venous blood, situate in 
the diploe. 

CANAPACIA, Artemisia vulgaris, 



CANAPACIA 



124 



CANIC/E 



CANCAMY, Anime. 

CAN'CAMUM. A mixture of several gums 
and resins, exported from Africa, where it is 
used to deterge wounds. Dioscorides calls, by 
the name xayzauor, the tears from an Arabian 
tree, which are similar to myrrh, and of a disa- 
greeable taste. He advises it in numerous dis- 
eases. This name is given, also, to the Anime. 
(q. V.) 

CANCEL'LI. Lattice-icork. The Cellular 
or Spongy Texture of Bones, (F.) Tissu cellu- 
leux ; consisting of numerous cells, communi- 
cating with each other. They contain a fatty 
matter, analogous to marrow. This texture is 
met with, principally, at the extremities of long 
bones ; and some of the short bones consist al- 
most wholly of it. It allows of the expansion 
of the extremities of bones, without adding to 
their weight ; and deadens concussions. 

CANCEL'LUS, from cancer, 'a'crab.' A 
species of crayfish, called the Wrong Heir, and 
Bernard the Hermit ; which is said to cure rheu- 
matism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER, xaoziroc, Carcinos, Lupus cancro'- 
sus, Ulcus cancro' sum, ' a crab.' (q. v.) A dis- 
ease, so called, either on account of the hideous 
appearance, which the ulcerated cancer pre- 
sents ; or on account of the great veins, which 
surround it ; and which the ancients compared 
to the claws of the crab. Called also Carcino'ma. 
It consists of a scirrhous, livid tumour, inter- 
sected by firm, whitish, divergent bands; and 
occurs chiefly in the secernent glands. The 
pains are acute and lancinating, and often ex- 
tend to other parts. The tumour, ultimately, 
terminates in a fetid and ichorous ulcer. It is 
distinguished, according to its stages, into oc- 
cult and open; the former being the scirrhous, 
the latter the ulcerated condition. At times, 
there is a simple destruction or erosion of the 
organs, and, at others, an enccphuloid or cercbri- 
form degeneration. The use of irritants, in 
cancerous affections, is strongly to be depre- 
cated. When the disease is so situate, that ex- 
cision can be practised, the sooner it is removed 
the better. 

Cancer Aquat'icus, Gangrenous stomatitis, 
Cancrum Oris, Canker of Die mouth. Called, 
also, Aphtha serpen' tes, Gangra/na Oris, Noma, 
Noma, Stomad 'ace gangrenosum ',&/-c. (F.) Can- 
cer aquatique. Certain sloughing or gangrenous 
ulcers of the mouth, so called, perhaps, because 
they are often accompanied with an afflux of 
saliva. The disease is not uncommon in chil- 
dren's asylums, and demands the same treat- 
ment as hospital gangrene — the employment of 
.caustics, and internal and external antiseptics. 
CANCER AQUATIQUE. Cancer aquati- 
cus, Stomacace — c. Astacus, see Cancrorum 
chela; — c. Caminariorum, Cancer, chimney 
sweeper's — c. Ceribriforme, see Encephaloid. 
Cancer, Chimney-sweepers', Sootwart, Can- 
cer mundito'rum, Cancer purgato'ris infumiduli, 

Cancer scroti, Cancer caminario' rum, Oschocarci- 
no'rtia, (F.) Cancer des Ramoncurs. This affec- 
tion begins with a superficial, painful, irregular 
ulcer, with hard and elevated edges, occupying 
the lower part of the scrotum. Extirpation of 
the part affected is the only means of effecting 
a cure. 

Cancer, Davidson's Remedy for, sop 



dc Galicn, Cancer Ga- 



Coniurri maculatum- 
leni. 

Cancer Gvte'ni, (F.) Cancer de Galicn. A 
bandage for the head, to which Galen gave the 
name Cancer, from its eight heads resembling, 
rudely, the claws of the crab. It is now sup- 
plied by the bandage with six chefs or heads, 
which is called the Bandage of Galen or B. of 
the Poor. 

Cancer Lupus, Lupus — c. Mollis, see En- 
cephaloid — c. Munditorum, Cancer, chimney- 
sweepers' — c. Oris, Stomacace — c. Ossis, Spi- 
na ventosa — c. Purgatoris infumiculi, Cancer, 
chimney-sweepers' — c. Scroti, Cancer, chim- 
ney-sweepers' — c. Soft, Hamiatodcs fungus — 
c. Uteri, Metro-carcinoma. 
CjINCAREUX, Cancerous. 
CANCER-ROOT, Orobanche Virginiana, 
Phytolacca decandra. 

CAN'CEROUS, Cancro'sus, (Y.) Cancercux. 
Relating to cancer. Thus, we say, Cancerous 
ulcer, Cancerous Diathesis, &c. 

CANCHALAGUA, Cachen laguen, Cachin 
lagua, Chance lagua, Erythrafa Chilcn'sis. A 
bitter Chili plant, which is considered apeiient, 
sudorific, stomachic, vermifuge, and febrifuge. 
CANCRENA, Gangrene. 
CANCROID, Cancro'ideus, from cancer and 
sidac, ' form.' That which assumes a cancerous 
appearance. A name given to certain cutane- 
ous cancers by Alibert, called also Cheloid or 
Keloid {yjXvc, ' a tortoise,' and t iSog, ' likeness,') 
from their presenting a flattish raised patch of 
integument, resembling the shell of a tortoise. 
CANCRO'RUM CHELAE, Oc'uli vel Laj/- 
ides Cancro' rum, LapiVli cancro' rum, Concre- 
men'ta Jls'taciftuviat'ilis, Crab's stones or eyes, 
(F.) Yeux d'e'ercvisc. These are concretions, 
found, particularly, in the Cancer Jisftacus or 
Crayfish. They consist of carbonate and phos- 
phate of lime ; and possess antacid virtues, 
but not more so than chalk. 

CANCROSUS, Cancerous, Chancreuse. 
CANCRUM ORIS, Cancer aquaticus, Sto- 
macace. 

CANDELAFUMALIS, Pastil— c. Medicata, 
Bougie — c. Rcgia, Verbascum nigrum. 
CANDELARIA, Verbascum nigrum. 
CANDI, Candum,C'anthum, Caution; 'white, 
bleached, purified.' Purified and crystallized 
sugar. See Saccharum. 

CANDIDUM OVI, Albumen ovi. 
CANE, SUGAR. See Saccharum. 
CJ1NELE, Grooved. 
CANELLA CUBANA, Laurus cassia. 
Canel'i.a Alba, Cortex U'intcru'nus spu'rius, 
Canclla Cubana, C. Wintcra'nia, Cinnamo'mitm 
album, Cortex Anliscorbu'ticus, C. Aromatficvs 
Coslus corlico' sus , Camin'ga, Canclla of Lin- 
naeus. Canclla Bark, (F.) Canellc ou Canncllc 
blanche, Fausse Kcorcc de Winter, Rcorcc Car in- 
costine. Fam. Magnoliacoa?. Sex. Syst. Dode- 
candria Monogynia. This bark is a pungent 
aromatic. Its virtues are partly extracted by 
water; entirely by alcohol. It is a stimulant, 
and is added to bitters and cathartics. 

Canella CARYor-HYi.r.ATA, Myrtus caryo- 
phyllata— c. Malabarica et Javcnsis, Laurus 
cassia — c. Zeylanica, Laurus cinnamomum. 

CANELLIFERA MALABARICA, Laurus 
cassia. 



CAJfEPI.W 



12.- 



CAOUTCHOUC 



CJVVEPI.W (F.) A fine lamb's skin or goat's 
skin, used for trying the quality of lancets. 
CANICACEOUS, Furfuraceous. 
CANTCJE. Meal, in which there is much 
bran. Also, coarse bread, or bread in which 
there is much bran. Panis Canica'ccvs. 
CANIC1DA, Aconitum. 

CANIC'ULA; the Dogstar, from canis, 'a 
dog ;' StiQios, Sirius, (F.) Canicule. This star, 
which gives its name to the Dogdays, because 
they commence when the sun rises with it, was 
formerly believed to exert a powerful influence 
on the animal economy. The Dog-days occur 
at a period of the year when there is generally 
great and oppressive heat, and a certain degree 
of liability to disease. 
CAMF, Knife. 
CAJYIJV, Canine. 

CANINAN.K RADIX, Cainca; radix. 
CANINE, Caninus, Cyn'icus, xvvixog, from 
canis, ' a dog,' (F.) Canin. That which has a 
resemblance to the structure, &c. of a dog. 

Canine Teeth, Dentcs Canini, Cynodon'tes, 
D. Lania'rii, D.angula!res,cuspidu'ti, columella' - 
res, ocula'res, morden'tes, Eye Teeth, ( F.) Dents 
canines, laniaires, angulaires, oculaires ,ccilleres , 
ou conoides. The teeth between the lateral in- 
cisors and small molares of each jaw ; — so 
named because they resemble the teeth of the 
dog. 

Canine Fossa, Fossa Canina, (F.) Fosse Ca- 
nine. A small depression on the superior max- 
illary bone, above the dens caninus, which gives 
attachment to the caninus or levator anguli oris 
muscle. 

Canine Laugh, or Sar don' ic laugh, Risus Ca- 
ni'nus, Risus Sardon'icus, Sardi' asis , Sardoni'- 
asis, (F.) Ris canin, sardonique, moqvcur. A 
sort of laugh, produced particularly by the spas- 
modic contraction of the Caninus muscle. Pro- 
bably, this expression, as well as Cynic spasm, 
Cani'nus spasmus, may have originated in the 
resemblance of the affection to certain move- 
ments in the upper lip of the dog. 

CANINUS, Levator anguli oris — c. Sentis, 
Rosa canina. 

CANIRAM, Strychnos nux vomica. 
CANIRUBUS, Rosa canina. 
CANIS INTERFECTOR, Veratrum saba- 
billa — c. Ponticus, Castor fiber. 

CANI'TIES, from canus, 1 white.' Whiteness 
or grayness of the hair, and especially of that of 
the head, (¥.) Canitie. When occurring in 
consequence of old age it is not a disease. 
Sometimes, it happens suddenly, and apparently 
in consequence of severe mental emotions. The 
causes, however, are not clear. 

CANKER, Stomacace — c. of the mouth, Can- 
cer aquaticus. 

CANNA, Cassia fistula, Trachea — c. Brachii, 
Ulna — c. Domestica cruris, Tibia — c. Fistula, 
Cassia fistula — c. Indica, Sagittarium alexiphar- 
macum — c. Major, Tibia — c. Minor, Fibula, 
Radius — c. Solutiva, Cassia fistula. 
CANNABIS INDICA, Bangue. 
Can'nabis Sati'va, (F.) Chanvre, Chambrie. 
The seed of this — Hcmpseed, Sem'inu Can'nabis, 
(F.) Chenevis, are oily and mucilaginous. The 
decoction is sometimes used in gonorrhoea. 

CANNACORUS RADICE CROCEA, Cur- 
ruma Ion o-ri. 



CAjYNAMELLE. See Saccharum. 
CAJ\"JYE AROMATIQUE, Acorus calamus— 
c. Congo, Costus — c. de Riviere, Costus— c. d 
Sucre, sec Saccharum. 

C LWYEBERGE, Vaccinium oxycoccos— c. 
Ponctuee, Vaccinium vitis ida;a. 

CJlJYJYELE or CANELlt (F.), from cana'lis, 
'a canal.' Sulca'tus, Stria' tus, Canalicula' tus . 
Having a canal or groove — as, Muscle canneU 
CLieutaud,) the Gemini ; Corps canncles ou 
strips (Corpora striata:) Sonde canncUc, a 
grooved sound, &c. See Grooved. 

CANNELLE, Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Blanche, Canella alba — c. de la Chine, Laurus 
cassia — c. de Coromandel, Laurus cassia — c. 
Faussc, Laurus cassia — c. Girqflee, Myrtus ca- 
ryophyllata — c. des Indes, Laurus cassia — c. dc 
Java, Laurus cassia — c. de Malabar, Laurus 
cassia — c. Matte, Laurus cassia — c. Officinale, 
Laurus cinnamomum — c. Poivrie, see Wintera 
aromatica. 

CANNULA, Canula. 
CANOPUM. See Sambucus. 
CANTABRICA, Convolvulus cantabrica. 
CANTABRUNO, Furfur. 
CANTARELLUS, Meloe proscarabseus. 
CANTATIO, Charm. 

CANTERBURY, WATERS OF. AqumCan- 
tuaricn'ses. The waters of Canterbury in Kent 
England, are impregnated with iron", sulphur^ 
and carbonic acid. 

CANTERIUM, Cantherius. 
CAJYTHARIDE TACHETEE, Lytta vittata. 
CANTHAR1DINE. See Cantharis. 
CAN'THARIS, from y.arSaQog, 'a scaraba'- 
us.' Musca Hispan'ica, Mcl'oe vesicato'rius, 
Cantharis vesicato'ria, Lytta vesicato'ria. The 
Blistering Fly, Spanish Fly, (F.) Cantharidcs, 
Mouches, M. d'Espagne. This fly is much em- 
ployed in medicine. It is the most common 
vesicatory. Given internally, and even when 
absorbed from the skin, it affects the urinary 
organs, exciting strangury. This may be pre- 
vented, in cases of blisters, by interposing be- 
tween the blistering plaster and skin a piece of 
tissue paper. Diluents will relieve the stran- 
gury. Dose, half a grain to one grain. If kept 
dry, the flies will retain their activity for many 
years. 

Their active principle has been separated 
from them — Canthar'idine, Cantharidi'na. 
Cantharis Vittata, Lytta vittata. 
CANTHE'RIUS, Cantc'rium. The cross 
piece of wood in the apparatus, used by Hip- 
pocrates, for reducing luxations of the hume- 
rus. 

CANTHFT1S. Inflammation of the Can- 
thus of the eye. 

CANTHUM, Candi. 

CANTHUS, xcrSoc, Epican'this, An'gulus 
ocularis ; the corner or angle of the eye. The 
greater canthus is the inner angle, Hir'quus, 
Rhantcr ; the lesser canthus, the outer angle, 
Paro'pia, Pega. 

CANTIA'NUS PULVIS. A cordial pow- 
der, known under the name ' Countess of KcnCs 
powder/ composed of coral, amber, crabs' eyes 
prepared pearls, &c. It was given in cancer 
CANTION, Candi. 
CAN'ULA or CAN'NULA, Au'liscos, Aulos. 



CAPA-ISIAKKA 



12G 



CAPSICUM ANNUUM 



Diminutive of Canna, ' a reed;' Tu'buhs, (F.) 
Canute ou Cannuk. A small tube, of gold, 
silver, platina, iron, lead, wood, elastic gum, 
&c, used for various purposes in surgery. 

CAOUTCHOUC, Indian Rubber, Elas'tic 
Gum, Cauchuc, Resi'na elas'tica, Cayenne Re- 
sin, Cautchuc. A substance formed from the 
milky juice of the Havca Guiancn'sis, Jat'ro- 
pha elas'tica, Ficvs Indica, and Artocar'pus in- 
tegrifo'lia: — South American trees. It is in- 
soluble in water and alcohol ; but boiling wa- 
ter softens and swells it. It is soluble in the 
essential oils and in ether, when it may be 
blown into bladders. It is used in the fabrica- 
tion of catheters, bougies, pessaries, &c. 

CAPA-ISIAKKA, Bromelia ananas. 

CAPBERN, WATERS OF. C. is in the 
department Hautes-Pyrenees, France. The 
waters contain sulphates, and carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, and muriate of magnesia. 
Temperature, 75° Fahrenheit. They are pur- 
gative. 

CAPELET, Myrtus caryophyllata. 
__ CAPELINE (F.) < A Woman's Hat,' in 
French ; Capis'trum, from caput, 'head.' A 
sort of bandage, which, in shape, resembles a 
riding-hood. There are several kinds of Cape- 
lines. 1. That of the head, C. de la tele. See 
Bonnet d'Hippocrate. C. of the clavicle, em- 
ployed in fractures of the acromion, clavicle 
and spine of the scapula. C. of an amputated 
limb — the bandage applied round the stump. 

CAPER BUSH, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPERS. See Capparis spinosa. 

CAPETUS, Imperforation. 

CAPHORA, Camphor. 

CAP ILL AIRE, Capillary, see Adianthum 
capillus veneris — c. du Canada, Adianthum 
pedatum — c. de Montpct/ier, Adianthum capil- 
lus veneris. 

CAPILLAMEN'TUM, from Capillus, 'a 
hair.' CapillU'tium, Tricho'ma, Trickomation. 
Any villous or hairy covering. Also a small 
fibre , fibril. 

CAP'ILLARY, Capilla'ris, Capilla'ceus, from 
capillus, 'a hair,' (F.) Capillaire. Hair-like; 
small. 

The Cap'illary Vessels, (F.) Vaisseaux 
capil/aircs, are the extreme radicles of the arte- 
ries and veins, with perhaps a spongy tissue or 
parenchyma between the two. These, together, 
constitute the Capillary or intermediate system 
In this system, all the secretions are performed, 
and animal heat probably elicited. They pos- 
sess an action distinct from that of the heart, 
and are the seat of febrile and inflammatory 
diseases. 

CAPILLATIO, Trichismus. 

CAPIL'LUS, Coma, Chate, Crinis, Pilus, 
Thriz, Caisu'rics, (F.) Chevcu. This term is 
generally applied to the hair of the head : the 
characters of which vary, according to races, 
individuals, &c. Hairs arise in the cellular 
membrane, where the bulb is placed : and are 
composed of two parts — one, external, tubular, 
and transparent, of an epidermoid character; 
the other, internal and sui generis, which com- 
municates to them their colour. The hair is 
insensible, and grows from the root. 

Capillus Canadensis, Adianthum peda- 
tum. 



CAPILLITIUM, Capillamentum, Entropion, 
Scalp. 

CAPILLORUM DEFLUVIUM, Alopecia. 

CAPIPLE'NIUM, from caput, 'the head,' 
and plenum, ' full.' A word, employed with 
different significations. A variety of catarrh. — 
Schneider. A heaviness or disorder in the 
head common at Rome, like the xwjtrfaQia, Ca- 
rcbaria, of the Greeks. — Baglivi. 

CAP1STRATIO, Phimosis. 

CAPISTRUM, Capeline, Chevestre, Trismus 
— c. Auri, Borax. 

Capis'trum, Phimos, Cemos, y^uus, 'a hal- 
ter.' This name has been given to several 
bandages for the head. — See Capeline, Che- 
vestre. 

CAPITALIA REMEDIA,Cephalic remedies. 

CAPITALIS, Cephalic. 

CAPITELLIUM, Alembic. 

CAPITELLUM. See Caput. 

CAPITE UX, Heady. 

CAPITO'JNES, from caput, ' the head.' Foe- 
tuses whose heads are so large as to render 
labour difficult. 

CAPITILU'VIUM, from caput, ' the head,' 
and la.vare, to ' wash.' A bath for the head. 

CAP1TULUM, Alembic, Condyle, see Ca- 
put, — c. Martis, Eryngium campestre — c. San- 
torini. Corniculum laryngis. 

CAPITULUVIUM, Bath, (head.) 

CAPNISMOS, Fumigation. 

CAPNITIS, Tutia. 

CAPNORCHIS, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNOS, Fumaria. 

CAPON, Cagot. 

CAPOT, Cagot. 

CAP'PARIS SPINO'SA, Cap'paris, Cappar, 
Ca'pria. The Prickly Caper Bush, (F.) Ca- 
prier. Family, Capparideae, Sex. Syst. Poly- 
andria Monogynia. The bark of the root and 
the buds have been esteemed astringent and 
diuretic. The buds are a well known pickle : — 
Engl. Capers, (F.) Capres. 

Capparis Baduc'ca, JBaduk'ka. A species 
of caper, cultivated in India, on account of the 
beauty of its flowers. The Orientals make a 
liniment with its juice, with which they rub 
pained parts. The flowers are purgative. 

CAPPONE, WATERS OF. At Cappone, 
in the isle of Ischia, are waters containing 
carbonate and muriate of soda, and carbonate 
of lime. Temp. 100°. Fah. 

CAPREOLA'RIS, from capreolus, 'a ten- 
dril,' Cissoidcs, Elicoides, (F.) Capriolaire. 
Twisted. 

Vasa CApnEOLA'itiA. Some have thus call- 
ed the spermatic arteries and veins, on account 
of their numerous contortions. 

CAPREOLUS, Helix. 

CAPRES. See Capparis spinosa. 

CAPR1A, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRICORN US, Plumbum. 

CAPRIER, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPR1FOLIA, Lonicera periclymenum. 

CAPRIZANS, donxadi'^wv. That which leaps 
like a goat. An epithet used by Hernphilus 
for the pulse when irregular and unequal. 

CAPSA, Boite, Capsule, Case — c. Cordis, Pe- 
ricardium. 

CAP'SICUM AN'NUUM, from ^cwto., 'I 
bite.' The systematic name of the plant whence 



CAPSICUM HISPANICUM 



127 



CARA SCHULLI 



Cayenne Pepper is obtained. Viper hi'dinun, 
Sola'num urens, Siliquas 1 trum P/inii, Piper 
Brazilia'num, Piper Guincen'se, Piper Calecu'- 
ticum, Piper Turcicum, C. Hispan! icum, Piper 
Lusitan'icum, Cayenne Pepper, Guin'ca Pepper, 
(F.) Piment, Capsique, Poivrc (V hide, Poivre 
dc Guinie, Corail des Jurdins. The pungent, 
aromatic properties of the Bacca Cap'sici, Cap- 
sicum Berries, are yielded to ether, alcohol, 
and water. They are highly stimulant and 
rubefacient, and are used as a condiment. 
Their active principle is alcaloid, and is called 
Capsicine. 
Capsicum Hispanicum, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSIQUE, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSITIS, Phacitis. 

CAPSULA, Bolder — c. Articularis, Capsular 
ligament — c. Cordis, Pericardium — c. .Nervo- 
rum, Neurilema. 

CAPSUL.E SEM1NALES, Vesicute s, 

CAPSULA1RE, Capsular. 

CAP'SULAR. Relating to a capsula or 
capsule, Ca-psula' ris, (F.) Capsulaire. 

Capsular Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum capsu- 
lars, Cap'sula articula'ris, Artidular capsule, 
Fibrous capsule, &c. (F.) Ligament capsulaire, 
Capsule articulaire, Capsule Jibreux, &c. Mem- 
branous, fibrous, and elastic bags or capsules, 
of a whitish consistence, thick, and resisting, 
which surround joints. 

Capsular or Suprarenal Arteries and 
Veins. Vessels, belonging to the suprarenal 
capsules. They are divided into superior 
middle, and inferior. The first proceed from 
the inferior phrenic, the second from the aorta 
itself, and the third from the renal artery 
The corresponding veins enter the phrenic, 
vena cava, and renal. 

CAPSULE, Cap'sula, Capsa, a box, (F.) 
Capsule. This name has been given, by the 
Anatomists, to parts bearing no analogy to 
each other. 

Capsule of the Heart, Capsula cordis, the 
Pericardium, (q. v.) 

Capsule, Fibrous, Capsular ligament. 

Capsules, Gelatinous, Capsules gelatinoz, 
Capsules of gelatine. A recent invention by 
which copaiba and other disagreeable oils can be 
enveloped in gelatine so as to conceal their taste. 

Capsule of Glisson, Cap'sula Glisso'nii, 
C. commu'nis Glisso'nii, Vagi'na Porta, V. 
Glisso'nii. A sort of membrane, described 
by Glisson, which is nothing more than dense 
cellular membrane surrounding the vena porta 
and its ramifications in the liver. 

Capsules, Renal or Suprare'nal or Atra- 
bil'iarv, Renal Glands, Glan'dula suprarcna'- 
les, Cap'sula rena'lcs, suprarena'les vel utrabi- 
lia'rcs, Rencs succenturiati, (F.) Capsules sur- 
rinales ou atrabiliuires. Two flat, triangular 
bodies, which cover the upper part of the kid- 
neys, as with a helmet. A hollow cavity in 
their interior contains a brown, reddish or yel- 
lowish fluid. They were long supposed to be 
the secretory organs of the fancied atrabilis. 
They are much larger in the fetus than in the 
adult. Their uses are not known. 

Capsule, Sem'inal, Capsula semina'lis. 
Barthoi ine thus designates the extremity of 
the vas deferens, which is sensibly dilated in 
the vicinity of the vesiculae seminales. Some 



anatomists apply this name to the vesiculse 
themselves. 

Capsules, Syno'vial, Capsula Synovia'les. 
Membranous bags, surrounding all the movable 
articulations and canals, which give passao-e 
to tendons. They exhale, from their articular 
surface, a fluid, whose function is to favour the 
motions of parts upon each other. See Bursa 
Mucosa, and Synovia. 

CAPSULES SURRRJS'ALES OU ATRABI- 
LIARES, Capsules, renal. 

CAPSULITIS. See Phacitis. 

CAPUCHOJY, Trapezius. 

CAPUCIJVE, Tropoeolum rnajus. 

CAPUT, ' the head,' (q. v.) Also the top 
of a bone or other part, (F.) Tetc. The head 
of the small bones is sometimes termed ca- 
pit'ulum, capitell'um, cephalid'ium, and ccphal'- 
ium. 

Caput Asperse Arterije, Larynx. 

Caput Gallinag"inis, Verumonta'num, (F.) 
Crete urctrale. A projection, situate in the 
prostate, before the neck of the bladder. It is 
like the head of a woodcock in miniature, and, 
around it, open the seminal ducts and the ducts 
of the prostate. 

Caput Monachi, Leontodon Taraxacum — c. 
Obstipum, Torticollis. 

Caput Purgia. Remedies, which the an- 
cients regarded as proper for purging the 
head : — errhines, sternutatories, apoplilcgmati- 
santia, &c. 

Caput Scapula, Acromion. 

Caput Succeda'neum. A term sometimes 
used for the tumefied scalp, which first pre- 
sents in certain cases of labour. 

Caput Testis, Epididymis. 

CAQUE-SAJYGUE ou CAGUESAJYGUE. 
Old French words, which signify Bloody eva- 
cuations, (F.) Dejections sanguinolcntcs. They 
come from r.acare, ' to go to stool,' and sanguis, 
'blood.' Under this term was comprehended 
every affection, in which blood is discharged 
from the bowels. 

CARABAC'CIUM. An aromatic wood of 
India, of a yellowish colour, and a smell like 
that of the clove. Its decoction and infusion 
are given as stomachic and antiscorbutic. 

CAR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous in- 
sects. Two species, the chrysoceplt'alus and 
ferrugin'eus, have been recommended for the 
toothache. They must be pressed between the 
fingers, and then rubbed on the gum and tooth 
affected. 

CARACTkRE, Character. 

CARAGNA, Caranna. 

CARAMATA, Arumari. A tree in the in- 
land parts of Pomeroon, which furnishes a 
febrifuge bark, which Dr. Hancock says may be 
used in typhoid and remittent fevers in which 
the cinchona is either useless or pernicious. 

CARAMBOLO, Averrhoa carambola. 

CARAN'NA, Caragna, Tacamahaca Ca- 
ragna, Caran'na Gum'mi, G. Breli'sis, (F.) 
Caragne, Gommc Caragnc ou Carane. A gum- 
resinous substance, obtained from South Ame- 
rica in impure masses, which flows from a 
large tree in New Spain. It preserves its soft- 
ness for a long time, has an aromatic smell, 
and a slightly acrid and bitter taste. It was 
formerly used as a vulnerary and in plasters. 



CARA SCHULLI 



128 



CARD1A 



CARA SCHULLI, Frutcx lnd'icns spina' sus, 
Baric' ria buxifo'lia. A Malabar plant, which, 
when applied externally, is maturalive and re- 
solvent. The decoction of its root is used, in 
the country, in ischuria. 

CARAWAY, Carum. 

CAR'BASUS, Linteum Carptum, Carpia, 
Motos, Linamcn' turn , from y.ao<puc, ' a filament, 
or from car'pere, ' to card.' Celsus. Charpie, 
Lint. The filaments, obtained by unravelling 
old linen cut into small pieces ; or by scraping it 
with a knife. The former is termed Charpie 
Lrute, the latter Charpie rupee. Charpie is ap- 
plied to many useful purposes in Surgery. Of 
it are formed compresses, tents, &c. 

CARBO, Carlo Ligni, Charcoal, (F.) Char- 
bon. Fresh charcoal is antiseptic. It is used 
to improve the digestive organs in cases of 
worms, dyspepsia, &c, as a cataplasm to gan- 
grenous and fetid ulcers, tinea, &c, and forms 
a good tooth-powder. Dose, gr. x to gj. Also, 
Anthrax, (q. v. ) 

Carbo Anima'lis, Carlo camis, Animal char- 
coal, (F.) Charlon animal. It is given in the 
same cases as the Carlo Ligni, and has been 
extolled in cancer. Dose, gr. ss to gr. iij. 

Carbon Huma'num. The human excrement. 
— Paracelsus. 

Carbo, Mineralis, Graphites — c. Palpebra- 
rum, Anthracosis. 

CAR'BONAS or CARBO'NAS. A car'lo- 
nate, (F.) Carbonate. A salt, formed by the com- 
bination of carbonic acid with a salifiable base. 
The carbonates are either full, or with an excess 
of base — i. e. Sulcarbonates. 

Carbonas Natricum, Sodse carbonas. 

CARBONR, Carbonated. 

CARBONATE D'AMMOJVIAQUE, Ammo- 
niffi carbonas. 

CARBONA'TED, Carbona'tus,Aera'tus, (FA 
Carboni , AM . That which is impregnated witn 
carbonic acid. 

CARBONTC AC'W,Ac"idum Carbon'icum, 
Solid Air of Hales, Factitious Air, Fixed Air, 
Carbona' ceous Acid,, Calca'reous Acid, Aerial 
Acid, Mephit'ic Acid, (F.) Acide Carbonique 
This gas, which neither supports respiration 
nor combustion, is not often used in Medicine 
It is the refreshing ingredient in effervescent 
draughts, poultices, &c. It is often found occu- 
pying the lower parts of mines (when it is 
called the choke damp,) caverns, tombs, wells, 
brewers' vats, &c, and not unfrequently has 
been the cause of death. Lime thrown into 
such places soon absorbs the acid. 

CARBO'NIS SESQUI-IODIDUM, C.Sesqui- 
Iodure'tum, Sesqui-Iodide or Scsqui-loduret of 
Carbon. This is made by mixing concentrated 
alcoholic solutions of iodine and potassa, until 
the former loses its colour ; a solution is ob- 
tained from which water throws down a yellow 
precipitate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon. It has 
been used in enlarged glands and in some cuta- 
neous affections, applied externally, (gsSjtogvj 
of cerate.) 

Carbo'nis Sui.piiure'tum, Sulphur c' turn Car- 
bo'nii, Carbo'ncum Sulphur a' turn, A'lcohol Sul'- 
phuris, Bisulphurdtum Carbo'nii, Su/phurct of 
Carbon, Carburet of Sulphur, (F.) Su/furc dc 
Carbon. This transparent, colourless fluid, 
which has a very penetrating, disagreeable 



odour, and a taste which is cooling at first, but 
afterwards acrid and somewhat aromatic, is a 
diffusible excitant. It is diaphoretic, diuretic, 
and has been said to have proved emmena- 
gogue. It is also used in nervous diseases as 
an antispasmodic. Dose, one drop to four, re- 
peated frequently. 

It is used externally, where a cooling influ- 
ence has to be rapidly exerted. 

CARBUNCLE, Anthrax— c. Fungous, Ter- 
minthus — c. of the Tongue, Glossanthrax — c. 
Berry, Terminthus. 

Carbuncleu Face, Gutta rosea. 

CARBUNCULAREXANTHEM,Anthracia. 

CARBUNCULUS, Anthrax— c. Anginosus, 
Cynanche maligna. 

Carbun'culus Rubi'nus. A red, shining, 
and transparent stone, from the Isle of Ceylon ; 
formerly employed in medicine as a preserva- 
tive against several poisons, the plague, &c. 

Carbunculus Ulcusculosa, Cynanche ma- 
ligna. 

CAR'CAROS, from xaQxatna>, ' I resound,' 
' I tremble.' A fever, in which the patient has 
a general tremor, accompanied with an unceas- 
ing noise in the ears. 

CARCINODES, Carcinomatous, Chancrcusc. 

CARCINO'MA, from xaqxivog, 'a crab.' 
Some authors have called thus, indolent tu- 
mours different from cancer; others, incipient 
cancer; and others, again, the species of can- 
cer in which the affected structure assumes the 
appearance of cerebral substance ; whilst the 
majority of authors use Carcinoma in the same 
sense as Cancer. 

Carcinoma Hjep.iatodes, Efematodes fungus 
— c. Melanoticum, Melanosis — c. Spongiosum, 
Hamiatodes fungus. 

CARCINOM'ATOUS, Carcino'des, Carci- 
ndi'des. Relating to cancer. 

CARCIKOME SANGLANTE, Haematodes 
fungus. 

CARCINOS, Cancer. 

CARDAMANTICA, Cardamine pratensis, 
Lepidium Iberis. 

CARDAM1NDUM MINUS, Tropaeolum 
majus. 

CARDAMFNE PRATEN'SIS, Cardami'ne, 
Cardaman'tica, Nastur'tium Aquat'icum, Car' - 
damon, Culi flos, Ibe'ris sophia, JYaslur' lium 
praten'se, Ladies-smock, Cuckoo flower. Ord. 
Cruciferse. (F.) Crcsson iligant, Cresson des 
pres, Passcrage sauvagc. The flowers have 
been considered useful as antispasmodics, in 
the dose of gj to gij. They are probably inert. 

Cardamine Fontana, Sisymbrium nastur- 
tium. 

CARDAMOM, LESSER, Amomum carda- 
momum. 

CARDAMOME, Amomum cardamomum — c. 
dc la Cote dc Malabar, Amomum cardamomum. 

CARDAMOMUM MAJUS, Amomum grana 
paradisi — c. Minus, Amomum cardamomum — 
c. Piperatum, Amomum grana paradisi. 

CARDAMON, Cardamine pratensis. 
CARDERE, Dipsacus sylvestris — c. Cultivi, 
Dipsacus fullonum. 

CARDIA, y.ainha, ' the heart,' Stom'achus, 
Orifid'ium sinistrum vcntric'uli. The superior 
or oesophageal orifice of the stomach. Also, the 
Heart, (q. v.) 



CARDIAC 



129 



CARIACOU 



CAR'DIAC, Cardiacus, from y.aQSta, ' the 
heart;' or the upperorifi.ee of the stomach, (F.) 
Cardiaque. Relating to the heart or to the 
upper orifice of the stomach. 

The Cardiac or Cor'onary Ar'teries, (F.) 
Jlrteres cardiaqucs ou coronaircs, are two in 
number. They arise from the aorta, a little 
above the free edge of the sigmoid valves, and 
are distributed on both surfaces of the heart. 

The Cardiac or Cor'onary Veins, (F.) 
Vcincs Cardiaqucs , are commonly four in num- 
ber; two anterior and two posterior. They 
open into the right auricle by one orifice, which 
is furnished with a valve, and is called, by 
Portal, Sinus coronairc du Cceur. 

Cardiac Nerves, (F .)J\'erfscardiaques. These 
are commonly three on each side ; a superior, 
middle and inferior, which are furnished by 
corresponding cervical ganglia. Commonly, 
there are but two on the left side ; the upper 
and middle, which draw their origin from the 
last two cervical ganglia. Scarpa calls the su- 
perior — C. supcrjicia'lis ; the middle — C. pro- 
fundus or C. Magnus; and the inferior — C. 
parvus. There are, besides, Cardiac fil'aments, 
(F.) Filets cardiaqucs, furnished by the par 
vagum or pneumo-gastric nerve, and which 
become confounded with the above. 

The Cardiac Plexus, Ganglion cardiacum. 
A nervous network, formed by the different 
nerves above mentioned. It is situate at the 
posterior part of the aorta, near its origin. It 
affords numerous branches, which are distri- 
buted to the heart and great vessels. The name 
Cardiac has also been given to the glands, ves- 
sels, and nerves, which surround the superior 
or cardiac orifice of the stomach. 

CARDIACA CRISPA, Leonorus cardiaca — 
c. Passio, Cardialgia. 

CARDIACUS, Cordial, Stomachal. 
CARDIAGMUS, Cardialgia. 
CARDIAG'RAPHY, Cardiagra'phia, from 
xaqdia, 'the heart,' and yoacptj, 'a description.' 
An anatomical description of the heart. 

CARDIAL'GIA, Cardiaca Passio, Col'ica 
Ventric'uli, Cordo'lium, Cardila'a, Dyspepso- 
dyn'ia, Cardiod'ync, Gastral' gia, Gastrodyn'ia, 
Stomocal'gia, Cardiacus Morbus, Cardiog'mus ; 
from xa(jd ta, ' the cardiac orifice of the stomach,' 
and akyo?, 'pain:' pain of the stomach, also, 
Heartburn, (F.) Cardialgie. Impaired appetite, 
with gnawing or burning pain in the stomach 
or epigastrium, — Morsus vel ardor ventric'uli, 
Soda, Limo'sis cardial' gia mordens, Rosio Stoiu'- 
achi; — a symptom of dyspepsia. 

Cardialgia Inflammatory, Gastritis — c. 
Sputa toria, Pyrosis. 

CARDIALO' GIA, from y.unSta, 'the heart,' 

and Xuyoc, ' a discourse.' A treatise on the heart. 

CARDIA'RIUS ; same etymology. A name 

given to worms, said to have been found in the 

heart or pericardium. 

CARDIATO'MIA, from xuqSiu, ' the heart,' 
and /fi/ifM, ' to cut.' Dissection of the heart. 
CARDIEURYSMA. See Aneurisma. 
CARDURA, Cardialgia. 
CARDIM'ELECH, from *«ocW, ' the heart,' 
and "jbo* Meleck, (Hebr.,). ' a governor.' A 
supposititious active principle seated in the 
heart, and governing the vital functions. — 
Dolams. 

17 



CARDINAL FLOWER, BLUE, Lobelia 
syphilitica. 

CARDINAMENTUM, Ginglymus, Gom- 
phosis. 

CARDIOBOTANUM, Centaurea benedicta. 

CARDIOCE'LE, from xaqdia, ' the heart, 
and xr t Xt], ' rupture.' Rupture of the heart, 
especially into the abdominal cavity. 

CARDIODYNE. Cardialgia. 

CARDIOG'MUS. Hippocrates employed 
this word synonymously with Cardialgia. In 
the time of Galen it was used, by some writers, 
for certain pulsations of the heart, analogous to 
palpitations. Sauvages understood, by Cardi- 
ogmus, an aneurism of the heart or great ves- 
sels, when still obscure. 

Cardiogmus Cordis Sinistri, Angina pec- 
toris. 

CARDIONCHI. See Aneurism. 

CARDIOPALMUS, Cardiotromus. 

CARDIORRHLX'IS, Rup'tura Cordis, from 
xaqSid, ' the heart,' and Qrfeiq, ' laceration.' La- 
ceration of the heart. 

CARDIOTROMUS, Palpita'tio Cordis trep'- 
idans, Cardioptd'tnus, Trepida'tio Cordis, from 
y.uodiu, ' the heart,' andr^o^oc, ' tremor.' Rapid 
and feeble palpitation, or fluttering of the heart. 

CARDIOTROTUS, from y.uoSia, ' the heart,' 
and tit(5o)ozu), ' I wound.' One affected with a 
wound of the heart. — Galen. 

CARDIPERICARDITIS. See Pericarditis. 

CARDI'TIS, from y.a^Sia, 'the heart,' and 
the termination itis. Inflammation of the fleshy 
substance of the heart. Empress 1 ma Car -di 'lis, 
(F.) Cardite. The symptoms of this affection 
are by no means clear. They are often con- 
founded with those of Pericarditis; — the in- 
flammation of the membrane investing the 
heart. Carditis, indeed, with many, includes 
both the inflammation of the investing mem- 
brane and that of the heart itself. See Pericar^ 
ditis, and Endocarditis. 

CARDO, Ginglymus. 

CARDOPAT1UM, Carlina acaulis. 

CARDUUS ALTIL1S, Cynara scolymus— 
c. Benedictus, Centaurea benedicta — c. Brazi- 
Iianus, Bromelia ananas — c. Domesticus capite 
majori, Cynari scolymus — c. Hemorrhoidalis, 
Cirsium arvense. 

Carduus Mariancs, Car'duus Ma'rim, Sil'- 
ybum, Car'duus ladteus, Spina alba, Common 
Milk Thistle or Ladies Thistle, (F.) Char don- 
Marie. The herb is a bitter tonic. The seeds 
are oleaginous. It is not used. 

Carduus Pineus, Atractylis gummifera— c. 
Sativus, Carthamus tinctorius — c. Sativus non 
spinosus, Cynara scolymus — c. Solstitialis, Cen- 
taurea calcitrapa — c. Stellatus, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — c. Tomentosus, Onopordium acanthium, 

CAREBA'RIA or CAREBARFA, from y.u^rj, 
'the head,' and (Iuqos, 'weight.' Scordinc'ma, 
Cardine'ma, heaviness of the head. — Hippocr., 
Galen. 

CARE'NA, Kare'na. The twenty-fourth part 
of a drop. — Ruland and Johnson. 

CAREUM, Carum. 

CAREX ARENARIA, Sarsaparilla Germa- 
nica. 

CARIACOU. A beverage, used in Cayenne, 
and formed of a mixture ol'cassaya, potato, and 
sugar, fermented. 



CAKiCA 



130 



CaRO 



CARICA, Ficus carica. 

Car'ica Papaya. The Papaw tree, (F.) Pa- 
pa i/cr. Ord. Artocarpcae. A native of America, 
India, and Africa. The fruit has somewhat of 
the flavour of a pumpkin, and is eaten like it. 
The milky juice of the plant, and the seed and 
root have been regarded as anthelmintic. 

CAR'ICUM ;— said to have been named after 
its inventor Caricus. Car'ycuiu. A detergent 
application to ulcers; composed of black helle- 
bore, sandarach, copper, lead, sulphur, orpi- 
ment, cantharides, and oil of cedar. — Hippo- 
crates. 

CARIE, Caries. 
CAME, Carious. 

CA'RIES, Nigri"ties os'sium. An ulceration 
of bone, — Necrosis being the death of the bone. 
It resembles the gangrene of soft parts. Hence 
it has been termed Caries gangrcno'sa, Gan- 
grana Caries, G. Ossium, Tcre'do, Euros, (F.) 
Carie. It is recognised by the swelling of the 
bone, which precedes and accompanies it ; by 
the abscesses it occasions; the fistulas which 
form ; by the sanious character, peculiar odour 
and quantity of the suppuration, and by the 
evidence afforded by probing. 

The most common causes of caries are blows ; 
— the action of some virus, and morbid dia- 
theses. When dependent on any virus in the 
system, this must be combated by appropriate 
remedies. When entirely local, it must be con- 
verted, where practicable, into a state of necro- 
sis or death of the affected part. For this end 
stimulants are applied, the actual cautery, &c. 
Caries Dentium, Dental gangrene — c. of the 
Vertebras, Vertebral disease. 
CARIEUX, Carious. 
CARIM CUR1NI, Justitia ecbolium. 
CARINA, Vertebral column. 
CA'RIOUS, Cario'sus, (F.) Curie 1 , Carieux. 
Affected with caries. 

CARIUM TERR.E., Calx. 
CARIVE, Myrtus pimenta. 
CAR1V1LLANDI, Smilax sarsaparilla. 
CARLI'NA. ' Carline Thistle.' 
The Carli'na Acaulis, Chamm'leon album, 
Cardopa'tium, (F.) Carline suns tige, which 
grows in the Pyrenees, and on the mountains 
of Switzerland, Italy, &c. has been recom- 
mended as a tonic, emmenagogue, and sudo- 
rific. 

CARLINE SANS TIGE, Carlina acaulis. 
CARLO SANCTO, RADIX. ' St. Charles's 
Root:" found in Mechoachan, in America. The 
bark is aromatic, bitter, and acrid. It is con- 
sidered to be sudorific, and to strengthen the 
(rums and stomach. 

CARLSBAD, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Carlsbad is a town in Bohemia, 24 miles from 
Egra, celebrated for its hot baths. It contains 
about 47 parts in the 100 of purging salts. It 
is a thermal saline; temperature 105 Fahren- 
heit. 

CARMANTINE, Justitia pectoralis— c. Pec- 
toralc, Justitia pectoralis. 

CARMEN, ' a verse,' because charms usu- 
ally consisted of a verse. A charm (q. v.) an 
amulet. 

CARMINANTIA, Carminatives. 
CARMIN'ATIVES, Carminan'tia or Car- 
minati'va, from carmen, 'a terse,' or 'charm,' 



Antiphys'ica, Xantica, %arttxa, (F.) < 'armn 
Remedies, which allay pain, and cause the ex- 
pulsion of flatus from the alimentary canaL 
They are generally of the class of aromatics. 

The Four Cheater Carminative Hot 
Seeds, Qua'tuor sem'ina cal'ida maju'ra carmin- 
aii'ru, were, of old, anise, carui, cummin, and 
fennel. 

The Four Lesser Carminative Hot Seeds, 
Qua'tuor sem'ina cal'ida niino'ra, were bishop's 
weed, stone parsley, smallage, and wild carrot. 

CARMOT. A name given, by the alchy- 
mists, to the matter, which they believed to 
constitute the Philosopher's Stone. 

CARNABADIA, Carum, (seed.) 

CARNABADIUM, Cuminum cyminum. 

CARNATIO, Syssarcosis. 

CARNEL1AN, Cornelian. 

CARNEOLUS, Cornelian. 

CARNEOUS, Car'ncus, Carno'sus, Sarco r - 
des, from euro, 'flesh,' (F.) Cfiarnu. Consist- 
ing of flesh, or resembling flesh. 

Fleshy or Muscular Fibres, (F.) Fibres 
charnues ou muscidaires, are fibres belonging to 
a muscle. 

The Colum'na: Carney of the heart, (F.) 
Colonncs charnues, are muscular projections, 
situate in the cavities of the heart. They are 
called, also, Musculi Papilla'res. 

Pannic'ulus Carnosus, (F.) Pannicule 
ckarnu ; — Carnosa Cutis; a muscular mem- 
brane, adhering to the skin of certain animals, 
whose use is to move the integuments with 
the hair, feathers, &c. 

CARNEUM MARSUFlUM,lschio-trochan- 
terianus. 

CARNICTJLA. Diminutive of Caro, 'flesh.* 
The gums, Gingivae, (q. v.) — Fallopius. 

CARNIFICA'TION, C ami flea' do , from caro, 
' flesh,' a.nd fieri, 'to become.' Transformation 
into flesh. A morbid state of certain organs, in 
which the tissue acquires a consistence like 
that of fleshy or muscular parts. It is some- 
times observed in hard parts, the texture be- 
coming softened, as in Osteo-surco'ma. When 
it occurs in the lungs, they present a texture 
like that of liver. Hepatization is, however, 
the term more usually applied to this condition. 

CARNIFOR'MIS, ABSCES'SUS. An ab- 
scess, whose orifice is hard, the sides thick and 
callous ; and which ordinarily occurs in the 
neighbourhood of the articulations. — M. A. 
Severinus. 

CARNIVOROUS, Carniv'orus, Sarcoph- 
agus, Crcalopk'agus, Creoph'ugus, (F.) Carni- 
vore, from ouo%, ' flesh,' and tpayw, ' I eat.' 
That which eats flesh. Any substance which 
destroys excrescences in wounds, ulcers, &c. 

CARNOS'ITAS. Curnos'itics or Car'uncles 
in the Urc'thru,(F.) Curno sites ou Curonculesde 
I'uretre, (F.) Carnosite's, are small fleshy ex- 
crescences or fungous growths, which were, at 
one time, presumed to exist in the male ure- 
thra, whenever retention of urine followed 
gonorrhoea. 

M. Cullerier uses the term Carnosite vine"- 
rienne for a cutaneous, cellular, and membra- 
nous tumour, dependent upon the syphilitic 
virus. See, also, Polysarcia. 

CARNOSUS, Carneous. 

CARO, Flesh — c. Accessoria, see Flexor Ion- 



CAROB TREE 



131 



CARPO-PEDAL 



gus digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (ac- 
ccssorius) — c. Excrescens, Excrescence — c 
Fungosa, Fungosity — c. Glandulosa, Epiglottic 
gland— c. Luxurians, Fungosity — c. Orbicula- 
ris, Placenta — c. Parenchymatica, Parenchyma 
— c. Quadrata, Palmaris brevis — c. Quadratus 
Sylvii, see Flexor longus digitorum pedis pro- 
fundus perforans, (accessorius) — c. Viscerum, 
Parenchyma. 

CAROB TREE, Ceratonia siliqua. 
CAROBA ALNABATI, Ceratonium siliqua. 
CAROLFNA, NORTH, MINERAL WA 
TERS OF. In the counties of Warren, Mont- 
gomery, Rockingham, Lincoln, Buncomb and 
Rowan, there are mineral springs. They be- 
long generally to the sulphureous or acidu- 
lous saline. 

Carolina, South, Mineral Waters of. 
They are numerous. Pacolet Springs, on the 
west bank of Pacolet River, contain sulphur 
and iron. Many, with similar properties, but not 
held in estimation, are scattered about the State. 
CARONCULE, Caruncle — c. Lachrymale, 
Caruncle. 

CAROJYCULES MYRTIFORMES, Carun- 
culce myrtiformes — c. de VUretre, Carnosities of 
the Urethra. 

CAROPI, Amomum cardamomum. 
CAROSIS, Somnolency. 
CAROTIC, (ARTERIES,) Carotids. 
CAROTICA, Narcotics. 
CAROTICUS, comatose, from y.aQoc, ' stu- 
por,' (F.) Curotique. Relating to stupor or 
cams, — as a carotic stale, &c. 

CAROT'ID, Carot'ides, (Arterice.) Carot'icrc, 
Carotidea, Capita'les, Jugula'res, Soporu'lcs, 
Sopor a' rice, Sopor if era 1 , Soinnif'cra, Apoplec- 
tics, Lethargica, from xanuc, 'stupor.' The 
Carotfid Ar'tcries, CcphaVic Jlr'tcrics, (F.) A. 
Carotides. The great arteries of the neck, 
which carry blood to the head. They are di- 
vided into, 1. Primitive or common ; the left of 
which arises from the aorta, and the right from 
a trunk, common to it and the subclavian. 2. 
External or p eric ephal'ic, a branch of the primi- 
tive, which extends from the last to the neck 
of the condyle of the lower jaw : and, 3. In- 
ternal, Artdria cercbra'lis vel encrphalica, ano- 
ther branch of the primitive, which, arising at 
the same place as the external, enters the 
cranium, and terminates on a level with the 
fissure of Sylvius, dividing into several 
branches. 

The Carotid Canal, Cuna'lis Carot'icus, 
Canal inflexe dc Vos temporal — (Ch.,) (F.) Canal 
carotidien, is a canal in the temporal bone, 
through which the carotid artery and several 
nervous filaments pass. 

The Foram'ina Carot'ica, Carotid Foram- 
ina, (F.) Trous carotidiens, are distinguished 
into internal and external. They are the forami- 
na at each extremity of the Canalis Caroticus. 
CAROTTE, Daucus carota. 
CAROUA, Carum, (seed.) 
CAROUBIER, Ceratonium siliqua. 
CA ROUGE. See Ceratonium siliqua. 
CARPA'SIUM, CAR'PASUM, CAR'PA- 
SUS, and CARPE'SIUM. Dioscorides, Pliny, 
Galen, &c, have given these names, and that 
of Carpasos, to a plant, which cannot, now be 
determined, and whose juice, called Opocarpa- 



son, oTroxaoTTaaoy, passed for a violent, narcotic 
poison, and was confounded with myrrh. 
CARPATHICUM. See Pinus cembra. 
CARPE, Carpus. 

CARPENTORIA, Achillea millefolium. 
CARPES1UM, Carpasium. 
CARPHOLO'GIA, Tilmxis, Carpolo'gia^ 
Crocidismus, Flocco'rum vena'tio, Tricholo"gia, 
Croculix'is 1 from xoiQtpog, 'Jloc' cuius, ' and Xiyvi, 
' 1 collect,' or ' pluck,' (F.) Carphologic. Ac- 
tion of gathering flocculi. A delirious picking 
of the bed-clothes, as if to seek some substance, 
or to pull the flocculi from them. It denotes 
great cerebral irritability or debility, and is an 
unfavourable sign in fevers, &c. 
CARPHOS, Triginella foenum. 
CARPIA, Carbasus. 
CARPLEUS, Palmaris brevis. 
CAR'PIAL or CAR'PIAN, Carpia'nus, 
Carpia'lis, (F.) Carpien. Belonging to the 
Carpus. 

Car'pial Lig'aments, (F.) Ligaments Car- 
piens, are, 1. The fibrous fascia, which unite 
the bones of the carpus: and, 2. The annular 
ligaments, anterior and posterior, (q. v.) 
CARPIAN, Carpiai. 
CARPIEN, Carpiai. 
CARPISMUS, Carpus. 

CARPOBALSAMUM. See Amyris opobal- 
samum. 

CARPOLOGIA, Carphologia. 
Carpologia Spasmodica, Subsultus tendi- 
num. 

CARPO-METACARPEUS MINIMI DIGI- 
Tl, Adductor metacarpi minimi digiti — c. M6- 
tacarpien du petit doigt, Opponens minimi di- 
giti — c. Me'tacarpien ilu pouce, Opponens pol- 
licis — c. Phalangcus minimi digiti, Abductor 
minimi digiti — c. Phalangien du petit doigt, 
Abductor minimi digiti — c. Phalangien du petit 
doigt, Flexor parvus minimi digiti — c. Phalan- 
gien da pouce, Flexor brevis pollicis manus — c. 
Sus- phalangien du pouce, Abductor pollicis 
brevis. 

CARPO-PEDAL, from carpus, 'the wrist,' 
and pes, pedis, ' the foot.' Relating to the 
wrist and foot. 

Carpo-pedal Spasm, Ccrehral spasmodic 
croup. A spasmodic affection of the chest and 
larynx in young children, accompanied by ge- 
neral or partial convulsions. The disease ge- 
nerally occurs between the third and ninth 
month, and is characterized by excessive dysp- 
nosa, accompanied by a loud croupy noise on 
inspiration ; the thumbs being locked, and the 
hands and feet rigidly bent for a longer or 
shorter period. 

The seat of the disease is evidently in the 
cerebro-spinal axis, primarily or secondarily ; 
perhaps it is owing to erethism seated else- 
where being communicated to the cerebro-spi- 
nal centre and reflected to the respiratory and 
other muscles concerned. 

It seems to be connected with dental irrita- 
tion, and consequently, in the treatment, the 
gums — where such is the case — should be 
freely divided ; after which, cathartics and re- 
vulsives, with the use of narcotics and appro- 
priate diet, will generally remove the affection ; 
for although extremely alarming, it is often noj 
attended with great danger. 



CARPOS 



132 



CARUS APOPLEXIA 



CARPOS, Fruit. 

CARPOT'ICA, from y.aono?, ' fruit.' Dis- 
eases affecting impregnation, irregularity, dif- 
ficulty or danger produced by parturition : — the 
3d order, class Genetica, of Good. 

CARPUS, Carpis'mus, Brachia'le, Rasceta, 
Raslela, the wrist, (F.) Carpc,Poignet. The part 
between the forearm and hand. Eight bones 
compose it, (in two rows.) In the superior 
row there are, from without to within — the 
Scapho'ides or navicula'rc, Luna' re" or Semilu- 
nar e, Cu'neifor'me, and Orbicula're or Pi'sifor'- 
mE. In the lower row — Trape'zium, Trapezo'i'- 
des, Magnum, and Un'cifor'me. 

CARRAGEEN MOSS, Fucus crispus. 

CARRti DE LA CUfSSE, Quadratus femoris 
— c. des Lombes, Quadratus lumborum — c. du 
Menton, Depressor labii inferioris — c. du Pied, 
Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

CARREAU, Tabes mesenterica. 

CARREE. See Flexor longus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans, (accessorius.) 

CARRELET, (F.) Acus triangularis. A 
straight needle, two or three inches long, the 
point of which is triangular ; and which the 
ancients used in different operations, also, a 
wooden, triangular frame for fixing a cloth 
through which different pharmaceutical prepa- 
rations are passed. 

CARROT, CANDY, Athamanta cretensis 
— c. Deadly, Thapsia — c. Plant, Daucus carota. 

CAR'THAMUS TINCTO'RIUS, Am'yron, 
Cnicus, Crocus German'icus, Crocus Saracen'- 
icus, Carthamum officinal rum, Car'duus sati'- 
vus, Saffron flower, Safra'num, Safflower, Bas- 
tard Saffron, (F.) Cartkame, Saj'ran batard, 
Carthame des Tcinturiers . Family, Cynaroce- 
phaleffi. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Polygamia 
ffiqualis. The seeds are aromatic, cathartic, 
and diuretic ; yet to the parroquet they are an 
article of food, hence their name, Graines dc 
Perroquet. The flowers are employed as a 
cosmetic 

CARTHEGON. See Buxus. 

CARTILAGE AJYOjYYME, Cricoid, (carti- 
lage) — c. Epiglottic, Epiglottis — c. Supra- 
arytenoid, Corniculum laryngis — c. Tarsal, see 

CARTILAGINES GUTTU RALES, Aryte- 
noid cartilages — c. Triquetral, Arytenoid car- 
tilages. 

Cartilaginis Arytenoid^,*: Capitulum, 
Corniculum laryngis. 

CARTILAGINOUS, Cartilagin'eus, Car- 
tilagino'sus, Chondro'des, Chondro'i'des, (F.) Car- 
tilagincux. Belonging to, or resembling car- 
tilage. 

CARTILA'GO, Chondros, Car'tilage, (F.) 
Cartilage. A solid part of the animal body, of 
a medium consistence between bone and liga- 
ment, and which in the foetus is a substitute 
for bone, but in the adult exists only in the 
joints, at the extremities of the ribs, &c. Car- 
tilages are of a whitish colour, flexible, com- 
pressible, and very elastic, and some of them 
apparently inorganic. They are composed, ac- 
cording to J. Davy, of .44 albumen, .55 water, 
and .01 phosphate of lime. 

The Articular Cartilages, or Obdu'ccnt 
Car'tilages, invest bony surfaces, which are in 
contact; hence they are called investing or in- 



crusting cartilages % (F.) Cartilages de revetcment 
ou d. ' encroutement. 

The Interarticular Cartilages are such 
as are situate within the joints, as in the knee- 
joint. 

The Cartilages of the Ribs are, in some 
respects, only prolongations of the ribs. Those 
of the nose, of the meatus auditorius, and Eus- 
tachian tube, present a similar arrangement. 
Other cartilages resemble a union of fibrous 
and cartilaginous textures ; hence their name, 
Fibro-cartilages. 

Cartilages of Ossifica'tion are such as, in 
the progress of ossification, have to form an 
integrant part of bones ; as those of the long 
bones in the new-born infant. These are 
termed temporary ; the others being permanent. 
All the cartilages, with the exception of the 
articular, are surrounded by a membrane ana- 
logous to the periosteum, called Perichondrium. 

Cartilago Clvpealis, Thyroid cartilage — c. 
Ensiformis, Xiphoid cartilage — c. Innominata, 
Cricoid — c. Mucronata, Xiphoid cartilage — c. 
Peltalis, Thyroid cartilage — c. Scutiformis, 
Thyroid cartilage — c. Uvifer, Uvula — c. Xi- 
phoides, Xiphoid cartilage. 

CARUM, from Caria, a province of Asia. 
Ca'reum, Carum Car'ui, Carvi, Cumi'num pra- 
ten'se, Carus,Car'uon, the Car' away, (F.) Carvi, 
Cumin des pris. . Family, Umbelliferre. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The seeds, Carna- 
ba'dia, Car'oua, are carminative. Dose, gr. x 
to^ij, swallowed whole or bruised. The oil, 
Olc'um Car'ui, (F.) Huile dc Carvi, has the 
properties of the seeds. Dose, g tt ij to vj. 

CAB/UNCLE, Carun'cula, diminutive oi'caro, 
' flesh.' A small portion of flesh, Sur'cion. A 
fleshy excrescence, — Ecphifma carun'cula, (F.) 
Caroncule. 

Caruncle, Carnositas. 

Carun'cula Lachryma'lis, (F.) Caroncule 
lacrymalc. A small, reddish, follicular body, 
situate at the inner angle of the eye. It se- 
cretes a gummy substance. 

CARUNCULJ:CUTICULARES,Nympha?. 

Caruncul/e Mamilla'res. The extremities 
of the lactiferous tubes in the nipples. The 
olfactory nerves (q. \.) have been so called by 
some. 

Carunculs Myrtifor'mes, C. vagina'lcs, 
Glan'dula. myrtifor'mes, (F.) Curoncvlcs Myr- 
tiformes. Small, reddish tubercles, more or 
less firm, of variable form, and uncertain num- 
ber, situate near the orifice of the vagina, and 
formed by the mucous membrane. They are 
regarded as the remains of the Hymen. 

Carunculje Papillares, Papillas of the kid- 
ney. 

OARUN'CULOUS. Relating to caruncles 
or carnosities. Carun'cular. 

CARUON, Carum. 

CARUS, y.unot, Sopor caro'ticus, Profound 
sleep. The last degree of coma, with complete 
insensibility, which no stimulus can remove, 
even for a few instants. Sopor, Coma, Letliar- 
gia, and Cams, are four degrees of the same 
condition. 

Carus Apoplexia, Apoplexy— c. Asphyxia, 
Asphyxia — c. Catalepsia, Catalepsy — c. Ecsta- 
sis, Ecstasis— c. Hydrocephalus, Hydrocepha- 
lus internus-— c. ab Insolatione, Coup de solril 



CARV1 



133 



CASTOR FIBER 



c. Lethargus, Lethargy — c. Lethargus cata- 
phora, Somnolency — c. Lethargus vigil, Co- 
ma vigil — c. Paralysis, Paralysis — c. Paraly- 
sis paraplegia, Paraplegia — c. Veternus, Le- 
thargy. 

CARVE, Carum. 

CARYA, Juglans regia — c. Basilica, Juglans 
re o - ia. 

CARYEDON CATAGMA. See Fracture. 
CARYOCOSTINUM, Confectio scammonije. 
CARYOCOSTINUS. An electuary prepared 
of the costus and other aromatic substances, &c. 
It was cathartic. 

CARYON PONTICON, Corylus avellana 
(nut.) 
CARYOPHYLLA, Geum urbanum. 
CARYOPHYLLATA, Geum urbanum. 
CARYOPHYLLUM RUBRUM, Dianthus 
caryophyllus. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AMERICANUS, see 
Myrtus pimenta — c. Aromaticus, Eugenia ca- 
ryophyllata — c. Hortensis, Dianthus caryophyl- 
lus — c. Vulgaris, Geum urbanum. 

CARYO'TI. The best kind of dates.— Galen. 
CAS RARES, (F.) Rare cases. This term is 
used, by the French, for pathological facts, 
which vary from what is usual. See a cele- 
brated article under this head in the Diction- 
naire des Sciences Medicates, Vol. iv. 
CASAMUM, Cyclamen. 
CASAMUNAR, Cassumuniar. 
CAS'CARA.CASCARIL'LA. Spanish words 
which signify bark and little bark, under which 
appellations the bark (Cinchona) is known in 
Peru. They are now applied to the bark of the 
Croton cascarilla. 
CASCARILLA, Croton cascarilla. 
CASCHEU, Catechu. 

CASE, Capsa, The'ca, (F.) Caisse. This 
name is piven to boxes for the preservation of 
instruments ; or for medicines necessary in 
hospital or other service. We say, e. g. — A 
case of amputating, or trepanning instruments. 
Case, Casus. The condition of a patient; — as 
a case of fever, &c. (F.) Observation. Also, the 
history of a disease. 

CASEARIUS, Cheesy. 
CASEOSUS, Cheesy. 
CASEUS, Cheese — c. Equinus, Hippace. 
CASEUX, Cheesy. 
CASHEW, Anacardium occidentale. 
CASHOO. An aromatic drug of Hindusthan, 
said to possess pectoral virtues. 
CASHOW, Catechu. 
CASIA, Laurus cassia. 
CASM1NA, Cassumuniar. 
CASSA, Thorax. 

CASSADA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 
CASSAVA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 
CASSE AROMATIQUE, Laurus cassia— c. 
En batons, Cassia fistula — c. en Bois, Laurus 
cassia — c.des Boutiques, Cassia fistula — c. Sene, 
Cassia senna. 

CASSE- LUNETTES, Cyanus segetum, Eu- 
phrasia officinalis. 

CASSEENA, Ilex vomitoria. 
CASSENOLES. See Quercus cerris. 
CASSIA, Laurus cassia — c. Absus, Absus — 
c. Cinnamomea, Laurus cassia — c. Caryophyl- 
lata, Myrtus caryophyllata — c. Canella, Laurus 
cassia — c. Egyptian, Cassia senna. 



Cas'sia Fis'tut.a, Cas'sia nigra, Cassia 
fistula' ris, C. Alexandri'na, Canna, Canna solu- 
ti'va, Canna fistula, Cathartocar' pus , Purging 
Cassia, (F.) Casse Caneficier, Cassc en batons, 
Casse des Boutiques. The pulp of the Cassia 
Fis'tula or Cathartocar' jnis Fis'tula. Fam. Le- 
guminosse. Sex. Sijst. Decandria Monogynia, 
Pu/pa Cas'sia, Cassie Aramentum, which is 
contained in long pods, is black, bright, and 
shining ; sweet, slightly acid, and inodorous. 
It is laxative in the dose of giv to §j. 

Cassia Lignea, Laurus cassia — c. Lignea 
Malabarica, Laurus cassia. 

Cassia Marilan'dica, American Senna. The 
leaves of this plant are similar, in virtue, to the 
cassia senna. They are, however, much infe- 
rior in strength. 

Cassia, Purging, Cassia fistula. 
Cassia Senna. The name of the plant, which 
affords senna. Senna: Fo'lia, Senna Alexandri'na, 
Senna Ital'ica, Sena, Senna or JEgyptian Cassia, 
(F.) Send, Casse Sent. The leaves of senna 
have a faint smell, and bitterish taste. The 
active part is extracted by alcohol and water. 
Their activity is injured by boiling water. 
They are a hydrogogue cathartic, and apt to 
gripe. Dose of the powder T)j to gj. Infusion 
is the best form. 

CASSLE ARAMENTUM, see Cassia fistula 
— c. Flores, see Laurus cinnamomum. 
CASSIALA, Hyssopus. 

CASSIDE BLEUE, Scutellaria galericulata. 
CASS1NA, Ilex vomitoria. 
CASSINE, EVERGREEN, Ilex vomitoria. 
CASSIS, Ribes nigrum. 
CASSITEROS, Tin. 

CASSUMU'NIAR, Casamu'nar, Casmina, 
Risagon, Bengals Indo'rum, Bengal Root, (F.) 
Racine de Bengale. A root, obtained from the 
East Indies, in irregular slices of various forms; 
some cut transversely, others longitudinally. It 
is an aromatic bitter, and is consequently tonic 
and stimulant. It was once considered a pa- 
nacea. 

CASSUVIUM POMIFERUM, Anacardium 
occidentale. 

CASTANEA, Fagus castanea — c. Equina, 
^Esculus Hippocastanum. 

Castanea Pumila, Fagus castanea pumila. 
CASTE LLAM ARE DI STABIA,WATERS 
OF. C. is a town in Naples, in the Principato 
Citra, 15 miles S. S. E. of Naples. There are 
two springs here, the one sulphureous, the 
other chalybeate. 

CASTELLETTO ADONO, WATERS OF. 
These waters, situate near Acqui, in Italy, are 
sulphureous. 

CASTERA-VIVENT, WATERS OF. C. 
is a small village in the department of Gers, 
near which is a cold acidulous chalybeate, and 
another which is sulphureous and thermal. 
Temp. 84° Fahrenheit. 
CASTIGANS, Corrigent. 
CASTJOE, Catechu. 

CASTLE-LEOD, WATERS OF. A sul- 
phureous spring in Ross-shire, Scotland, cele- 
brated for the cure of cutaneous and other dis- 
eases. 

CASTOR FIBER, Fiber, Canis Pon'ticus. 
The Beaver, (F.) Castor. It furnishes the Cas- 
tor. Rondelet recommends slippers made of 



CASTOREUM 



134 



CATAPLASM 



its skin in gout. Its blood, urine, bile, and fat, 
were formerly used in medicine. 

Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis. 

CASTOREUM, Castor, from kucituq, 'the 
beaver, ' quasi yaarwQ, from yaarr t o, ' the belly,' 
because of the size of' its belly, or a castrando : 
Cas'toreum Ros'sicum ei Canadcn'se. A pecu- 
liar matter, found in bags, near the rectum of 
the beaver. Its odour is strong, unpleasant, 
and peculiar ; taste bitter, subacrid ; and colour 
orange-brown. It is antispasmodic, and often 
employed. Dose, gr. x to J}j. 

CASTRANGULA, Scrophularia aquatica. 

CASTRAT, Castratus. 

CASTRA'TION, Castra'tio, EctomS, Evira'- 
tio, Excastra'tio, Etesticulu'tio, Exsec'tio viri- 
lium, Eunuchis'mus, Celoto'mia, Orchoto' mia, 
Orcheotorny, Orchidotomy. Operation for re- 
moving the testicles. Sometimes, the term is 
employed for the operation, when performed 
on one testicle ; hence the division into com- 
plete and incomplete castration. Castration ren- 
ders the individual incapable of reproduction. 

CASTRATO, Castratus. 

CASTRATUS, (I.) Castra'to, Ectomius, 
Emasculatus , Exsectus, Extcsticulalus , from cas- 
trate, ' to castrate.' One deprived of testicles, 
(F.) Castrat, Chatri. This privation has a 
great influence on the development of puberty. 
It is adopted to procure a clearer and sharper 
voice ; and in the East, the guardians of the 
Harem are, for the sake of security, converted 
into Casira'ti or En'nuchs, svvovxoi. The an- 
cients called those, deprived of one testicle, 
Spado'nes. Eunuchs have generally both testes 
and penis removed. 

CASUS, Prolapsus — c. Palpebral superioris, 
Blepharoptosis. 

CATA, Kara, ' downwards,' ' after,' — applied 
to time : a common prefix, as in — 

CATAB'ASIS, from K ara^aivm, ' I descend.' 
An expulsion of humours downwards. 

CATABLE'MA, Epibk'ma, Perible'ma. The 
outermost bandage which secures the rest. 

CATABYTHISMOMANIA, from Karapv 
Giauog, ' submersion,' and uana, ' mania.' Insa- 
nity, with a propensity to suicide by drowning. 

CATACAUMA,Burn. 

CATACAUSIS, Combustion, human— c. 
Ebriosa, Combustion, human. 

CATACERASTICUS, from K«T*KtQarvv f u, 
1 1 temper,' ' I correct.' The same as Epiceras- 
licus. A medicine capable of blunting the 
acrimony of humours. 

CATACHASMOS, Scarification. 

CATACHRISIS, Inunction. 

CATACHRISTON, Liniment. 

CATAC'HYSIS, Effu'sio, Perfu'sio, from 
nara/tw, ' I pour upon.' Affusion with cold 
water. — Hippocr. Decantation, (q. v.) 

CATACLASIS, from x,aTax.).aLw, ' I break to 
pieces.' Cam/pylum, Campylo'ti.s. Distortion 
or spasmodic fixation of the eyes; spasmodic 
occlusion of the eyelids ; also, fracture of a 
bone. — Hippocr., Vogcl. 

CATACLEIS', from xata, 'beneath,' and 
kXuc, ' the clavicle.' This term has been ap- 
plied to many parts, as to the first rib, the 
acromion, the joining of the sternum with the 
ribs, &c. 

CATACLYS'MUS, Catadys* ma. from *aw 



nlvLetr, ' to submerge, inundate.' A Clyster. ,«— 
Hippocr. Others mean, by the term, a shower- 
bath, or copious affusion of water; Cattcone'sis. 
Ablution, (q. v.,) Douche, (q. v.) 

CATiEONESIS, Cacantlema, Cataclysmus. 

CATAGAUNA, Cambogia. 

CATAGMA, Fracture — c. Fissura, Fissure, 
see Contrafissura — c. Fractura, Fracture. 

CATAGMAT'ICS, Catagmal'ica rcme'dia, 
from x-arayua, ' fracture.' Remedies supposed 
to be capable of occasioning the formation of 
callus. 

CATALEN'TIA. Epilepsy, (q. v.) or some 
disease resembling it. — Paracelsus. 

CATALEPSIA SPURIA, Ecstasis. 

CAT'ALEPSY, Catalep'sia, Catalcp'sis, Cat'- 
oche, Cat'ochus, Congela'tio, Detcn'tia, Enca- 
talcp'sis, Aphonia — (Hippocr.,) Anau'dia — ( An- 
tigenes. ,) Apprchcn'sio, Conlempla'tio, Prehcn'- 
sio, Carus Catalep'sia, Trance (?) Opprcs'sio, 
Comprehensio — (Cad. A urelian . ) , Apoplex'ia Ca- 
talepsia, from kutuXkii^uvw, ' J seize hold of,' 
(F.) Catalcpsie. A disease in which there is 
sudden suspension of the action of the senses 
and of volition : the limbs and trunk preserving 
the different positions given to them. It is a 
rare affection, but is seen, at times, as a form of 
hysteria. Some of the Greek writers have used 
the word in its true acceptation of a seizure, 
surprise, &c. 

CATALTA, C.Arbo'rea, Bigno'nia Catalpa, 
Catal'pa Cordifo'lia, C. Arboresccns. The de- 
coction of the pods of the Catalpa, an American 
tree, of the Nat. Farn. Bignoniacere, Didyna- 
mia Angiospermia, has been recommended in 
chronic nervous asthma. 

CATALYSIS, Paralysis. 

CAT AMEiNIA ALBA, Leucorrhcea— c. Men- 
strun, ]YIcnscs. 

CATAMENIORUM FLUXUS IMMODI- 
CUS, Menorrhagia. 

CATANANCE, Cichorium intybus. 

CATANGELOS, Ruscus. 

CATANTLE'MA and CATANTLE'SIS, 
from Kara, 'upon,' and arr?.ciu>, ' I pour,' Catco- 
ne'sis and Cataone'sis. Ablution with warm 
water; a fomentation. — Moschion, Marcellus 
Empiricus. 

CATAPAS'MA, from KaraTiaoaia, ' 1 sprin- 
kle,' Catapas'tum, Conspcr'sio, Epipas'ton, Pas- 
ma, Sywpas'ma, Empasma, Xerion, Aspcr'sio. 
Compound medicines, in the form of powder, 
employed by the ancients to sprinkle on ulcers, 
absorb perspiration, &c. — Paulus of iEo-ina. 

CATAPH'ORA, ' a fall,' from xuraq.ino,, < I 
throw down.' A state resembling sleep, with 
privation of feeling and voice. Somnolency, 
(q. v.) According to others, Cataphora is sim- 
ply a profound sleep, which it is difficult to 
rouse from — in this sense being synonymous 
with Sopor, (q. v.) 

Cataphora Hydrocephalica, see Apoplexy 
— c. Cymini, Theriaca Londinensis. 

CATAPHRAC'TA, a Cuirass, from kutu- 
(poarrav), ' I fortify.' A name given by Galen to 
a bandage applied round the thorax and shoul- 
ders. It was also called Quadriga. 

CAT'APLASM, CataplaJma, Epiplas'ma, 
Bceos, from KaianXaoonv, ' to besmear,' (F.j 
Caiaplasme. A medicine to be applied exter- 
nally, under the form of a thick pap. Cata- 



CATAPLEXY 



135 



CATARACT 



plasms are formed of various ingredients, and 
for different objects. They may be anodyne, 
emollient, tonic, antiseptic, irritating, &c. A 
simple poultice acts only by virtue of its 
warmth and moisture. Meal, fatty substances, 
leaves of plants, certain fruits, crumb of bread, 
&.C., are the most common bases. 

The chief poultices which have been officinal 
are the following. 

Anodyne. Emollient. Tonic and 

Astringent. 
C. Cicutte, C. Lini, C. Alum, 

C. Digitalis. C. Panis, C. Goulard, 

C. Mali maturi. C. Ross. 



Antiseptic. 
C. Carbonis, 
C. Dauci, 
C. Fermenti, 
C. Acetosa;. 
C. Cu mill i. 



Irritating. 
C. Sinapis, 
C. Muriatis Soda;, 
C. Quercus Marini. 



The Parisian Codex has some other officinal 
cataplasms. 1. Cataplas'ma anod'ynum, made 
of poppy and hyoscyamus. 2. Cataplas'ma emol'- 
liens, made of meal and pulps. 3. Cataplas'ma 
ad suppuratio'nem promoven'dam, of pulps and 
Basilicon. 4. Cataplas'ma rubefa' cicns vel an- 
tip/euril'icum, formed of pepper and vinegar. 

The only cataplasms, the preparation of which 
it is important to describe, are the following : 

Cataplas'ma Fermeh'ti, C.efferves'cens,Yeast 
Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Catuplasme dc Le- 
vure. (Take of meat Ibj, yeast ffiss. Expose to 
a gentle heat.) It is antiseptic, and a good ap- 
plication to bruises. 

Cataplas'ma Sina'pis, C. Sina'peos, Sin'a- 
pism, Mustard Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Ca- 
taplasme dc Moutard ou Sinapisme. (Mustard, 
and Linseed meal or meal aa. equal parts. Warm 
vinegar, or icatcr, q. s.) A rubefacient and 
stimulant applied to the soles of the feet in 
coma, low typhus, &c, as well as to the pained 
part in rheumatism, &c. 

CATAPLEX'IS, Stupor, from xara and 
7i?.Tjoau>, 'I strike.' The act of striking with 
amazement. Appearance of astonishment as ex- 
hibited by the eyes in particular. See Hasmodia. 

CATAPOSIS, Deglutition. 

CATAPOTION, Pilula. 

CATAPSYX'IS, from xaTcapv X u, ' I refrige- 
rate.' Peripsyx'is. Considerable coldness of the 
body, without rigor and horripilatio. — Galen. 
Perfrictio. Coldness in the extreme parts of 
the limbs. — Hippocr. 

CATAPTO'SIS, Deciden'tia, a fall. This 
word expresses, sometimes, the fall of a patient, 
attacked with epilepsy, (q. v.) or apoplexy; at 
others, the sudden resolution of a paralytic limb. 

CATAPULTA VIRILIS, Penis. " 

CATAPUTIA, MINOR, Euphorbia lathyris, 
Ricinus communis. 

CAT'ARACT, Catarac'ta, Catarrhac'ta, Suf- 
fu'sio Oculi, Ptharma catarac'ta, Caligo lentis, 
Gutta opaca, Hypoc'hyma, Hypophysis, Pha- 
coscoto'nta, Parop' sis catarac'ta, Glauco' ma Woul- 
hou'si. A deprivation of sight, which comes on, 
as if a veil fell before the eyes. Cataract con- 
sists in opacity of the crystalline lens or its cap- 
sule, which prevents the passage of the rays of 
light, and precludes vision. The causes are 
obscure. Diagnosis. — The patient is blind, the 
pupil seems closed by an opake body, of varia- 
ble colour, but commonly whitish: — the pupil 



contracting and dilating. Cataracts have been 
divided, by some, into spurious and genuine. 
The former, where the obstacle to vision is be- 
tween the capsule of the lens and the uvea: the 
latter, where it is in the lens or capsule. A 
lenticular cataract is where the affection is seated 
in the lens; — a capsular or membranous, where 
in the capsule. The capsular is divided again, 
by Beer, into the anterior, posterior, and com- 
plete capsular cataract. When the capsule is 
rendered opake, in consequence of an injury, 
which cuts or ruptures any part of it, it thickens, 
becomes leathery, and has been called Catarac'- 
ta arida siliquo'sa. Catarac'ta Morgagnia'na 
lactea vel pur if or' mis, is the milky variety, in 
which the crystalline is transformed into a liquid 
similar to milk, (F.) Cataracte laiteuse. The 
cap' sulo-lentic' ular affects both lens and capsule, 
and Beer conceives the liquor Morgagni, in an 
altered state, may contribute to it. Cataracts 
are also called stony, (F.) (pierreuse,) milky or 
cheesy (laiteuse ou casiuse,) according to their 
density: — white, pearly, yellow, brown, gray, 
green, black, (F.) blanche, perlie, jaune, brunc, 
grisc, vertc, noire, according to their colour : — 
fixed or vacillating, — catarac'ta capsulo-lenticu- 
ta'ris fixa vel trem'ula, (F.) fixe ou branlante, 
according as they are fixed or movable behind 
the pupil. They are also called Catarac'ta: mar- 
mora'ciai, fenestra' tm, stella'ta, puncta'tcc, dimi- 
dia'tai, &c, according to the appearances they 
present. 

Cataracts may be simple or complicated with 
adhesion, amaurosis, specks, &c. They may 
be primary or primitive, when opake before the 
operation ; — or secondary, when the opacity is 
the result of the operation. 

The cataract is commonly a disease of elder- 
ly individuals, although, not unfrequently, con- 
gen' ital. It forms slowly : objects are at first 
seen as through a mist, light bodies appear to 
fly before the eyes, and it is not until after 
months or years that the sight is wholly lost. 

No means will obviate the evil except an 
operation, which consists in removing the ob- 
stacle to the passage of the light to the retina. 
Four chief methods are employed for this pur- 
pose. 

1. Couching or Depression, (F.) Maissement, 
Deplaccmcnt de la Cataracte. This consists in 
passing a cataract needle through the sclerotica 
and subjacent membranes, a little above the 
transverse diameter of the eye; and at about 
two lines distance from the circumference of 
the transparent cornea, until the point arrives 
in the posterior chamber of the eye. "With this 
the crystalline is depressed to the outer and 
lower part of the globe of the eye, where it is 
left. 2. By absorption, — by the French termed 
broiement, or bruising. This is performed in 
the same manner as the former; except that, 
instead of turning the crystalline from the axis 
of the visual rays, it is divided by the cutting 
edge of the needle, and its fragments scattered 
in the humours of the eye, where they are ab- 
sorbed. 3. By extraction, which consists in 
opening, with a particular kind of knife, the 
transparent cornea and the anterior portion of 
the capsule of the crystalline ; and causino- the 
lens to issue through the opening. Each of the 
processes has its advantages and disadvantages, 



CATARACTA GLAUCA 



136 



CATHARSIS 



and all are used by surgeons. 4. Some, again, 
pass a cataract needle through the transparent 
cornea and pupil, to the crystalline, and depress 
or cause its absorption. This is called Kera- 
tonyxis, which see. 

Cataract, Black, Amaurosis. 
CATARACTA GLAUCA, Glaucoma— c. 
Nigra, Amaurosis. 

CATARACTE, ABAISSEMEJYT DE LA, 
see Cataract — c. Diplacement de la, see Cataract 
— c. Noire, Amaurosis. 

CATARACTE, (F.) Cataradtus, Catarac'ta 
vitia'tus. One affected with cataract. The 
French use this term, both for the eye affected 
with cataract and the patient himself*. 

CATARRH', Catar'rhus, Catar'rhopus, Ca- 
tarrhcu'ma, Rheuma, Dcfiux'io, from y.ura, 
'downwards,' and Qtw, 'I flow.' A discharge 
of fluid from a mucous membrane. The ancients 
considered the catarrh as a simple flux, and not 
as an inflammation. Generally, it partakes of 
this character, however. Catarrh is, with us, 
usually restricted to the inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the air-passages; the 
French extend it to that of all mucous mem- 
branes. (F.) Flux muqueux, Fluxion catarrkale. 
Catarrh, in the English sense, Rheuma Pec- 
toris, Catar'rhus Pectoris, Blennop'tysis, Tits' sis 
catarrha'lis simplex, Anacathar' sis' catarrha' lis 
simplex, Grave' do (of many,) a cold, Fcbris Ca- 
tarrha'lis, Blennotho'rax, Bronchi'tis, Catar'rhus 
afrigore, (F.) Catarrhe pulmonaire, Rhume de 
Poitrine, is a superficial inflammation of the 
mucous follicles of the trachea and bronchi. It 
is commonly an affection of but little conse- 
quence, but apt to relapse and become chronic. 
It is characterized by cough, thirst, lassitude, 
fever, watery eyes, with increased secretion of 
mucus from the air-passages. The antiphlogis- 
tic regimen and time usually remove it. Some- 
times, the inflammation of the bronchial tubes 
is so great as to prove fatal. 

Catarrh, Acute, of the Uterus, see Me- 
tritis — c. Summer, Fever, hay. 

Catarrh', Epidemic, Catar'rhus cpidem'icus, 
C 6\ conta'gio, Rheuma epidem'icum. Catarrh 
occurring owing to some particular Constitutio 
aeris, and affecting a whole country : — lnflu- 
enza, (q. v.) 

CATARRH ACTA, Cataract. 
CATARRHE AfGUE DE V UTERUS, see 
Metritis — c. Buccal, Aphthae — c. Gastriquc, Gas- 
tritis — c. Guttural, Cynanche tonsillaris — c. In- 
testinal, Diarrhoea — c. Laryngicn, Laryngitis — 
c. Oculaire, Ophthalmia — c. de V Oreille, Otir- 
rhcea — c. Pharyngien, Cynanche parotidrea — c. 
Pulmonaire, Catanh — c. Stomacal, Gastror- 
rhoea — c. Uterine, Leucorrhcea — c. Visical, Cys- 
tirrhoea. 

CATARRH EC'TIC A, from xaraQQ^yrvfu, ' I 
break down.' Remedies considered proper for 
dissolving; — as diuretics, cathartics, <&c. — Hip- 
poc. 
CATARRHEUMA, Catarrh. 
CATARRHEUX, (F.) Catarrho' sus . One 
subject to catarrh, affected with catarrh. 

CATARRH EX'IA, Catarrhexis; same ety- 
mon as Catarrhectica : the action of Catarrhec- 
tica. Also, effusion, evacuation of the bowels. 
CATARRHEXIS, Catarrhexia, Excrement, 
(q. v.) — c. Vera, Ilaematochezia. 



CATARRHCF/CUS, from xaTccQQew, ' I flow 
from.' An epithet for disease, produced by a 
discharge of phlegm; Catarrhal. 

CATAR'RHOPA PHY'MATA.from xuran- 
(tono?, xuritQQorciic, 'sloping downwards.' Tu- 
bercles tending downwards, or with their apices 
downwards. 

CATARRHOPHE, Absorption. 
CATARRHOTIA, Catur'rhysis, from xena, 
' downwards,' and Qoni;, 'inclination.' An afflux 
of fluids towards the inferior parts, and espe- 
cially towards the viscera of the abdomen. The 
Greek word urannonia expresses an opposite 
phenomenon, or a tendency towards the upper 
parts. 

CATARRHOPUS, Catarrh. 
CATARRHYS1S, Catarrhopia, Defluxion. 
CATARRHUS, Defluxion, Tussis— c. yEsti- 
vus, Fever, hay — c. Bellinsulanus, Cynanche 
parotidcea — c. Gonorrhoea, Gonorrhoea — c. In- 
testinalis, Diarrhoea — c. ad JNares, Coryza — 
c. Suffbcativus barbadensis, C. trachealis — c. 
Urethralis, Gonorrhoea — c. Vesicas, Cystirrhcea. 
CATARTIS'MUS, from xaruQriLtir, ' to re- 
pair,' ' replace.' The coaptation of a luxated 
or fractured bone. 

CATASCEUE, Structure. 
CATASTAGMOS, Coryza. 
CATASTALAGMOS, Coryza, Distillation. 
CATAS'TASIS, from xaSiartjin, ' I establish.' 
The constitution, state, condition, &c. of any 
thing. — Hippoc. Also, the reduction of a bone. 
See Constitution, and Habit of Body. 

CATAT'ASIS, from xaraxuru, <I extend, 
extension,' (q. v.") The extension and reduc- 
tion of a fractured limb. — Hippoc. 
CATATHLIPSIS, Oppression. 
CATAXIS, Fracture. 
CATCH FLY, Silene Virginica. 
CATCHUP, Ketchup. 
CATE, Catechu. 

CAT'ECHU. The extract of various parts 
of the Mimosa Cat'echu, Caaitchu, an oriental 
tree. The drug is also called Terra Japon'ica, 
Extradtum Catechu, Japan Earth, Cascheu, 
Cadtchu, Cashom, Cailchu, Castjoe, Cacau, Cate, 
Kaath, Cuti, Cutck, Co'ira, Succus Japon'icus. 
(F.) Cachou. It is a powerful astringent, and 
is used in diarrhoea, intestinal hemorrhage, &,c. 
Dose, gr. xv. to Zss in powder. 

CATEIAD'ION, from Kara, and £i«, ' a blade 
of grass.' A long instrument, thrust into the 
nostrils to excite hemorrhage in headache. — 
Aretaeus. 

CATENA MUSCULUS, Tibialis anticus. 
CATEONES1S, Catantlema. 
CATGUT, Galega Virginiana. 
CATH^'RESIS,x«^u ( (,)6a 1? ,' subtraction, di- 
minution.' Extenuation or exhaustion, owing 
to forced exercise. — Hippoc. 

CATH^ERETICUS, Catheretic. 
CATHARETICUS, Cathartic. 
CATHARISMOS, Depuration. 
CATHAR'MA, Purgamcnt'um. Matters 
evacuated by a purgative, or by spontaneous 
purging, also, a cathartic, (q. v.) 

CATHAR'MUS. Same etymon; a purga- 
tion. — Hippoc. Also, the cure of a disease by 
magic, &c. 

CATHAR'SIS, from xadcuonv, ' to purge.' 
Purga'tio, Apocathar' sis , Copropho'ria. A na- 



CATHARTIC 



137 



CAUDIEZ 



tural or artificial purgation by any passage; — 
mouth, anus, vagina, &c. 

CATHAR'TIC, Cathur'licus, Cathardticus, 
Cathar'ma, Coproeritfica, Dejecto'rium Reme'- 
dium, Eccathar' ticus , Hypac'ticus, Hypel'atos, 
Lapac 1 ticus, Apocuthar'ticns. Same ety mon , (F.) 
Cathartiquc. A medicine, which, when taken 
internally, increases the number of alvine eva- 
cuations. Some substances act upon the upper 
part of the intestinal canal, as calomel and 
coloeynth; others, on the lower parts, as aloes; 
and some on the whole extent, as saline purga- 
tives. Hence a choice may be necessary. Ca- 
thartics are divided into Purgatives and Laxa- 
tives, (q. v.) 

The following is a list of the chief Cathartics : 



Aloe, 

Cassia Maryland ica, 

Colocynthis, 

Elaterium, 

Gambogia, 

Hydrargyri Chloridum 
mile, 

Oxydum nigrum, 

Hydrarg. cum 5lag- 
nesitl, 

Jalappa, 

.Iimlans, 

Magnesia, 

Carbonas, 

Sulphas. 

Manna, 

Mannita, 

Oleum Euphorbias La- 
thy rid is, 

■ Ricini, 

Tiglii, 



Podophyllum, 
Potassre Acetas, 

Bisulphas, 

Sulphas, 

Supertartras, 

Tartras, 

Rheum, 

Scammonium, 

Senna, 

Sinapis, 

Soda: et Potassa: Tartras, 

Phosphas, 

Sulphas, 

Sodii Chloridum, 

Sulphur, 

Veratrina, 

Aquae Minerales Sulphu- 

reae et Salinas, 
Enemata, 
Suppositoria. 



CATHART1NE. See Convolvulus jalapa. 

CATHARTIQUE, Cathartic. 

CATHARTOCARPUS, Cassia fistula. 

CATHEDRA, Anus. 

CATHEMERUS, Quotidian. 

CATHERETIC, Cathmrct'icus, Ectylotficus, 
Sarcoph'agus, from xadatour, ' to eat,' ' destroy.' 
Substances applied to warts, exuberant granu- 
lations, &c, to eat them down. They are mild 
caustics. 

CATH'ETER, from y.adir^i, 'I explore.' 
JEne'a, Ai'galie, Cathele'ris, Demissor, hnmis 1 - 
sor. A hollow tube, introduced by surgeons 
into the urinary bladder, for the purpose of 
drawing off the urine. Catheters are made of 
silver or elastic gum. See Bougie. The French 
generally use the word catheter, for the solid 
sound or staff; and algalie and sonde for the 
hollow instrument. 

CATHETERIS, Catheter. 

CATHETERIS'MUS, Catheter isis, same ety- 
mon. The introduction of a catheter into the 
bladder, or Eustachian tube. 

CATHID'RYSIS, from y.a9iS Q vw, < I place 
together.' Reduction of a part to its natural 
situation. 

CATHMIA, Plumbi oxydum semi-vitreum. 

CATHM1R, Calamina. 

CATHOLIC HUMOURS, (F.) Humeurs 
Catholiques, are the fluids spread over the whole 
body. 

CATHOL'ICON or CATHOL'ICUM, from 
ku6\ and oXikos, ' universal.' A remedy, be- 
lieved to be capable of curing all diseases — a 
panacea. 

Cathol'icon Dutlex, an ancient, purging 

18 



electuary, chiefly composed of cassia, tama- 
rinds, rhubarb, senna, &c. 

CATIL'LIA. A weight of nine ounces. 

CATILLUS, Cup. 

CAT1NUS FUSORIUS, Crucible. 

CATLING, Knife, double-edged. 

CATO, xutw, ' below,' " beneath.' This word, 
in the writings of Hippocrates, is often used 
for the abdomen, especially the intestines. 
When he advises a remedy — y.axm, he means a 
purgative ; when avco above or upwards, an 
emetic. As a prefix, Cato means ' beneath,' as in 

CATOCATHAR'TIC, Catocathar' ticus, from 
kutw, 'downwards,' and x.a&a<Qe<j>, ' I purge.' 
A medicine, which purges downwards. One 
that produces alvine evacuations. The antithe- 
sis to Jinacalhartic. 

CAT'OCHE or CAT'OCHEIS, from y.ax* x <», 
' I retain,' ' I hold fast.' This word has, by some, 
been used synonymously with Catalepsy : (q. 
v.) by others, with Coma vigil ; by others, with 
Tetanus. 

CATOCHUS, Ecstasis— c. Cervinus, Teta- 
nus — c. Holotonicus, Tetanus — c. Infantum, In- 
duration of the cellular tissue. 

CATOMIS'MOS, from x«to>, ' beneath,' and 
oiuog, ' shoulder.' Subhumera'tio. A mode with 
the ancients, of reducing luxation of the hume- 
rus by raising the body by the arm. — Paulus of 
^Egina. 

CATOPTROMANCY, from xajomQov, <a 
mirror,' and uarrtta, 'divination.' A kind of 
divination by means of a mirror. 

CATOPTER, Speculum. 

CATOPTRON, Speculum. 

CATORCHl'TES. A kind of sour wine, 
prepared with the orchis and black grape, or 
dried figs. It was formerly employed as a diu- 
retic and eminenagogue. — Dioscorid. Called, 
also, Sycites. — Galen. 

CATORETICUS, Purgative. 

COTOTERICUS, Purgative. 

CATOT'ICA, from y.arw, 'beneath.' Dis- 
eases infecting internal surfaces. Pravity of 
the fluids or emunctories, that open on the in- 
ternal surfaces of organs. The second order in 
the class Eccritica of Good. 

CATSFOOT, Antennaria Dioica. 

CATTAGAUMA, Cambogia. 

CATTITEROS, Tin. 

CATULOT'ICUS, from y.urovXotir, ' to cica- 
trize.' A remedy for removing citatrices. — Ga- 
len. A medicine, proper for producing cicatri- 
zation. 

CATU-TR1PALI, Piper longum. 

CAUCALOIDES, Patella. 

CAUCHEMAR, Incubus. 

CAUCHEVIEILLE, Incubus. 

CAUCHUC, Caoutchouc. 

CAUDA, Coccyx. 

Cauda Equi'na. The spinal marrow, at its 
termination, about the 2d lumbar vertebra, gives 
off a considerable number of nerves, which, 
when unravelled, resemble a horse's tail, — hence 
the name. (F.) Queue de Chcval, Q. de la Moclle 
Epiniere. See Medulla Spinalis. 

Cauda Salax, Penis. 

CAUDA'TIO. An extraordinary elongation 
of the clitoris. — Blasius. 

CAUDIEZ, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Caudicz is a aniall town, nine leagues from Per- 



CAUL 



138 



CAUSTIC 



pignan, where there is a thermal spring, con- 
taining a little sulphate of" soda and iron. 

CAUL. The English name for the omentum. 
Also, when a child is born, with the membranes 
over the face, it is said to have been " bornvrith 
a caul.'' In the catalogue of superstitions, this 
is one of the favourable omens. The caul itself 
is, likewise, supposed to confer privileges upon 
the possessor; hence the membranes are dried, 
and sometimes sold for a high price. (L.) Pilus, 
Pileolus, Galea, Vilta. (F.) Cocffe, Coiffe — 
(Etre ni, codffi. — " to be born with a caul.") See 
Epiploon. 

CAULE'DON, Slajc'don, from xuvXog, ' a 
stalk.' A transverse fracture. 

CAULIFLOWER, Brassica Florida. 
Cau'liflower Excres'cence, Excrcscen'tia 
Sijphilit'ica, (F.) Chouficur. A syphilitic excres- 
cence, which appears about the origin of the 
mucous membranes, chiefly about the anus and 
vulva, and which resembles, in appearance, the 
head of the cauliflower. 
CAULIS, Penis. 

Caulis Florida, Brassica Florida. 
CAULOPLE'GIA, from y.uvU?, 'the male 
organ,' and 7t/b;y>/, ' a wound,' or ' stroke.' An 
injury or paralysis of the male organ. 

CAUMA, y.uvua, ' a burnt part,' from y.aita, 
1 1 burn.' Great heat of the body or atmosphere. 
Synocha (q. v.) Empresina (q. v.) 

Cauma Bronchitis, Cynanche trachealis — c. 
Enteritis, Enteritis — c. Gastritis, Gastritis — c. 
Hsmorrhagicum, Haimorrhagia activa — c. Oph- 
thalmitis, Ophthalmia — c. Peritonitis, Peritonitis 
— c. Phrenitis, Phrenitis — c. Pleuritis, Pleuritis 
— c. Rheumatismus, Rheumatism, acute. 
CAUNGA, Areca. 

CAUSA CONJUNCTA, Cause, proximate— 
c. Continens, Cause, proximate. 

CAUSiE ABDITiF., Causes, predisponent or 
remote — c. Actuales, Causes, occasional — c. 
Pra?incipientes, Causes, procatarctic — c. Proe- 
gumens, Causes, predisponent. 

CAUSE, Cau'sa, uirta, Aitia, amor, Aition. 
An act which precedes another, and seems to 
be a necessary condition for the occurrence of 
the latter. The causes of disease are generally 
extremely obscure ; although they, sometimes, 
are evident enough. The predisponent and oc- 
casional causes are the only two, on which any 
stress can be laid ; but as authors have divided 
them differently, a short explanation is neces- 
sary. 

Causes, Accessor*, (F.) Causes Jlcccssoires, 
are those which have only a secondary influ- 
ence in the production of disease. 

Accidental Causes, or Common Causes, 
(F.) Causes Accidcntcllcs, are those, which act 
only in certain given conditions ; and which 
do not always produce the same disease. Cold, 
e. g., may be the accidental cause of pneumonia, 
rheumatism, &c. 

External Causes, (F.) Causes externes, are 
such as act externally to the individual; as air, 
cold, &c. 

Causes Formelles (F.) are such as deter- 



mine the form or kind of the disease. They 



01 



those, which arise within the body ; — as mental 
emotions, &c. 

Mechanical Causes, (F.) Causes mican- 
iques, are those, which act mechanically, as 
pressure upon the windpipe in inducing suffo- 
cation. 

Negative Causes, (F.) Causes negatives, 
comprise all those things, the privation of which 
may derange the functions; — as abstinence too 
long continued. They are opposed to positive 
causes, which, of themselves, directly induce 
disease; — as the use of indigestible food, of spi- 
rituous drinks, &c. 

Occasional or Exciting Causes, Causa ac- 
tua'les,(F.) Causes occasionellcs, are those which 
immediately produce the disease. 

Occult or Hidden or Obscure Causes, (F.) 
Causes occultes ou cachies ou obscures. Any 
causes with which we are unacquainted ; — also, 
certain inappreciable characters of the atmo- 
sphere, which give rise to epidemics. 

Physiological Causes, (F.) Causes Physi- 
ologiques, those which act only on living mat- 
ter; — narcotics, e. g. 

Physical Causes, (F.) Causes Physiques, — 
those which act by virtue of their physical pro- 
perties; as form, hardness, &c. All vulne- 
rating bodies belong to this class. 

Predisponent or Remote Causes, Causa? 
proegu'mena, Causa ab'dita, (F.) Causes pre\- 
disponantcs, Causes 'eloignies, Causa rcmo'ta ; 
— those which render the body liable to disease. 
These may be general, affecting a number of 
people, or they may he particular, affecting only 
one person. 

Principal Causes, (F.J Causes principales : 
— those which exert the chief influence on the 
production of disease, as distinguished from the 
accessory causes. 

Procatarc'tic Causes, Causa procatarc'- 
tica. Causa praincipien'tes, from /tookkt^okthcoc; 
— the origin or beginning of a thing, from x«- 
tuq/ui, ' I begin,' and /too, ' before.' These words 
have been used, in different significations. 
Some have employed them synonymously with 
predisponent or remote causes; others, with oc- 
casional or exciting causes. 

The Proximate Cause, Causa prox'ima vel 
con'tinens vel conjunc'ta (F.) Cause continentc 
ou prochaine, is tiie disease itself. Superabun- 
dance of blood, e. g., is the proximate cause of 
plethora. 

Specific Causes, Essential Causes, &c. 
(F.) Causes specifiqucs, C. essentielles, Causes 
Mterminuntcs ; those, which always produce a 
determinate disease ; contagion, for example 

CAUSES CACHJiES, Causes, occult-c. M- 
terminantes , Causes, specific — c. Eloignies, Cau- 
ses, predisponent — c.Prochaincs, Causes, proxi- 
mate. 

CAUSIS, Burn, Ebullition, Fermentation, 
Incendium, Ustion. 

CAUSOMA, Inflammation. 
CAUS'TIC, Caus'ticus, Cauteret'icus, Dia- 
ret!icus, Ero'dcns, Pyrot'icus from xutw, 'I burn,' 
(F.) Caustiquc. Bodies, which have the proper- 
ty of causticity; and which, consequently, burn 



differ from the Causes matdrielles, which are j or disorganize animal substances. The word is 
common to a set of diseases; as, to the neuroses, also used substantively. The most active are 
phlegmasiae, &c. called Escharotics. Caustics are also called 

Internal Causes, (F.) Causes internes, are I' corrosives.' 



CAUSTIC A ADUSTIO 



139 



CAVERNOUS 



Caustic Bearer, Porte-caustique. 

CAUSTIC A ADUSTIO, Cauterization. 

CAUSTICITY, Caustic' itas, from x,uvaTmo?, 
'that which burns.' The impression, which 
caustic bodies make on the organ of taste; or, 
more commonly, the property which distin- 
guishes those bodies. 

CAUSTICUM ALKAL1NUM, Potassa fusa 
— c. Americanum, Veratrum sabadilla — c. An- 
timoniale, Antimonium muriatum — c. Com- 
mune, Potassa fusa — c. Commune acerrimum, 
Potassa fusa — c. Commune fortius, Potassa cum 
calce— c. Lunare, Argenti nitras— c. Potentiale, 
Potassa fusa — e. Salinum, Potassa fusa. 

Causticum Commu'nk, Potcn'tial Cau'tery, 
Common Caustic, Caute'rium -potentiale, La-pis 
sep'ticus,Caus'ticum commu'nemit'ius. This con- 
sists of quicklime and black soap, aa equal parts 

CAUSTIQUE, Caustic. 

CAU'SUS from kuiv>, ' I burn.' A highly ar- 
dent fever, Deu'rens. Pinel regards it as a com- 
plication of bilious and inflammatory fever ; 
Broussais, as an intense gastritis, accompanied 
with bilious symptoms. See Synocha. 

Causus, Endemial, of the West Indies, 
Fever, yellow— c. Tropicus endemicus, Fever, 
yellow. 

CAUTCHUC, Caoutchouc. 

CJWTkllE, Cauterium, Fonticulus — c. Inhe- 
rent, Inherent cautery. 

CAUTERETICUS, caustic. 

CAUTERETS, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
C. is a bourg seven leagues from Bareges (Hau- 
les-Pyrtnies,) France. The waters are hydro- 
sulphurous and thermal. They are used in the 
same cases as the Bareges water. 

CAUTE'RIUM, Cautery, Inusto'rium, Rup- 
to'rium, from xaico, 'I burn,' (F.) Cautere, Feu 
actuel. A substance, used for burning or dis- 
organizing the parts to which it is applied. 
Cauteries were divided, by the ancients, into 
actual and potential. The word is now restrict- 
ed to the red-hot iron ; or to positive burning. 
It was, formerly, much used for preventing he- 
morrhage from divided arteries ; and also, with 
the same views, as a blister. The term, Poten- 
tial Cautery, Caut6rium potentia'lg, (F.) Feu po- 
tentiel, was generally applied to the causticum 
commune, (q. v.) but is now used synonymously 
with caustic in general. 

Cautere also means an issue. 

CAUTERf Z A'TION, Cauterisa'tio, Exus'tio, 
Inus'tio, Caus'tica Aduklio. The effect of a 
cautery. 

The French, amongst whom cauterization is 
much used, distinguish five kinds: 1. Cau- 
terisation inhe 1 rente, which consists in applying 
the actual cautery freely, and with a certain de- 
gree of force, so as to disorganize deeply. 2. 
Cauterisation transcurrente, which consists in 
pissing the edge of the Cautere cultellaire, or 
the point of the Cautere coniquc lightly, so as 
not to disorganize deeply. 3. Cauterisation 
par pointcs, which consists in applying on the 
skin here and there, the hot point of the conical 
cautery with sufficient force to cauterize the 
whole thickness of the skin. 4. Cauterisation 
lente, slow cauterization, by means of the moxa. 
r>. Cauterisation objective, which consists in 
holding the cautery at some distance from the 
part to bo acted upon by it. 



f To Cauterize. Caus'tica adu'rerS, (F.) Can- 
teriser. To apply the cautery. To burn with 
a cautery. 

CAUTERY ,Cauterium—c. Potential, Causti- 
cum commune. 
CAVA, Vulva. 

Cava, Vena. The hollow or deep-seated 
vein, (F.) Veinc cave. A name given to the 
two great veins of the body, which meet at the 
right auricle of the heart. The vena cava su- 
pe'rior, thorac"ica vel descen'dens, is formed by 
the union of the subclavians ; and receives suc- 
cessively, before its termination at the upper 
part of the right auricle, the inferior thyroid, 
right internal mammary , superior diaphragma- 
tic, azygos, &c. The vena cava infe'rior, abdomi- 
na'lis vel ascen'dens, arises from the union of 
the two primary iliacs, opposite the fourth or 
fifth lumbar vertebra, receives the middle sacral, 
the lumbar, riglit spermatic, hepatic, and inferior 
diaphragmatics , and opens at the posterior and 
inferior part of the right auricle. 
CAVATIO, Cavity. 
CAVEA, Cavity— c. Narium, Nares. 
CAVER'NA, arTQor, Antrum. l A cavern.' 
This term has been used for the female organs 
of generation. See Cavity and Vulva. 
Cavehna Narium, Nares. 
CAVERNS FRONTIS, Frontal sinuses. 
CAVERJVEUX, Carvernous. 
CAVERNOUS, Caverno'sus, (F.) Caver- 
neux. Filled with small cavities or caverns, — 
as a sponge. 

Cavernous Respiration, (F.) When a 
cavity exists in the lungs, and one or more 
ramifications of the bronchia terminate in it, a 
loud tubal noise is emitted, provided the cavity 
be not filled with fluid, which is called cavern- 
ous respiration. In this condition the cough is 
cavernous likewise, (F.) Toux Caverneuse. 
When the capacity of the cavern is very great, 
the sound of respiration is like that produced by 
blowing into a decanter, with the mouth at 
a little distance from the neck. This kind of 
cavernous respiration has been called amphoric, 
from amphora, ' a flask,' (F.) Respiration am- 
phorique. 

Cav'ernous Texture or Tissue, (F.) Tissu 
caverncux. The spongy substance which forms 
the greater part of the penis and clitoris. It 
seems to consist of a very complicated lace- 
work of arteries and veins; and, probably, of 
nervous filaments, with small fibrous plates, 
which form, by their decussation, numerous 
cells, communicating with each other. This 
spongy texture produces erection, by dilating 
and swelling on the influx of blood ; and pro- 
bably, also, by virtue of some property inhe- 
rent in it. 

Cor'pora Caverno'sa of the Penis, Cor'po- 
ra nervo'sa,, C. JYer'vco-spongiosa Penis, (F.) 
Corps caverncux. The corpus cavernosum is 
a kind of cylindrical sac, separated, through its 
whole extent, by a vertical, incomplete sep- 
tum; and forming nearly two-thirds of the Pe- 
nis. The corjms cavernosum, on each side, 
arises from the ascending portion of the ischi- 
um, and terminates obtusely behind the glans. 
The arteries of the corpora cavernosa eome 
from the internal pudic. See Helicine Arte- 
ries. Nerves are found on the surface of the 



CAVIARE 



140 



CEL'LULAR 



outer membrane, but they do not appear to pe- 
netrate the substance. 

Miiller's researches have led him to infer, 
that both in man and the horse, the nerves of 
the corpora cavernosa are made up of branches 
proceeding from the organic as well as the ani- 
mal system, whilst the nerves of animal life 
alone provide the nerves of sensation of the 
Penis. 

The Cor'pora Caverno'sa Clitor'idis, are 
two hollow crura, forming the clitoris. 

The Corpus Caverno'sum Vagi'hje, Plexus 
retifor'mis, is a substance, composed of blood- 
vessels and cells, similar to those of the penis 
and clitoris, which covers the outer extremity 
of the vagina, on each side. It serves to con- 
tract the entrance to the vagina, during coition. 

Sinus Caverno'sus, Sinus polymor'phus seu 
Receptac'ulum, S. sphenoidalis, (F.) Sinus caver- 
neux. The Cav'ernous Si'nuses are venous ca- 
vities of the dura mater, filled with a multi- 
tude of reddish, soft filaments, intersecting 
each other ; and, as it were, reficulated. They 
commence behind the inner part of the sphe- 
noidal fissure, pass backwards, on the sides of 
the fossa pituitaria, and terminate by opening 
into a cavity, common to the superior and in- 
ferior petrosal sinuses. They receive some 
meningeal veins, the ophthalmic veins, &c. 

CAVIARE, Kaviac. A culinary preparation, 
much used by certain people, and made on the 
shores of the Black and Caspian Sea, from the 
roe of the sturgeon, mixed with salt and other 
condiments. 

CAVIC'ULA or CAVIL'LA, from cavus, 
' hollow.' The Ancle, or space between the 
malleoli. Some have given this name to the 
os cuneiforme. See Astragalus. 

CAVICUL^E PEDIS NODUS, Tarsus. 

CAVILLA, Astragalus, Cavicula. 

CAVITAS ANTROSA AURIS, Tympa- 
num — c. Buccinata, Cochlea — c. Cochleata, 
Cochlea. 

Cav'itas Ellip'tica, Ampulla. A dilatation 
at one end of the semicircular canals of the 
ear. 

Cavitas Nariuim, Nares, Cavitas Pulps, 
see Tooth. 

CAVITATES CEREBRI, Ventricles of the 
brain — c. Duraj matris, Sinuses of the dura 
mater — c. Innominate, Auricles of the heart. 

CAV1T&, Cavity — c. Dentairc, Dental cavity 
— c. des Epiploons, see Peritonaeum — c. du 
Tympan, Tympanum. 

CAVITY, Cav'itas, Cavum, Ccclotcs, Colon, 
Cavea, Caver'na, Cuva'tio, koiXotijc, koiHov, (F.j 
Caviti,. Every thing hollow, as the cranium, 
mouth, nasal fossae, &c. 

The Splanch'nic CAv'iTiEi, (F.) Cauites 
splanchniqucs, are those which contain the vis- 
cera. They are three in number ; — the crani- 
um, chest, and abdomen. The cavities of bones, 
connected with joints or otherwise, are de- 
scribed under their particular denominations. 

CAVUM, Cavity. 

Cavum Cranii, Venter Supre'mus. The ca- 
vity formed by the proper bones of the cranium. 

Cavum Narium, Nares — c. Oris, Mouth — c. 
Tympani, Tympanum. 

CAYAN, Phaseolus creticus. 

CAZABI, Jatroplia manihot. 



CEANOTHOS, Cirsium arvense — c. Amcri- 
canus, Celastrus. 

CEAR, Heart. 

CEASMA, Fissure. 

CEBI GALLl'N^E. The liver of the fowl, 
bruised. — Castelli. 

CEBIP'ARA. A large Brazilian tree, whose 
bitter and astringent bark is used in making 
anti-rheumntic baths and fomentations. 

CECES. See Quercus alba. 

CEC IT 'A, Cfficitas. 

CEDAR, RED, Juniperus Virginiana. 

CEDEIA, Embalming. 

CED'MATA, KfduuTa. Rheumatic pains of 
the joints, especially of the hips. A form of 
gout, or rheumatism. 

CEDRELE'UM, from xsSqoc, < the cedar,' 
and iXaior, 'oil.' The oil of the cedar. — Pliny. 

CE'DRtA, Ce'drium, Cefdrinum, Cedri la- 
ckryma, Mkitran. The oil or resin, which flows 
from the Cedar of Lebanon. It was supposed 
to possess great virtues. — Hippocr., Foesius, 
Scribonius Largus, Dioscorides. It has been 
supposed to be the same as the pyroligneous 
acid. See Pinus Sylvestris. 

CE'DRINUM VINUM, Cedar Wine. A 
wine, prepared by steeping half a pound of 
bruised cedar berries in six French pints of 
sweet wine. It is diuretic and subastringent. 

CEDRFTES, from kbSqoc, 'the cedar.' A 
wine, prepared from the resin of cedar and 
sweet wine. It was formerly employed as a 
vermifuge, &c. 

CEDR1UM, Cedria. 

CEDROMELA. See Citrus medica. 

CEDRONELLA, Melissa. 

CEDROS, Juniperus lycia. 

CEDROSTIS, Bryonia alba. 

CEDRUS BACCTFERA, Juniperus sabina. 
CEIJYTURE, Cingulum, Herpes zoster — c. 
Dartrcuse, Herpes zoster — c. de Hildanc, Cin- 
gulum Hildani — c. de Vif Argent, Cingulum 
mercuriale. 

CELANDINE COMMON, Chelidonum ma- 
jus — c. lesser, Ranunculus ficaria. 

CKLlJiqUE, Cceliac. 

CELAS'TRUS, Celas'tus, Ceano'tlms Amcri- 
ca'nus, JYew Jersey Tea. Used by the Ameri- 
can Indians, in the same manner as the Lobe- 
lia, for the cure of syphilis. It is slightly bit- 
ter and somewhat astringent. 

CELJl'TIOJY, (F.) Concealment. A word 
used by French medico-legal writers for cases 
where there has been concealment of preg- 
nancy or delivery. 

CELE, KijXrj, a ' tumour, protrusion, or rup- 
ture ;' a very common suffix, as in Hydrocele, 
Bubonocele, &c, see Hernia. 

CEL'ERY, (F.) Celeri. The English name 
for a variety of the Jipium graveolens, (q. v.) 

CE'LIS, jc);/Uc, ' a spot, a stain.' A macula 
(q. v.) or spot on the skin. 

CELL, Calcig"crous, see Tooth — c. germi- 
nal, see Oytoblast. 

CELLA TURCICA, Sella Turcica. 

CELLUL.E BRONCHIC7E See Cellule. 
^ CEL'LULAR, Cellula'ris, (F.) Ccllulairc. 
Composed of cells or cellules, from cclla or ccl'- 
lulti, ' a cell.' 

The Cel'lut.ar Tissue, Tela cellularis, T. 
ccllulo'sa ; rctirula'ted, filamentous, laminated, 



CELLULE 



HI 



CENTIGRAMME 



crib'riforrn, porous, are'olar, and mucous Tissue, 
Reticular or cellular substance, Contex'lus cel- 
lulo'sus, (F.) Tissu cellulaire, reticule, lami- 
ncux, cribleux, porcux, areolaire, muqueux, &c, 
is the most common of all the organic tissues. 
Anatomists do not agree, regarding its intimate 
structure. It seems to contain cellules or irre- 
gular areolae between the fibres and plates ; as 
well as serum, fat, and the adipous tissue. The 
cellular tissue or texture unites every part of 
the body, the shape of which it determines; 
and, by its elasticity and contractility, and by 
the fluid, which it contains in its cells, facili- 
tates the motion of parts on each other. 

The cellular tissue has been divided by ana- 
tomists into the external, general or common 
cellular tissue — textus celhdaris intermedius seu 
laxus, which does not penetrate the organs, — 
the cellular texture which forms the envelopes 
of organs — textus ccllularis strictus, and that 
which penetrates into the organs, accompanying 
and enveloping all their parts, — the textus ccllu- 
laris slipatus. 

Constituting the basis of all the organs, it 
has likewise been termed Textus organicus seu 
parcnclajmalis. 

The Cei/ldlar System, is the whole of the 
cellular tissue of the human body. 

The Cel'lular Mem'brane, Membra! na cel- 
lulo'sa, M. Cellularis, Pannic'ulus adipo'sus, — 
M. adipo'sa, pinguedino' 'sa, of some, — is mem- 
brane formed of cellular tissue, (F.) Membrane 
cellulaire. Generally, it is used for the tissue 
itself. 

Cellular Tissue of Bones. See Cancelli. 

CEL'LULE, Ccl'lula, diminutive of cella, ' a 
cavity.' A small cavity, (F.) Cellule. Cellules 
are the small cavities between the lamina? of 
the cellular tissue, corpora cavernosa, &c. 

The term Biionchic Cells, Ce/luke Bron- 
chicce, has been given to the air-cells of the lungs, 
— the vcsic'ula. puhnona'les. 

CELLULES BRONCHIQUES, Bronchial 
cells. 

CELOSO'MUS, from x^, ' a Rupture,' and 
avnia, ' body.' A monster in which the trunk 
is malformed, and eventration or displacement 
of the viscera exists. 

CELOTO'MIA, Keloto'mia, from y.^Xyj, < a tu- 
mour,' and Ttuvetv, ' to cut.' An operation, 
formerly employed for the radical cure of in- 
guinal hernia; and which consisted, princi- 
pally, in passing a ligature round the hernial 
sac and spermatic vessels. It necessarily oc- 
casioned atrophy and loss of the testicle ; and 
did not secure the patient against the re- 
turn of the disease. The intestines were of 
course not included in the ligature. See Cas- 
tration. 

CELSA. A term, used by Paracelsus for a 
cutaneous disease, dependent, according to him, 
on a false or heterogeneous spirit or vapour, 
concealed under the integuments, and endea- 
vouring to escape. Perhaps the disease was 
the Urticaria. (?) 

CELSUS, METHOD OF. See Lithotomy. 

CEMBRO NUTS. See Pinus cembra. 

CEMENTERIUM, Crucible. 

CEMEN'TUM, see Tooth. 

CENCHRON, Panicum miliaceum. 

CENDRE DU LEVANT, Soda. 



CENDRES GRAVELEES, see Potash— c. dc 
Sarment, see Potash. 

CENDRE, Cineritious. 

CENEANGl'A, from xtvog, < empty,' and 
ayytiov, ' a vessel.' Inanition. Empty state of 
vessels. — Galen. 

CENEMBATE'SIS, from «,■<,?, 'empty,' 
and tujiuivm, ' I enter.' Paracentesis, (q. v.) 
Also, the act of probing a wound or cavity, Me- 

CENEONES, Flanks. 

CEN1GDAM, Ceniptam. 

CENIGOTAM, Ceniplam. 

CENIPLAM, Ccnigdam, Ccnigotam,Ccnipo- 
lam. The name of an instrument, anciently 
used for opening the head in epilepsy. — Pa- 
racel. 

CENIPOTAM, Ceniplam. 

CENO'SIS, from xevog, ' empty.' Inc'sis, 
Inc'thmos. Evacuation. It is sometimes em- 
ployed synonymously with inanition, (q. v.) 
and opposed to repletion. Exinani'tio. 

CENOT'ICA, from y.tvmcit?, 'evacuation.* 
Diseases affecting the fluids. Morbid dis- 
charges or excess, deficiency or irregularity of 
such as are natural. The first order, class 
Genetica, of Good; also, Drastics, (q. v.) 

CENTAU'REA BEHEN, Behen abiad, Be- 
hen album or White Behen. Ord. Gentianese. 
Astringent. 

Centau'rea Benedic'ta, Car'duus bened'.c- 
tus, Cnicus sylves'tris, Cnicus benedic'tus, Car- 
diobot'anum, Blessed or Holy Thistle. (F.) Char- 
don binit. Fam. Cynarocephalere. Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesia Polygamia frustranea. A strong 
decoction of the herb is emetic : — a strong in- 
fusion, diaphoretic (?) ; a light infusion, tonic 
and stomachic. Dose, gr. xv to zj of powder. 

Centau'rea Calcitra'pa, Calcitra'pa, Cal- 
catrep'pola, Car'duus solstitia' lis, Car'duus stclla- 
tus, Jacca ramosis'sima, Cacotrib'ulus, Calci- 
trap' pa stclla'ta, Stella' ta rupi'na, Centau'rea 
stclla' ta, Common Star- Thistle, Star-Knapweed, 
(F.) Ccntauric 6t.oilte, Char don itoili, Chausse- 
trappe, Pignerole. It is possessed of tonic pro- 
perties, and has been given in intermittents, 
dyspepsia, &c. It is now not much used. 

Centau'rea Centau'rium, Rhapon'ticum 
vulga're, Centau'rium magnum, Centau'rium 
ma jus, Greater Cen'taury, Centau'rium qffici- 
na'lS, (F.) Ccnlaurie grande. It is a bitter; 
and was formerly used as a tonic, especially 
the root. 

Centau'rea Cy'anus, Ct/anus, Blue-bottle, 
Corn-ftowcr, (F.) Blavellc, Blavtole, Blaverollc. 
The flowers were once much used as cordial, 
tonic, &c. They are now forgotten. 

Centaurea Stellata, Centaurea calci- 
trapa. 

CENTAURliC ETOILEE, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — c. Grande, Centaurea centaurium — c. 
petite, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAURIUM MAGNUM, Centaurea 
centaurium — c. Minus vulgare, Chironia cen- 
taurium — c. Officinale, Centaurea centaurium — 
— c. Parvum, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAURY, American, Chironia angularis 
— c. Greater, Centaurea centaurium — c. Lesser, 
Chironia centaurium. 

CENTES1S, Paracentesis. 

CENTIGRAMME, (F.) from centum, 'a 



CENTILITRE 



142 



CEPHALIC 



hundred,' and yoauua, ' gramme.' Ccntigram'- 
ma. The hundredth part of a gramme. A 
centigramme is equal to about the fifth part of a 
grain, (F.) gr. .1544, Troy. 

CENTILITRE, Cendli'trum, from centum, 
1 a hundred,' and ).noa, ' litre,' an ancient 
Greek measure for liquids : — the hundredth 
part of a litre — equal to nearly ten grammes or 
a spoonful. 2 7053 fluidrams. 

CENTIMETRE, Cenlim'etrum. The hun- 
dredth part of a metre — equal to about four 
lines. ,'.i[) 7 English Inch. 

CENTIMORBIA, Lysimachia nummularia. 

CENT1NERVIA, Plantago. 

CENTINODE, Polygonum aviculare. 

CENTIMODIA, Polygonum aviculare. 

CENTO VIRGINALIS, Hymen. 

CENTRAL AR'TERY OF THE RET'- 
INA, Arte'ria Centra' lis Ret' inm. Central Arte- 
ry of Zinn. This artery is given off from the 
arteria ophthalmica, and penetrates the optic 
nerve a little behind the ball of the eye ; run- 
ning in the axis of the nerve, and spreading 
out into many small branches upon the inside 
of the retina. When the nerve is cut across 
near the eye, the orifice of the divided artery 
is observable, which was formerly called Porus 
op'ticus. 

CENTRE OF ACTION. The viscus in 
which the whole or a great part of any func- 
tion is executed, and to which several other 
organs contribute. Thus, the vital activity 
seems to be wholly centred in the stomach, 
during chymification ; in the duodenum, du- 
ring chylification. In like manner, the uterus 
becomes a centre of action during gestation. 

Centre of Fluxion. The part towards 
which fluids are particularly attracted. An 
irritated organ is said to be a centre of fluxion. 

Centre of Sympathetic Irradia'tions, 
(F.) Centre aV irradiations sympathiqucs. Any 
organ, which excites, sympathetically, the ac- 
tion of other organs, more or less distant from 
it ; and with which it seems to have no imme- 
diate communication. — Marjolin. 

Centre, Epigas'tric The ganglions and 
nervous plexuses, formed by the great sympa- 
thetic and pneumogastric nerves, in the epi- 
gastrium, around the cceliac artery ; where the 
impressions received from various parts of the 
body seem to be centred. 

Centre, Nervous or Nervous Centres, 
(F.) Centres nervcux. The organs, whence the 
nerves originate ; as the brain and spinal mar- 
row. 

Centre, Oval, Centrum ova'lS, C. O. Vicus- 
se'nii, Tegmen'tum ventriculo'rum cer'ehri. 
When the two hemispheres of the brain are 
sliced away, till on a level with the corpus 
callosum, the medullary part is of an oval 
shape : hence called centrum ova'ls. Vieus- 
sens supposed all the medullary fibres to issue 
from that point, and that it was the great dis- 
pensatory of the animal spirits. 

Centre, Phrenic, or Tcn'dinous Centre of 
the Di'aphragm, Centrum Phren'icum, C. Ner- 
vcum, or C. Tendino'sum, (F.) Centre phri- 
nique ou C. tendineux du Diaphragmc. The 
central aponeurosis of the diaphragm. 

Centre, Tendinous of the Diaphragm, 
Centre phrenic. 



CENTROMYRINE, Ruscus. 

CENTRUM COMMUNE, Solar plexus— c. 
Nerveum, Centre, phrenic — c. Tendinosum, 
Centre, phrenic. 

CENTUM CAPITA, Eryngium campestre. 

CENTUMNOD1A, Polygonum aviculare. 

CEPA ASCALONICA, Bulbus esculentus, 
Echalotte. 

CEPiEA, Veronica beccabunga. 

CEPH^ELIS IPECACUANHA, Ipecacu- 
anha. 

CEPHAL^E'A, Headache, (F.) Ciphalie. 
Some use the term synonymously with Ce- 
phalalgia. Others, for a periodical headache : — 
others, again, for a more violent headache than 
Cephalalgia implies; and others for a chronic 
headache. 

The Ccphalm'a spasmod'ica, Cephalalgia 
spasmod'ica or Sick-headache, is characterized 
by partial, spasmodic pain; often shifting- from 
one part of the head to another: chiefly com- 
mencing in the morning, with sickness and 
faintness. It is extremely apt to recur, not- 
withstanding every care. 

Cephaljea Hemicrania, Hemicrania — c. 
pulsatilis, Crotaphe. 

CEPHAL,EMATO'MA,fromxs<fa;.i;,'head,' 
and iifia, ' blood.' Msces'sus Cap'itis san- 
guineus neonalo'rum, Cepha lophy' ma. A san- 
guineous tumour, sometimes developed be- 
tween the pericranium and the bones of the 
head of new-born children. Similar tumours 
are met with occasionally above other bones, 
and at all periods of existence. 

CEPHALAGRA, from Kttpa/.r n * the head,' 
and ayoa, ' seizure.' Gout in the head. 

CEPHALAGRA'PHIA, from «.sip a ?., h 'the 
head,' and yQacpij, ' a description.' An anato- 
mical description of the head. 

CEPHALAL'GIA, Cepha/opo'nia, Homono- 
pa'gia, from x.npu;.r n ' the head,' and uXyos, 
' pain,' Encephalal'gia, Pain in the head; head- 
ache, (F.) Ccphalalgie, Mai a tele. Every kind 
of headache, whether symptomatic or idiopa- 
thic, is a cephalalgia. It is ordinarily sympto- 
matic, and has to be treated accordingly. 

Cephalalgia Contagiosa, Influenza — c. In- 
flammatoria, Phrenitis — c. Pulsatilis, Crotaphe 
— c. Spasmodica, See Cephalrea. 

CEPHALALO'GIA^romz^pa;.);,' the head,' 
and Xoyos, ' a discourse.' An anatomical dis- 
sertation on the head. 

CEPHALARTICA, Cephalic remedies. 

CEPHALATO'MIA, Cepha,! otomia, from 
r.tipalt], ' the head,' and Tfurav, ' to cut.' Ana- 
tomy or dissection or opening of the head. 

CEPHALE, Head. 

CEPHAL'IC, Ccphal'icus, Capita'lis, from 
y.iipa?.};, ' the head.' (F.) Ciphalique. Relating 
to the head. 

The Cephal'ic Vein, Vena Ccphal'ica, Vena 
Cap'itis, (F.) Vcinc ciphalique, Veinc radiale 
cutanee of Chaussier. The great superficial 
vein at the outer part of the arm and forearm. 
It begins on the back of the hand, by a number 
of radicles, which unite into a single trunk, 
called the Cephalic of the. Thumb, Ccphal'ica 
Pol'licis, (F.) Veinc ciphalique du pouce. It 
ascends along the anterior and outer part of 
the forearm, where it forms the superficial r a - 
dial. A I the fold of the elbow it. receives the 



CErHALIDIUM 



143 



CERATE 



median cephalic, ascends along the outer edge 
of the biceps, and opens into the axillary vein. 
The name, Cephalic, was given to it by the 
ancients, because they thought it had some 
connexion with the head, and that blood-let- 
ting must be performed in this vein, in head 
affections. 

Chaussier calls the internal jugular, Veine 
cAphalique, and the primary or common caro- 
tid, Arttre ciphalique. 

Cephal'ic Rem'edies, Ccphal'ica vel Capi- 
tu'lia reme'dia, are remedies capable of reliev- 
ing affections of the head, especially head- 
ache : — Cephalar'tica. 

CEPHALIDIUM. See Caput. 
CEPHALI'NE, y-KpuXivy. The base or root 
of the tongue. — Gorraeus. 
CEPHALITIS, Phrenitis. 
CEPHALIUM. See Caput. 
CEPHALOM'ETER, Ccphalom'ctrum, from 
Ktcfai-tj, ' the head,' and fitTQov, ' measure.' An 
instrument for measuring the different dimen- 
sions of the foetal head, during the process of 
accouchement. A kind of forceps. 

CEPHALON'OSUS, from xtipcdi], ' the head,' 
and voooe, ' disease.' This term has been ap- 
plied to the Febris Hungar'ica, in which the 
head was much affected. See Fever, Hunga- 
ric. Others have so called, — any cerebral dis- 
ease or fever. 

CEPH'ALO-PHARYNGiE'US.from^cpK^, 
1 the head,' and waqvy% t ' the pharynx:' belong- 
ing to the head and pharynx. Winslow has 
given this name to the portion of the constrictor 
pharyngis superior, (q. v.) which is attached, 
above, to the inferior surface of the basilary 
process of the os occipitis. The Ceph'alo-pha- 
rynge'al Jlponcuro' sis is a thin, fibrous mem- 
brane, which is attached to the basilary pro- 
cess, and gives insertion to fibres of the con- 
strictor superior pharyngis. 

CEPHALOPHYMA, Cephahematoma. 
CEPHALOPONIA, Cephalalgia. 
CEPH'ALO-SPINAL, Cephalo-spina'lis. Be- 
longing to the head and spine. 

The Ceph'alo-spinal Fluid, is an exhaled 
fluid, which is found between the encephalon 
and pia mater; and which seems to have a 
protecting office, and to keep up a certain de- 
gree of pressure on the organ, — at least in the 
spinal canal. 

CEPHALOTRIBE, (F.) An instrument in- 
vented by Baudelocque, the nephew, for crush- 
ing the head of the foetus in utero, from neipuXti, 
'the head,' and roifo), 'I bruise.' It consists 
of a strong forceps, the blades of which are 
solid: ] (J lines broad, and 3 thick. The handles 
are perforated at their extremity to receive a 
screw with three threads, the direction of which 
is very oblique, so as to allow great rapidity of 
rotation, and the screw is moved by a winch G 
inches long, to increase the force of the pres- 
sure. The bones of the head are easily crushed 
by it. 

CEPHALOTRYPES1S, Trepanning. 
CEPHALOXIA, Torticollis. 
CEPULLA, Allium cepa. 
CER, Heart. 

CERA FLAVA et ALBA, kijqos, Yellow and 
White Wax, (F.) Cire Jaune et Blanche. An 
animal substance, prepared by the bee, and by 



some plants, as the Ccrox'ylon and Myr'ica cc- 
rif'era. Its colour is yellow, and smell like 
that of honey, but both are lost by bleaching. 
It is demulcent and emollient: is sometimes 
given in the form of emulsion, in diarrhoea and 
dysentery, but is chiefly used in cerates and 
ointments. 

CER^E'iE, from hiqccs, 'a horn,' kiqcuou. 
The Cor'nua of the U'terus. (q. v.) — Rufus of 
Ephesus. 

CERAM'ICE, CERAMI'TIS. A sort of 
earth, used as a Cataplasm in peripneumony. — 
Hippocr. 
CERAMIUM, Amphora. 
CERAMNIUM, Amphora. 
CERAMURIA. See Urine. 
CERANTHEMUS, Propolis. 
CERAS, xinag, ' genitive,' xtqarog, ' horn,' 
(Cornu q. v.) also, the Cornea (q. v.) Hence 
Ceratectomia, Ceratoccle, &c. 
CERASION. See Prunus cerasus. 
CERASMA, xioaOfta, from Ktoarvvui, 'to 
mix:' something mixed. A mixture of hot and 
cold water. Metacerasma. — Gorraeus. 
CERASUM. See Prunus cerasus. 
CERASUS AVIUM, Prunus avium— c. Lau- 
rocerasus, Prunus laurocerasus — c. Padus, Pru- 
nus Padus — c. Racemosus Sylvestris, Prunus 
padus. 

CERAT BLANC ou DE G ALIEN, Ceratum 
Galeni — c. de Blanc dc Baleine, Ceratum ceta- 
cei — c. de Goulard, Ceratum plumbi — c. pour 
les levres, Cerate for the lips — c. de Plomb com- 
pose 1 , Ceratum plumbi compositum — c. de Savon, 
Ceratum Saponis — c de Suracctate dc plomb, 
Ceratum plumbi superacetatis. 

CE'RATE, Cera'tum, from Ktjnac, ' wax.' 
Cerelaum, Cero'ma, Ccro'nium, Cero'tum, Ce- 
ratomalag'ma, (F.) Cirat. A composition of 
wax, oil, or lard, with or without other ingre- 
dients. 

Cerate, Simple Cerate, Cera'tum, Cera'- 
tum simplex, P. L. (F.) Ciral simple. (Yelloio 
wax 3,iv, olive oil §iv.) It is applied as an 
emollient to excoriations, &c. 

Cerate of Cal'amine, Cera'tum Calami'na, 
C. Carbona' lis zinci impu'ri, Cera'tum lap'idis 
Calamina'ris, Cera'tum epulot' icum, Turner's 
Cerate, Healing Salve, (F.) Cirat de Pierre 
Calaminaire, C. de Calamine. (Olive oil Ibj. 
yellow wax lbss; melt, cool, and, when it begins 
to set, stir in calamine lbss.) 

Cerate of Canthar'ides, Cera'tum Can- 
thar'idis, Blister Ointment, Ointment of Spanish 
Flies, Ungucn'tum ad vesicalo'ria, Unguen'tum 
Pid'vcris Mel'oes vesicuto'rii, Ung. epispas/ti- 
cum fortius, Cera'tum Lyttce, (F.) Cirat de 
Cantharides. (Spermaceti cerate gvj, cantha- 
rides in powder, gj. The cerate being soften- 
ed by heat, stir in the flies.) It is used to keep 
open blisters, issues, &c. See Unguentum 
Lyttffi. 

Cerate, Kirkland's Neutral. (Diachyl. 
gviij, olive oil 5iv, prepared chalk ^iv: when 
nearly cool, add Acet. dist. |;iv, plumb, supera- 
ctt giij.) A cooling emollient. 

Cerate or Pomma'tum for the Lips, Ce- 
ra'tum labia' It rubrum, Pomma'tum ad labia 
demulcen'da. Ph. P. (F.) Cirat ou pommade 
pour les Vevrcs, (Wax !) parts; oil 16 parts;— 
coloured icith alkanet.) 



CERATECTOMIA 



144 



CERATUM SABINE 



Cerate, Lead, Compound, Ceratum plumbi 
compositum. 

Ckrate, Marshall's. (Palm oil ^vi, calo- 
mel 5J, sugar of lead gss, ointment of nitrate of 
■mercury |ij.) 

Cerate, Savine, Ceratum sabinse — c. Soap, 
Ceratum saponis — c. Spermaceti, Ceratum ce- 
tacci — c. of Superacetate or Sugar of lead, Ce- 
ratum plumbi superacetatis — c. Turner's, Ce- 
rate of calamine. 

CERATECTO'MIA, from Ksoag, ' the cor- 
nea,' and fZToaoc, ' cut out.' An incision 
through the cornea. See Ceratotomia. 

CERATFT1S, from xtoag, ' the cornea,' and 
his, 'inflammation.' Inflammation of the cor- 
nea, Ceratodei'tis, Ceratomeningi' lis. See Cor- 
ncitis. 

CERATIA, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CERATION, Siliqua. 

CERATIUM, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CER'ATO, in composition, in the names of 
muscles, is used for the cornua of the os hy- 
oides; — as Cerato-glossus. 

CER'ATOCELE, Aquvla, Uva'tio, Hernia 
Cor'ncat, Ceratodeoce'le, from xt^ac, ' horn,' and 
ztjAi;, ' tumour.' A protrusion of the transpa- 
rent cornea, or rather of the membrane of the 
aqueous humour through an opening in the 
cornea. 

CERATODEIT1S, Ceratitis. 

CERATODEOCELE, Ceratocele. 

CKRATOGLOS'SUS or KERATOGLOS'- 
SUS, from y.tnac, ' horn,' and yXotrffa, ' the 
tongue.' A muscle, extending from the great 
cornu of the os hyoides to the base of the 
tongue. It is a part of the hyoglossus (q. v.) 

CERATOIDES. Cornea. 

CERATO-MALAGMA, Cerate. 

CERATO-MENINGITIS, Ceratitis. 

CER'ATO-PHARYNGE'US or KER'A- 
TOPHARYNGE'US, from ztoac, a 'horn,' 
and ipaovyt;, ' the pharynx.' The great and 
small Cer'ato-pliaryngc'i are small fleshy bun- 
dles, forming part of the Hypopharyngeus of 
Winslow. 

CER'ATO-STAPHYLI'NUS or KER'A- 
TO-STAPHYLINUS, from ytnac, ' horn,' and 
OTatpvXt], ' the uvula.' Some fleshy fibres of 
the Thyro-Staphylinus of Winslow. 

CERATO'NIA SIL'IQUA. The Carol Tree. 
Crra'tium, Cera'tia, Sil'iqua dulcis, Caro'ba M- 
nabati, the Sweetpod, (F.) Caroubicr (Fruit, 
Carouge.) This — the fruit of the Ccratonia 
siliqua — is mucilaginous, and employed where 
mucilages are indicated, in decoction. 

CERATONYX'IS or KERATONYX'IS, 
from y.eQag, ' the cornea,' and rvoatn, ' I punc- 
ture.' An operation by which the crystalline 
is depressed by means of a needle introduced 
into the eye through the cornea. Some divide 
the crystalline into fragments with the needle, 
and leave them to the action of the absorbents. 
The operation is as old as the 17th century. 

CERATOPLAS'TICE, from K fQa? , ' the 
cornea,' and nXuariKoc, ' forming, formative.' 
The operation for the formation of an artificial 
cornea. It has not been practised on man. 

CERATOTO'MIA, Cerateclomia,ftoin xeqa?, 
' horn,' ' cornea,' and rtfivtiv, ' to cut.' Section 
of the transparent cornea. This incision is used 
in the operation for cataract: to give exit to 



pus effused in the eye, in case of hypopyon, 
Arc. 

CERATOT'OMUS, Kcratot'omus, Kcrat'o- 
mus, from xtQac, ' cornea.' and rsurtiv, ' to 
cut.' A name given by Wenzel to his knife 
for dividing the transparent cornea, in the 
operation for cataract. Many modifications of 
the instrument have been made since Wenzel's 
time. See Knife, cataract. 

CERATUM ALBUM, Ceratum cetacei, Ce- 
ratum Galeni — c. de Althaea, Unguentum de 
Althaea — c. de Cerussa, Unguentum plumbi sub- 
carbonatis. 

Cera'tuh Ceta'cei, Cera'tum spermaceti, 
Cera' turn album, Cera'tum simplex, C. Ccti, 
Unguen'tum adipoce'ra ceto'rum, Linimcn'tum 
album, Emplas'lrum Sperm! 'atis Ceti, Sperma- 
ceti Cerate, (F.) Cirat de Wane de baleine. 
(Spermaceti 2iv, white tcax ^ij, olive oil §iv.) 
A good emollient to ulcers, &c. 

Ceratum Ceti, Ceratum cetacei — c. Cicutse, 
Ceratum conii — c. Citrinum, Ceratum resina;. 

Cera'tum Coni'i, Cera'tum Cicu'tm. (Ung. 
conii Ibj, cetacei Sjij, ceraz alba 3iij) A formula 
in Bartholomew's Hospital : occasionally ap- 
plied to cancerous, scrofulous sores, &c. 

Ceratum Epuloticum, Cerate of calamine. 

Cera'tum Gale'ni, Cera'tum album, C. re- 
frige"rans Galeni, Unguen'tum cera'tum, U. 
amygdali'num, U. simplex, Emplas'lrum ad 
fontic'ulos, Olco-ceratum aqua subuctum, Cold 
Cream, (F.) Cdrat blanc ou de Galien. (White 
wax 4 parts; oil of sweet almonds 10 parts; 
add, when melted, water or rose-water VZ parts. 
Ph. P.) A mild application to chaps, &c. 

Ceratum Labiale Rubrum, Cerate for the 
lips — c. Lapidis calaminaris, Cerate of cala- 
mine — c. Lithargyri acetati compositum, Cera- 
tum plumbi compositum — c. Lyttae, Cerate of 
cantharides — c. Mercuriale, Unguentum hy- 
drargyri — c. Picatum, Pisselaeum. 

Cera'tum Plumbi Superaceta'tis, Unguen'- 
tum Ccrus'sai Aceta'tce, Cerate of superacetate 
or Sugar of Lead, Ceratum Plumbi Jlcctutis, 
Unguentum .Icetatis Plumbi. (F.) Cerut de sura- 
cetate de Plomb. (Acetate of lead Zij, white loax 
5ij, olive oil Hjss.) Cooling and astringent. 

Ceratum Plumbi Compos'itum, Cera'tum 
Lithar'gyri Accta'ti Compos'itum, Goulard's 
Ointment, Cera'tum subaceta'ti plumbi medica'- 
turn, Cera'tum Salurni, Compound Lead Cerate. 
(F.) Cirat de Goulard, C. de Plomb compost. (Liq. 
plumb, acct. £\\ss, cera iflav(B,Ziv,ol. oliv.zix,cam- 
phorai ^ss.) Its virtues are the same as the last. 

Ceratum Refrigerans Galeni, Ceratum 
Galeni. 

Cera'tum Resi'n^, C. Resi'na flava, C. cit'- 
rinum, Ungu en' turn basil' icon ft avum, Ung.Rcsi'- 
naz fluva, Ung. Resino'sum, Resin Cerate or 
Ointment, Yellow Busilicon. (Resin. flav., Cera: 
flav., aa ftj, ol. oliv. Bj.) A stimulating appli- 
cation to old ulcers, &c. Digestive. 

Dr. Smf.llome's Ointment for the Eyes con- 
sists of finely powdered verdigris gss, rubbed 
with oil, and then mixed with an ounce of cera- 
tum resina. 

Cera'tum Sabi'nje, Unguent. Sabinat, Savine 
Cerate, (F.) Cirat de Sabine. (Fresh Savine 
leaves, bruised, Ibj, yellow wax Ibss, hog's lard 
My) Irritative, ' drawing.' Used in the same 
cases as the cerate of cantharides. 



CERAUNION 



145 



CEREBRUM 



Ceratum Saponis. Soap Cerate, (F.) Cerat 
<lc Savon. (Hard Soup ^viij, yellow wax, ^x, 
semivitreous oxide of lead ibj , olive oil Ibj , vinegar 
J gallon. Boil together the vinegar and oxide 
of lead, over a slow fire, stirring constantly till 
they combine : add the soap, and boil again 
until the water be evaporated: then mix in the 
oil and wax previously melted.) It is applied 
in cases of sprains or fractures. 

Ceratum Satcrni, Ceratum plumbi com- 
positum — c. Simplex, Ceratum ceracei — c. Sper- 
maceti, Ceratum cetacei — c. Subacetati plumbi 
medicatum, Ceratum plumbi compositum — c. 
Tetrapharmacum, Pisselaeum — c. Carbenatis 
zinci impuri, Cerate of calamine. 

CERAU'NION, from ictoavvo?, 'thunder,' « a 
thunderbolt.' Lapis fulmineus. A kind of stone, 
which was believed to be formed during thun- 
der; and to be possessed of the power of indu- 
cing sleep, and numerous other prophylactic vir- 
tues. It was rubbed on the knee, breast, &c. 
in swellings of those parts. — A. Chiocci. 

CERBERUS TRICEPS, Pulvis cornachini. 
CERCIS, Pilum, Radius. 
CERCA'RI A. A genus of agastric, infusory 
animalcules, one of the most curious of which 
inhabits the tartar of the teeth. The sperma- 
tozoa are presumed by some to belong to this 
genus. 

CERCHNOS, Cerchnus, from tj^vtu. <I 
render hoarse. 1 A rough voice produced by 
hoarseness. See Rattle. 

CER'CIS, KioKtg. A sort of pestle for redu- 
cing substances to powder. Also, the radius or 
small bone of the arm. See Pilum and Radius. 
CERCLE, Circulus — c. de la Choroide, Cili- 
ary ligament — c. Ciliaire, Ciliary ligament. 

CERCO'SIS, fromxE(jjto?, 'a tail.' Men'tula 
mulie'bris, the Clit'oris. Some authors have 
employed the word synonymously with Nym- 
phomania and elongation of the clitoris, and 
with Polypus Uteri, the Sarco'ma Cerco'sis of 
Sauvages. 

Cercosis Externa, Clitorism. 
CEREA, Cerumen. 

CEREA'LIA, from Ceres, 'goddess of corn,' 
(F.) Cirtalts (Plantes.) The cerealia are gra- 
mineous plants, the seed of which serve for the 
nourishment of man; — as wheat, barley, rye, 
&c. At times, the same term is applied to some 
of the leguminous plants. 

CEREBEL/LA URINA. Urine of a whitish 
appearance of the colour of the brain, from 
which Paracelsus thought he could distinguish 
diseases of that organ. 

CEREBELLI'TIS. Inflammation of the 
cerebellum: a variety of Phreniti3 or Ence- 
phalitis. 

CEREBEL'LOUS, Cerebelh'sus, from cerebel'- 
lum, 'the little brain.' (F.) Cerebelleux. Chaus- 
sier has given this name to the vessels of the 
cerebellum. These are three in number: two 
of which are inferior : the larger, Inferior Cere- 
belli, which arises from the posterior cerebral 
or vertebral ; and the smaller, whose existence 
is not constant, from the meso-cephalic or 
basilary: — the third, called, A. c&rebclleuse su- 
perieure (superior ccrebelli) , is also a branch of 
the basilary. 

Cerebel'lous Ap'oplexy, Apoplex'ia cere- 
bell*/ sa: apoplexy of the cerebellum. It is 
1!J 



often accompanied with irritation of the genital 
organs, as erection, &c. 

CEREBEL'LUM. Diminutive of Cer'cbrum, 
C.parvum, Appen'dix ad cer'cbrum, Cer'ebrum, 
poste'rius, Encra'nion, Encra'nis, Epencra'nis, 
Par enccp/i 'alts, the Little brain. (F.) Ccrvelei. 
A portion of the medullary mass, contained in 
the cavity of the cranium. It fills the lower 
occipital fossae, below the tentorium, and em- 
braces the tuber annulare and medulla. It is 
composed, like the brain, of cortical and medul- 
lary substance, arranged in laminae, as it were, 
so that, When a section is made of it, it has an 
arborescent appearance, called Arbor vita. The 
cerebellum is divided into two lobes or hemis- 
pheres, or lateral masses, and each lobe is again 
subdivided into Monticuli or Lobules. In the 
cerebellum are to be observed the Crura cere- 
belli, the fourt/i ventricle, the valvula magna 
cerebri, the processus vermicular es, superior and 
inferior, &c. 

CER'EBRAL, CerebraJlis, from cerebrum, 'the 
brain.' Belonging to the brain, and similar to 
the brain. (F.) Ce'rebral. 

Cerebral Apophysis, Pineal gland. 
The Cerebral Ar'teries are three on each 
side : — the anterior or artery of the corpus cal- 
losum, and the middle, Jirte'ria Sylvia' na, are 
furnished by the internal carotid: the posterior 
or posterior and inferior artery of the brain, J). 
profunda cerebri, arises from the vertebral. 
Chaussier calls these arteries lobaires, because 
they correspond with the anterior, middle, and 
posterior lobes, whilst he calls the trunks, 
whence they originate, cerebral. 

The Cerebral Nerves are those which arise 
within the cranium, all of which, perhaps, with 
the exception of the olfactory, arise from the 
medulla oblongata. See Nerves. 

In Pathology, an affection is called cerebral, 
which specially occupies the brain. Fievre 
cirebrale, Cerebral fever, is a variety in which 
the head is much affected. 

CEREBRIFORM, Encephaloid. 
CER'EBRUM. The brain. (F.) Cerveau, 
Cervelle. This term is sometimes applied to 
the whole of the contents of the cranium : at 
others, to the upper portion; — the posterior and 
inferior being called cerebellum. The brain, 
properly so called, extends from the os frontis 
to the superior occipital fossce. Anteriorly, it 
rests on the orbitar vaults; behind this, on the 
middle fossce of the base of the cranium; and, 
posteriorly, on the tentorium cerebello super ex- 
tensum. The upper surface is divided by a deep 
median cleft (Scissure interlobairc, — Ch.) into 
two halves, called hemispheres, which are united 
at the base by the corpus callosum. At its sur- 
face are numerous convolutions. The inferior 
surface exhibits, from before to behind, three 
lobes, distinguished into anterior, middle and 
posterior. The middle is separated from the 
anterior, by the fissure of Sylvids; and from 
the posterior, by a shallow furrow which cor- 
responds to the upper portion of the pars pc- 
trosa. Internally, the brain has, on the median 
line, the corpus callosum, septum lucidum,forniz, 
pineal gland, and third ventricle: — and, lateral- 
ly, the lateral ventricles, in which are the cor- 
pora striata, optic tlutlami, &c. 

The brain is contained in a triple envelope. 



CEREBRUM ABDOMINALE 



14G 



CERUSSEA UR1NA 



(See Meninges.) Its texture is pulpy, and 
varies according to age. Two substances may 
be distinguished in it — the medullary, and cor- 
tical or cineritious. The former is white; and 
occupies all the interior and base of the brain. 
The latter is grayish and softer. It is situate 
particularly at the surface of the organ. 

The brain receives several arterial vessels, 
furnished by the internal carotid and vertebral. 
Its veins end in the sinuses. It is the material 
Organ of thought: — of the mental and moral 
manifestations. 

According to M. Gall, each part is the special 
seat of one of those faculties, and the brain and 
cerebellum, inclusive, are called by him " the 
nervous systemof the mental faculties" 

The following Table, from Haller and Cuvier, 
exhibits the proportion between the mass of the 
brain and that of the body in man and in animals. 

A child of 6 years (Haller) ) , 00 

lb. 2, oz. 3 1-2. J ■"'" 

Adult (Haller) 1-35 

(From lb. 2, 3 oz. to lb. 3, 3 3-4 oz. 
•Soemmering.) 

Gibbon (Simia.) 1-48 

Sapajou .... from 1-41 to 1-22 

Ape from 1-48 to 1-24 

Baboon from 1-104 to 1-86 

Lemur from 1-84 to 1-61 

Bat ( Vespertilio Noctula) .... 1-96 

Mole 1-36 

Bear 1-205 

Hedgehog 1-168 

Fox 1 205 

Wolf 1-230 

Beaver 1-290 

Hare -: 1-228 

Rabbit 1-140 to 1-152 

Kat 1-76 

Mouse 1-43 

Wild Boar ....;.. 1-672 
Domestic, do. .... 1-512 to 1-412 

Elephant (7 or lb. 10) 1-500 

Stag . 1-290 

Roebuck (young) ...... 1-94 

Sheep 1-351 to 1-192 

Ox 1-750 to 1-860 

Calf 1-219 

Horse 1-700 to 1-400 

Ass 1-154 

Dolphin 1-25, 1-36, 1-60, 1-102 

Eagle 1-260 

Goose . 1-360 

Cock 1-25 

Canary-bird 1-14 

Humming-bird 1-11 

Turtle ........ 1-5688 

Tortoise 1-2240 

Frog 1-172 

Shark 1-2496 

Pike 1-1305 

Carp ........ 1-560 

The substance of the nervous system has 
been analyzed by Vauquelin and found to con- 
tain, water 80.00 ; white fatty matter 4.53; red 
fatty matter, called cerebrine, 0.70; osmazome, 
J. 12; albumen, 7.00; phosphorus, 1.50; sulphur, 
acid phosphates of potassa, lime, and magne- 
sia, 5.15. 

Cerebrum Aedominale, Solar plexus — c. 
Elongatum, Medulla oblongata — c. Parvum, 
Cerebellum — c. Posterius, Cerebellum. 

CEREFOLIUM, Scandix cerefolium— c. His- 
panicum, Chserophyllum odoratum — c. Sylves- 
tre, Chserophyllum sylvestre. 

CERELJ3UM, Cerate. 

CEREOLA, Bougie. 

CEREUM MEDlCATUM, Bougie. 



CEREVIS'IA, Zythos, tudoc, Liquor Ceteris, 
Vinum hordca'ceum, Barley Wine, Bira, Bryton, 
(9ovToi',from Ceres, ' corn ;' whence it is made. 
Ale, Beer, Porter, (F.) Bierc, Cervoise. These 
fluids are drunk by the inhabitants of many 
countries, habitually, and in Great Britain 
more than in others. They are nourishing, but 
not very easy of digestion. The old dispensa- 
tories contain numerous medicated Ales, which 
are no longer in use. 

CERFEUIL, Scandix cerefolium — c. Masque, 
Chserophyllum odoratum — c. Sauvage, Chcero- 
phyllutn sylvestre. 

CERION, Favus, Porrigo favosa. 

CERISIER, Prunus cerasus — c. a Grappes, 
Prunus padus — c. de Virginie, Prunus Virgi- 
niana. 

CERNIN, SAINT, WATERS OF. St. C. is 
a parish in the diocess of St. Flour, Upper Au- 
vergne, France. The water is a chalybeate. It 
is called Eau du Cambon. 

CERNOS, Capistrum. 

CEROE'NE, CEROU'NE, or CJROUE'NE, 
Ceroc'num, from xtjQog, ' wax,' and oiroc, ' wine.' 
A plaster, composed of yellow wax, mutton suet, 
pitch, Burgundy pitch, Bole Armeniac, Thus, and 
wine. It was used as a strengthening plaster. 
Sometimes it contained neither wax nor wine. 

CEROMA, Cerate. 

CEROMANTI'A, from k^o?, 'wax,' and 
fnarreiu, ' divination.' The art of foretelling 
the future, from the figures which melted wax 
assumes, when suffered to drop on the surface 
of water. 

CERONIUM, Cerate. 

CEROPIS'SUS,from x»;oo?, ' wax,' and niooa, 
< pitch.' A depilatory plaster, composed of pitcn 
and wax. 

CEROS, Cera. 

CEROSTROSIS, Hystriciasis. 

CEROTUM, Cerate. 

CEROXYLON. See Cera flava et alba. 

CERUA, Ricinis communis. 

CERU'MEN, from cera, 'wax.' Ceru'men 
Au'rium, Ce'rea, Au'rium Sordes, Marmora'ta 
Au'rium, Cyp'sele, Ceru'minous Humor, Cyp'- 
selis, Fu'gile, (F.) Cire des Oreilles. A name 
given to the unctuous humour, similar to wax 
in its physical properties, which is met with in 
the meatus auditorius externus . It is secreted by 
follicles, situate beneath the membrane lining 
the meatus. It lubricates the meatus, preserves 
the suppleness of the lining membrane, pre- 
vents the introduction of bodies floating in the 
atmosphere, and by its bitterness and unctuous- 
ness prevents insects from penetrating. 

CERU'MINOUS, Cerumino'sus, (F.) Cdrumi- 
neux. Relating to cerumen. 

Ceru'minous Glands or Follicles, (F.) 
Glandes cirumineuses ou Follicul.es Cirumi- 
neuses. Glands or follicles, which secrete the 
cerumen. 

CERUSSA ACETATA, Plumbi superacetas 
— c. Alba Hispanica, Plumbi subcarbonas — c. 
Alba Norica, Plumbi subcarbonas — c. Psym- 
mithron, Plumbi subcarbonas — c. Serpentaria?. 
See Arum maculatum. 

CERUSSE, Plumbi subcarbonas. 

CERUS'SEA URl'NA. Terms used by Para- 
celsus for the urine, when of a dull colour, Iik« 
cerusse. 



CERVARIA ALBA 



147 



CHALAZA 



CERVARIA ALBA, Laserpitium latifoli- 
am. 

CERVEAU, Cerebrum. 

CERVELET, Cerebellum. 

CERVELLE, Cerebrum. 

CERVI ELAPHICORNU,Cornu cervi. See 
Cervus. 

CERVICAL. Cervica'lis, from cervix, 'the 
back of the neck.' Trache'lian. Every thing 
which concerns the neck, especially the back 
part. 

The Cervical Ar'teries are three in num- 
ber: 1. The ascending , anterior, or superficial, a 
branch of the inferior thyroid, distributed to 
the scaleni muscles and integuments. 2. The 
transverse (Cervico-scapulaire — Ch.,) a branch 
of the axillary artery, or of the subclavian: dis- 
tributed to the levator scapula, trapezius, &c. 
3. The posterior or profound, A. transversa' lis 
colli {TracMlo-cervicale — Ch.) a branch of the 
subclavian, distributed to the deep-seated mus- 
cles on the anterior and posterior parts of the 
neck. 

The Cervical Veins have nearly the same 
distribution as the arteries. 

The Cervical Nerves are eight in number, 
on each side ; and form the eight cervical pairs, 
which are the first given ofF from the spinal 
marrow. 

The Cervical Plexus, {Plexus Trachilo- 
souscutani ChJ The nervous net- work, formed 
by the anterior branches of the first three cer- 
vical nerves, above the posterior scalenus mus- 
cle, and at the outer side of the pneumogastric 
nerve, carotid artery, and jugular vein. 

Cervical Gan'glions. The three ganglions 
of the great sympathetic. 'The cervical glands 
or lymphatic glands of the neck are, also, so 
called. 

Cervical Ver'tebr.;e. The seven first ver- 
tebrae of the spine. 

Cervical Lig'aments. These are two in 
number. 1. The anterior, extending from the 
basilary process of the occipital bone to the 
anterior part of the first cervical vertebra. 2. 
The posterior or supraspinous, Ligamen'tum 
Nu'chai, which extends from the outer occipital 
protuberance to the spinous process of the se- 
venth cervical vertebra. In animals with large 
heads it is very strong. 

CERVICALIS DESCENDENS. See Sacro- 
lumbal'^. 

CERVICARIA, Campanula-trachelium. 

CERVICIDORSO-SCAPULA1RE, Rhom- 
boideus — c. dorso-costal, Serratus posticus su- 
perior — c. dorso-mastoidien et dorso-trachdlien, 
Splenius — c Mastoidien, Splenius. 

CERVISPINA, Rhamnus. 

CERVIX, Collum. (q. v.) The neck. A neck. 

Cervix Obstipa, Torticollis. 

Cervix U'teri. The neck of the uterus ; also 
the vagina. The term cervix is applied to other 
parts, as the cervix of a bone, or the part be- 
tween the head and body, &c. See Collum. 

CERVOISE, Cerevisia. 

CERVUS, CERVA. The horn of the Cervus 
El'aphus, called Cornu, Cervi El'aphi Cornu, 
Cornu Cervi'num, Hartshorn, (F.) Come de 
cerf, contains 27 parts of gelatine in the 100. 
A jelly made from the shavings is emollient 
and nutritive. 



The Stag's Pizzle, Pria'pus Cervi, was 
once considered to be aphrodisiac. Dose, ^j to 
jj in powder. 

Cervus Al'ces. The Elk, (F.) Elan. The 
hoof of this animal was anciently used as an 
anti-epileptic. The animal, it was asserted, was 
subject to attacks of epilepsy, and always cured 
them by putting its hoof into the ear. The 
hoof was also worn as an amulet. 

The Cornu Ustum or Burnt Hartshorn has 
been used as an antacid, but it consists of 57 
parts of phosphate, and but one of carbonate of 
lime. It is, therefore, not of much use. 

CESTRI'TES. A wine prepared from beto- 
ny, {xiOTQov, 'betony.') 

CESTRON, Betanica officinalis. 

CETA'CEUM, from y. n rog, ' a whale.' Album 
Ceti, Adipoce'ra ceto'sa, Spermaceti, (F.) Blanc 
de Baleine, C6tine, Adipocire de Baleine. An 
inodorous, insipid, white, crystallized, friable, 
unctuous substance, obtained from the brain 
of the Physe'ter Macroceph' alus or Spermaceti 
Whale, and other varieties of whale. S. g. 
.9433 •- melts at 112°. It is demulcent and 
emollient ; has been given in coughs and dy- 
sentery, but is mostly used in ointments. Dose, 
2ss to ziss rubbed up with sugar or egg. 

CETERACH OFFICINARUM, Asplenium 
ceterach. 

CtiTlNE, Cetaceum. 

CETRARIN. See Lichen Islandicus. 

CEVADILLA HISPANORUM, Veratrum 
Sabadilla. 

CEVAD1LLE, Veratrum Sabadilla. . 

CHAA.Thea. 

CHjEREFOLIUM, Scandix cerefolium. 

CHjEROPHYL'LUM, from x<xiqo>, '1 re- 
joice,' and cpvXXov, ' a leaf.' 

Ch^rophyllum Temulum, Chffirophyllum 
sylvestre. 

Ch.srophyl'lum Sylves'tre, Cicuta'ria, 
Charophyl'lum Tem'ulum, Cerefc/Hum sylvestrS, 
Bastard Hemlock, Wild Chervil or Cow-weed, 
(F.) Cerfeuil sauvage, Persil d'Ane. It is a 
slightly fetid aromatic ; but is not used. 

ChjErophyl'lum Odora'tum, Scandix Odo- 
ra'ta, Myrrhis Odora'ta, Cerefo'lium Hispan'- 
icum, Sweet Cic"ely, (F.) Cerfeuil musqui. ou 
d'Espagne, has the smell of aniseed, and is 
cultivated on account of its aromatic proper- 
ties. 

CHiETE, Capillus. 

CHAFING, Erythe'ma Intertrigo, Para- 
trim'ma, from echauffer, ' to heat.' Fret, ero- 
sions of the skin, Attri'ta, (F.) Jtchauffemens , 
Jtcorchures. The red excoriations which occur 
in consequence of the friction of parts, or be- 
tween the folds of the skin, especially in fat or 
neglected children. Washing with cold water 
and dusting with hair powder is the best pre? 
ventive. 

CHAIR, Flesh. 

CHALAS1S, Relaxation. 

CHALASMOS, Relaxation. 

CHALAS'TICUS, from ^aAato, 'I relax. 1 
A medicine proper for removing rigidity of 
the fibres. — Galen. An emollient or relaxant, 

CHALA'ZA, CHALA'ZION, CHALAZO', 
SIS, Poro'sis, Grando, Hail, (F.) GrUe, Gra- 
velle. Certain hard, round, transparent tqmours. 



CHALCANTHUM 



148 



CHARBONNEUX 



developed in different parts of the body, more I chambers : — an anterior and a posterior. (F.) 

Chambre antdrieure et posUrieure. The ante- 
rior is the space between the cornea and the 
anterior part of the iris : — the posterior, the 
space between the iris and anterior surface of 
the crystalline. They are filled with the aque- 
ous humour, and communicate by the opening 
in the pupil. 

CHAM'BERLAIN'S RESTOR'ATIVE 
PILLS. This nostrum, recommended in scro- 
fula, and all impurities of the blood, has been 
analyzed by Dr. Paris, and found to consist 
of cinnabar, sulphur, sulphate of lime, and a 
little vegetable matter. Each pill weighs 3 
grains. 

CHAMBRIE, Cannabis sativa. 
CHAMELEA, Daphne Alpina. 
CHAMOMILE, DOGS', Matricaria chamo- 
milla — c. Dyer's, Anthemis tinctoria — c. Spa- 
nish, Anthemis pyrethrum — c. Stinking, Anthe- 
mis cotula. 

CHAMOMILLA NOSTRAS, Matricariacha- 
momilla — c. Romana, Anthemis nobilis. 
CHAMPACA, Michelia champaca. 
CHAMPIGNON, Fungus— c. de VAppareil 
des Fractures, Clavaria — c. de Couche, see Aga- 
ric — c. de Malte, Cynomorion coccineum. 
CHANCE LAGUA, Canchalagua. 
CHANCRE, (F.) Ulcus cancro'sum, Ulcus r - 
culum cancro'sum. A sore, which arises from 
the direct application of the venereal virus ; 
hence it is almost always seated, in men, on 
the penis. The French use the word Chancre, 
in popular language, for cancerous ulcers, the 
malignant aphtha? of children, &c. Formerly, 
the terms Caroli and Caries pudendo'rum were 
used for venereal pustules or sores on the parts 
of generation. 

CHAJ\CREUSE, (F.) Cancro'sus, Carcino 1 - 
des. Having the nature of chancre, or of can- 
cer. 

Bouton Chancreux is a small tumour of a 
cancerous nature, which makes its appearance 
on the face — most frequently on the upper lip 
— Noli me tang ere. 

CHANT DES ARTkRES, Sifflement module. 
CHANVRE, Cannabis sativa. 
CHAOMANTI'A. The Alchymists meant, 
by this word, the art of predicting the future 
from observation of the air. The word Chaos 
was used by Paracelsus for the air. 
CHAOSDA, Plague. 

CHAPERON DE MOINE, Aconitum na- 
pellus. 

CHAPPETONADE, (F.) Vom'itus rabio'sus. 
Vomiting, accompanied with furious delirium, 
attacking strangers in hot countries. 

CHAR'ACTER, X aQaxTt]Q. (F.) Caractere. 
A mark or impression. In Pathology, it is used 
synonymously with stamp or appearance. We 
say, " A disease is of unfavourable character." 
"The prevailing epidemic has a bilious charac- 
ter," &.c. In Mental Philosophy it means — that 
which distinguishes one individual from ano- 
ther, as regards his understanding and passions. 
CHARA'DRIUS, x <*<!<*3Q">g. ^Elian thus 
calls a bird, which was reputed to cure jaun- 
dice. The word now means the plover. 
CHARANTIA, Momordica elaterium. 
CHARBON, Anthrax, Carbo. 
CHARBONNEUX, Anthracoid. 



especially in the substance of the eyelids 

CHALCANTHUM, Ferri sulphas— c. Album, 
Zinci sulphas. 

CHALCEDONIUS, Cornelian. 
CHALC1TES, Colcothar. 
CHALCOIDEUM, (os) Cuneiform Bone. 
CHALCOS, Cuprum, ^Ereolum. 
CHALEUR, Heat— c. Acre, see Acrid— c. 
Animate, Animal heat. 

CHALK, Creta— c. Red, Rubrica fabrilis— 
c. Stones, Calculi arthritic. 

CHALYB'EATE, Chalybea'tus, Ferrugin'- 
eus, Ferrugino'sus, Martia'lis, (F.) Fcrrugi- 
neux ; from chalybs, 'iron or steel.' Of, or 
belonging to iron. Any medicine, into which 
iron enters; as, a chalybeate mixture, pills, 
waters, &c. See Waters, Mineral. 

CHALYBIS RUB1GO, Ferri subcarbonas. 
CHALYBS, from Chal'ybes ; a people of Pon- 
tus, who dug iron out of the earth ; A'cies, 
Steel. The Proto carburet of Iron, (F.) Acier. 
As a medicine, steel does not differ from iron. 
Chalybs Tartarizatus, Ferrum tartariza- 
tum. 

CHAMA, Cheme. 
CHAMiEACTE, Sambucus ebulus. 
CHAM^EBATOS, Fragaria. 
CHAMJ3CEDRIS, Artemisia santonica. 
CHAM.EC1SSUS, Glecoma hederacea. 
CHAMjECLEMA, Glecoma hederacea. 
CHAM.ECYPAR1SSUS, Artemisia santo- 
nica. 

CHAM,EDROPS, Teucrium chamscdrys. 
CHAM^EDRYS, Teucrium Ch., Veronica— 
c. Incana maritima, Teucrium marum — c. Mi- 
nor repens, Teucrium Ch. — e. Palustris, 
Teucrium scordium — c. Vulgaris, Teucrium 
Ch. 

CHAM.EDRY'TES. A wine, in which the 
Teu'aium Chamcedrys has been infused. 
CHAMjEGEIRON, Tussilago. 
CHAMJCLAI'TES. A wine, impregnated 
with the Chama!lea or Daphne Alpina. 
CHAM^ELEA, Cneorum tricoccum. 
CHAM^EL^EAGNUS, Myrica gale. 
CHAMELEON ALBUM, Carlina acaulis. 
CHAMiELEUCE, Tussilago. 
CHAMjELINUM, Linum catharticum. 
CHAM^EMELUM, Anthemis nobilis— c. 
Fcetidum, Anthemis cotula — c. Nobile, Anthe- 
mis nobilis — c. Odoratum, Anthemis nobilis — 
c. Vulgare, Matricaria chamomilla. 

CHAM.EMORUM, Teucrium Chamsepitys, 
Rubus chamajmorus. 

CHAM^EPEUCE, Camphorosma monspe- 

CHAMjEPITUI'NUM VINUM. A wine, in 
which the leaves of the Cliamai'pitys, the Teu'- 
crium Chamafpitys, have been infused. 

CHAM^EPITYS, Teucrium chamaepitys— 
c. Anthyllus, Teucrium iva — c.Moschata, Teu- 
crium iva. 

CHAM^EPLION, Erysimum. 

CHAMiERAPH'ANUM, from /a^m, 'on 
the ground,' and Qatparoi;, ' the radish.' So 
Paulus of ^Egina calls the upper part of the 
root of the Apium. 

CHAMBAR, Magnesia. 

CHAMBER, Camera. This term is used in 
speaking of the eye ; in which there are two 



CHARCOAL 



149 



CHEESE 



CHARCOAL, Carbo. 

CHARDON AUX AJYES, Onopordiumacan- 
thium — c. Binit, Centaurea benedicta— c. a 
Bonneticr, Dipsacus fullonum — c. Etoili, Cen- 
taurea calcilrapa — c. a Foulon, Dipsacus fullo- 
num — c. Hemorrhoidal, Cirsium arvense — c. 
Marie, Carduus Marianus — c. Roland, Eryngi- 
um campestre. 

CHAR'LATAN, Circula'tor, Circumfora'ne- 
us, Periodeu'tcs, P seudomed' icus , Agyrta, Ana- 
cyc'leon. A Quack, an Empirical Pretender, Em- 
piric. Probably, one who goes from place to 
place to sell any medicine, to which he attributes 
marvellous properties. By extension — any in- 
dividual, who endeavours to deceive the public 
by passing himself off as more skilful than he 
really is. According to Menage, the word 
comes from circulatanus, a corruption of cii col- 
lator. 

CHAR'LATANRY, Agyrtia, Banau'sia, the 
conduct or action of a charlatan. (F.) Charla- 
tanerie, Charlatanisme, Quackery, Empiri- 
cism. 

CHARM, Carmen, Canta'tio, lncantamen'- 
tum. Trick. (F.) Charme. A sort of magic, 
or superstitious practice, by which it was be- 
lieved, that individuals might be struck with 
sickness or death, or be restored to health. 
CHARNIkRE, Ginglymus. 
CHARJYU, Carneous. 
CHARPIE, Carbasus. 
CHARTA VIRG1NEA, Amnios. 
CHARTRE, Tabes mesenterica. 
CHAS (F.) Acus foramen. The eye of a 
needle. Sometimes, this opening is near the 
point of the instrument, as in the ligature 
needle. 

CHASME, Yawning. 
CHASPE, Variola. 

CHASSE (F.) Manu'brium. A kind of handle 
composed of two movable laminae of horn, shell, 
or ivory, united only at the extremity, which 
holds the blade of the instrument, — as in the 
common bleeding lancet. 

CHASSIE (T.) Lema, Lippa, Glama, Gra- 
mia ; the gum of the eye. Asebaceous humour, 
secreted by the follicles of Meibomius, which 
sometimes glues the eyes together. 

CHASSIEUX (F.) Lippus; covered with 
Chassie — as Paupieres chassievscs. 
CHASTE TREE, Vitex. 
CHATAIGKE, see Faguscastanea— c. d'Eau, 
Trapa natans. 

CHATA1GMER COMMUJY, Fagus castanea 
=— c, Nain, Fagus castanea pumila. 

CHATEAU-LANDON, WATERS OF. A 
town three leagues from Nemours, in France. 
The waters contain alum and iron. 

CHATEAU-SALINS; a town in the de- 
partment of La Meurthe, France. The waters 
contain carbonate of lime, sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, and muriates of magnesia, and 
soda. 

CHATEL-GUYON, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. A village in France, in the department 
Puy-de-D6me, near which there are five ther- 
mal and acidulous springs. Temperature, 8G° 
Fahrenheit. 

CHATO.V (F.), 'a husk.' In Pathology, it 
means nfunda, or cavity formed by the irregu- 
lar or hourglass contraction of the uterus, in 



which the placenta is often retained or encha- 
tonni. after the birth of the child. It is detected 
by passing the fingers along the cord as far as 
the part which is contracted, when the placenta 
will not be discoverable. 

The treatment consists in relaxing by a large 
dose of an opiate, then passing the fingers along 
the cord, and gradually dilating the opening 
through which it passes, until it permits the 
hand to go through. The placenta must then 
be grasped and gently withdrawn. 
CHATOK, Vaginal process. 
CALCUL CHATOJYJVE(F.) Calculus incar- 
ccra'tus, Encys'tcd Calculus, Calcul enkyste. A 
urinary calculus, adherent to the inner surface 
of the bladder, so that it is immovable, and can- 
not pass to the different parts of that organ. 
This happens when calculi form in some natu- 
ral or accidental cavity of the bladder ; or when 
the organ by ulceration, gives rise to fungi, 
which surround the calculus; or when it 
is lodged in the orifice of the ureter or ure- 
thra. 

PLACENTA CHATOJYJYJl (F.) The pla- 
centa when retained as above described. See 
Chaton. 

CHATONNEMENT (F.) Incarcera'tio, 
Chatonnement du placenta, Enkystement. — 
Hour-glass contraction of the uterus. See Cha- 
ton. 

CHA TO UILLEMENT (F.) This word some- 
times means the action of tickling (q. v.) or 
titillation (Titillatio ,) and, at others, the sensa- 
tion which gives rise to the action (Pruritys,) 
Itching. 

CHATRK, Castratus. 

CHAUDEBOURG, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. C. is three quarters of a league from Thi- 
onville in France. The waters contain iron, 
sulphate of lime, sulphate of magnesia, and 
carbonate of lime. 

CHAVDEPISSE, Gonorrhoea impura— c. 
Cordie, Gonorrhoea cordata. 

CHAUDES-AIGUES, MINERAL WA- 
TERS OF. A small town in the department 
of Cantal, France, where there is a number of 
saline springs. Temp. 190° Fahrenheit. 

CHAUFFOIR (F.) Linteum Calefacto' rium. 
According to the Acadimie, a warmed cloth, 
used either for the purpose of warming a pa- 
tient, or to apply to a female recently delivered. 
CHAUSSE (F.) Chausse d' Hippocrate,Manche 
a" Hippocrate, Man'ica Hippodratis, Man'ica, 
Hippocrates' Sleeve. A conical bag, made of 
flannel, for straining liquids. 

CHAUSSE-TRAPPE, Centaurea calcitrapa. 
CHAUVETJi, Calvities. 
CHAUX, HYDROSULFATE DE, Calcis 
sulphuretum — c. Vive, Calx viva. 
CHEEK, Gena. 

CHEESE, Ca'seus, Tyros, rvqog, (F.) Fro- 
mage. An aliment, prepared from the caseous 
and oleaginous parts of milk. Fresh cheeses 
owe their chief medical properties to the im- 
mediate principle, essentially cheesy, to which 
the name ca'seum or caseinc has been applied. 
Those, which have been recently salted, are 
digested with comparative facility. The fla- 
vour of cheese is owing to an ammoniacal ca- 
,seate. On the whole, cheese itself is not easy 
|of digestion, although it may stimulate the sto- 



CHEESE REM'ET 



150 



CHENOCOPRUS 



mach to greater exertion, and thus aid in the 
digestion of other substances. 

CHEESE REJYJYET, Galium verum. 

CHEE'SY, Casea'rius, Caseo'sus, Tyro'des, 
(F.) Caseux ou Casiux. Having the nature 
of cheese. 

CHEF, Bandage (tail.) 

CHEILITIS, or CHILI'TIS, from X tdo?, 'a 
lip.' Inflammation of the lip. See Chilon. 

CHEILOC'ACE, from x* lX °?> ' a Vi P>' and 
y.ay.og, 'evil.' Labrisul' cium. A disease, cha- 
racterized, it is said, by swelling, induration, 
and slight redness of the lips without inflam- 
mation, reputed, but without any authority, to 
be common in England and Scotland, amongst 
children; also, the thickness of the upper lip of 
scrofulous children. See Stomacace. 

CHEILOCARCINO'MA, from X atXoc, 'a lip,' 
and xaQxivwua, 'cancer.' Cancer of the lip. 

CHEILOMALACIA, Stomacace. 

CHEILON, Chilon._ 

CHEILOPLASTICE, Chiloplastice, from 
X tiXo?, 'a lip,' and nXaanxog, 'forming.' The 
operation for an artificial lip. 

CHEILOS, Lip. 

CHEIMA, Cold. 

CHEIMETHLON, Chilblain. 

CHEIMIA, Rigor. 

CHEIR, Manus. 

CHEIRAN'THUS CHEIRI. The syste- 
matic name of the Common Yellow Wall-flower, 
Vi'olalu'tta, Leucoi'um lu'teum; Keyri C/iciri, 
(F.) Geroflee ou Violier jaune. The flowers 
have been esteemed nervine, narcotic, and de- 
obstruent. 

CHEIRAP'SIA. The action of rubbing or 
scratching, from X tip, 'the hand,' and anno, ' I 
touch.' A troublesome symptom in the itch. 

CHE1RIATER, Surgeon. 

CHEIRIS'MA, Cheiris'mus. The act of 
touching; — handling. Any manual operation. 

CHEIRIXIS, Surgery. 

CHEIRONO'MIA, Ckirono'mia, from X eioo- 
vofiew, ' I exercise with the hands.' An exer- 
cise, referred to by Hippocrates, which con- 
sisted in using the hands, as in our exercise of 
the dumb-bells. 

CHEIROPLETHES, Fasciculus. 

CHELA, /r/Xtj. This word has several signi- 
fications. Chela, a forked probe used for ex- 
tracting polypi from the nose. Chela; — chaps 
or cracks on the feet, organs of generation, &c. 
Chela likewise means claws, especially those 
of the crab. See Cancrorum Chela. 

Chelae Palpebrarum. See Tarsus. 

CHELAPA, Convolvulus jalapa. 

CH&LIDOIXE GRAJVDE, Chelidonium ma- 
jus — c. Petite, Ranunculus ficaria. 

CHELIDON, xsliSojv, the hollow at the 
bend of the arm. Hirun'do. (q. v.) 

CHELIDONIA ROTUND1FOLIA MINOR, 
Ranunculus ficaria. 

CHELIDONIUM, Bryonia alba. 

CuF.Lino'NiuM Majus, Papa'ver Cornicula' - 
tum, P. lu'teum, Common Celandine, Tetterwort, 
(F.) Chilidoine grande, V Eclair e. Family, Pa- 
paveraceoe. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Monogynia. 
The root and recent plant have been considered 
aperient and diuretic. Externally, the juice 
has been employed in some cutaneous diseases. 



Chelidonium Minus, Ranunculus ficaria. 

CHELIDO'NIUS LAPIS. A name given 
to stones, which it was pretended, existed in 
the stomach of young swallows. They were 
formerly believed capable of curing epilepsy. 

CHELOID^Cancroid. 

CHELO'NE, X iXwm;, 'a tortoise.' An in- 
strument for extending a limb; so called be- 
cause, in its slow motions, it resembled a tor- 
toise. — Oribasius. See Testudo. 

CHELO'NION, Chclo'nium, from ^Jiorij, 'a 
tortoise,' from its resembling in shape the shell 
of that animal. The upper, gibbous part, of the 
back. — Gorraeus. 

CIIELONOPH'AGI, from jijUwij, 'the tor- 
toise,' and (fayw, 'I eat.' An ancient name for 
certain tribes, who dwelt on the coasts of the 
Red Sea, and who lived only on tortoises. — 
Pliny, Diodorus of Sicily. 

CHEL'SEA PEN'SIONER. An empirical 
remedy for rheumatism is sold under this name. 
(Gum guaiac,^], poicdered rhubarb gij, cream 
of tartar g), flowers of sulphur ^j, one nutmeg, 
finely powdered : made into an electuary with 
a pound of clarified honey) Dose two spoonfuls. 

CHELTENHAM, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. C. is a town in Gloucestershire. Eng- 
land, nine miles from Gloucester, and 94 W. 
of London. Its water is one of the most cele- 
brated natural purgatives in England. It is a 
saline, acidulous chalybeate, and is much fre- 
quented. 

Artificial Cheltenham Water may be 
made from Epsom salt, gr. xij, iron filings, gr. 
j: Glauber's salt, ^ iv: water, 4 gallons: im- 
pregnated with the gas from marble powder and 
sulphuric acid, aa 5 ij. 

Cheltenham Salts. These are sometimes 
made from the waters ; at others, factitiously. 
The following is a formula. Soda muriat., mag- 
ncs. sulphat., soda; sulph.,^ Ibj : dissolve, fil- 
ter, evaporate to dryness: then add Ferrisulph., 
5 ss. 

CHELYS, Thorax. 

CHELYS'CION, X tXvaKiov, from X eXv?, 1 the 
chest.' A short, dry cough. — Galen, Hippocr., 
Foesius. 

CHE'ME, CHA'MA, CHE'RAMIS. An 
ancient measure, equivalent to about two tea- 
spoonfuls. 

CHEMEUTICE, Chymistry. 

CHEMIST, Chymist. 

CHEMISTRY, Chymistry. 

CHEMO'SIS, from ^ijjiij, ' an aperture,' or 
from xyfiag, 'an humour.' A name given to 
ophthalmia, when the conjunctiva, surrounding 
the cornea, forms a high ring, making the cor- 
nea seem as it were at the bottom of a well. 
By some, it is used synonymously with ophthal- 
mia membranarum. See Ophthalmia. 

CHENAY, MINERAL WATERS OF. C. 
is a town in France, two leagues from Rheims. 
The waters are -chalybeate. 

CHENE, Quc-rcus alba — c. Marin, Fucus ve- 
siculosa — c. Petit, Teucrium chamaedrys — c. 
Vert, Hex aquifolium. 

CHENEVIS. See Cannabis sativa. 

CHENOBOSCON, Potentilla anserina. 

CHENOCOPRUS, from xn v, ' a goose,' and 
xonnoc, 'dung.' The dung of the goose is so 



CHENOPODIUM, &c. 



151 



CHINA 



designated in some old Pharmacopoeias. It 
was formerly employed as a febrifuge and diu- 
retic. 

CHENOPO'DIUM AMBROSIOI'DES, 
from y r i v i ' a goose,' and novg, 'a foot.' Botrys 
Mexica'na, C/ienopo'dium Mcxica'num, Botrys, 
Ambrosio'i'des Mexica'na, Botrys America 'na, 
Mexico Tea, Spanish Tea, Artemis' ia Botrys, (F.) 
Ansirine, Th6 du Mexique. Ambrosie du Mex- 
ique. The infusion was once drunk as tea. It 
has been used in paralytic cases. 

Chenopo'dium Anthei.min'ticum, Chcnopo'- 
dium, Wormseed, Wormgoosefoot, Jerusalem 
Oak of America, (F.) Anserine anthclmintiquc, 
A. vermifuge. This plant grows plentifully in 
the United States. It is much used in cases of 
worms. Dose of the powder, from a tea-spoon- 
ful to a table-spoonful or more. The oil, from 
8 to 10 drops, is more frequently exhibited. It 
is as much used in America as the Semen San- 
ton'ici with the English. 

Chenopo'dium Bonds Henri'cus, Chryso- 
lach'anum, Mer curia' lis, Bonus Henri' cus, Tota 
bona, Lap'athum unctuo'sum, Chenopo'dium, 
English Mercury, Allgood, Angular-leaved 
goosefoot, (F.) Anserine Bon Henri, Jipinard 
sauvage. The leaves are emollient, and have 
been applied to ulcers, &c. It has also been 
considered refrigerant and eccoprotic. 

Chenopo'dium Botrys, Botrys, Botrys vul- 
garis, Ambrosia, Artemis 'ia Chenopo'dium, At'- 
riplex odora'ta, At'riplex suav' eolcns : the Jeru- 
salem Oak, (Eng.) (F.) Ansirine Botrys. It 
was once given in diseases of the chest, palsy, 
&c. It is useless. 

Chenopodium Fcetidum, Chenopodium vul- 
varia. 

Chenopo'dium Vulva'ria, At'riplex fcct'ida, 
Atfrip/ex ol'ida, Vulva'ria, Garos'mum, Raphex, 
Chenopo'dium Faet'idum, Stinking Orach or 
Goosefoot, (FA Vulvaire, Arroche puant, Anse- 
rine fetide. The foetid smell has occasioned it 
to be used as an antispasmodic and nervine. 

CHEOPINA, Chopine. 

CHERAMIS, Cheme. 

CHERBAS, Lettuce. 

CHERBACHEM, Veratrum album. 

CHERMES, Kermes. 

CHERNIBIUM, Urinal. 

CHERRY, BIRD, Prunuspadus— c.Tree,red, 
Prunus cerasus — c. Tree, black, Prunus avium 
— c. Tree, wild, Prunus Virginiana — z. Water, 
Kirschwasser — c. Wild cluster, Prunus padus 
— c. Winter. Physalis. 

CHERS^E, Faces. 

CHERVIL, Scandix cerefolium— c. Wild, 
Chaerophyllum sylvestre. 

CHEST, Thorax. 

CHESTNUT TREE. Fagus castanea. 

CHEVAUCHEMENT, (F.) Os'sium super- 
posi"tio vel equita'tio, Parallax' is, Parallagma. 
The riding of one bone over another after frac- 
ture ; giving rise to shortening of the limb. 
See Riding of Bones. 

CHEVESTREor CHEVETRE, Capis'trum, 
from caput, ' the head.' A bandage, applied 
round the head in cases of fracture or luxation 
of the lower jaw. According to the mode in 
which it is made, it is called simple, double, ob- 
lique, &c. 

CHEVEU, Capillus. 



CHEV1LLE DU PIED, Malleolus. 
CHkVRE-FEUILLE, Lonicera Periclyme- 
num. 

CHEZANAN'CE, from X tt<a, < I go to stool,' 
and avayy.i], ' necessity.' An ointment com- 
posed of -honey and alum, and rubbed on the 
anus to occasion evacuations. — Paulus of 
^Egina. 

CH1A, Chia terra, from Chios, an island 
where it was found. A kind of white earth, 
formerly used in burns. — Galen. 

CHIACUM COLLYR'lUM. A Collyrium 
consisting of several drugs and Chian wine. — 
Paulus of ^gina. 

CH1ADUS, Furunculus. 

CHIAS'MOS, Chias'ma, from ^ikuo ; to form 
like the letter %. The crucial union of parts, — 
as the decussation (q. v.) of the optic nerves. 

CHIASTER, Kiaster. 

CHIAS'TOS. Same etymon. A bandage, 
so called because it resembles the letter x- — 
Oribasius. 

CHIBOU. See Bursera gummifera. 

CHI'CA. A drink made in Peru with In- 
dian meal, dried in the sun, and fermented with 
water. Its taste is that of bad cider. 

CHICKENPOX, Varicella. 

CHICKWEED, Alsine media. 

CH1COREE DES JARDIJVS, Cichorium 
endivia — c. Sauvage, Cichorium intybus. 

CH1ENDENT, Triticum repens. 

CHIL'BLAIN, Per'nio, Bugan'tia, Erythe'- 
ma Per'nio, Erythe'ma a Frig'ore, Cheimeth'lon, 
from chill, ' cold,' and Main, ' a pustule,' (F.) 
Engelure. An erythematous inflammation of 
the feet, hands, &c, occasioned by cold. It is 
very common in youth — not so in the adult or 
advanced age. It is apt to degenerate into 
painful, indolent ulcerations, called Kibes. 
Chilblains are prevented by accustoming the 
parts to exposure ; and are treated by stimulant, 
terebinthinate and balsamic washes, ointments, 
and liniments. 

CHILDBED STATE, Parturient state. 

CHILT, MINERAL WATERS OF. The 
most celebrated mineral springs of Chili, in 
South America, are those of Peldehues and 
Cauquenes. The former are not far from St. 
Jago. They consist of two springs, one ther- 
mal, the other cold. The hot spring is clear, 
inodorous, and contains soda and carbonic acid. 
The cold spring contains iron and sulphate of 
soda. Cauquenes is much resorted to by inva- 
lids during the summer. Mineral waters are 
very common in Chili. 

CHILIOGRAMMA, Kilogramme. 

CHILIOPHYLLON, Achillea millefolium. 

CHILITIS, Cheilitis. 

CHILL, Rigor. 

CHI'LON, Chei'lon, Cheilitis, from jftiAoc, 
1 a lip.' Inflammation of the lips. — Vogel. 
One who has a thick lip. 

CHILOPLAST1CE, Cheiloplastice. 

CHIMAPHILA, Pyrola umbellata. 

CHIMIA, Chymistry. 

CHIMIATER, Chymiater. 

CHIM1ATRIA, Chymiatria. 

CHIMIE, Chymistry. 

CHIMISTE, Chymist. 

CHIMON, Cold. 

CHINA, Cinchona, Smilax china— c. Ameri- 



CHINCAP1N 



152 



CHLORAS, &c. 



can or West India, Smilax pseudo-china — c. 
Occidentalis, Smilax pseudo-china — c. Root, 
Smilax china — c. Spuria nodosa, Smilax 
pseudo-china. 

CHINCAPIN, Fagus castanea pumila. 

CHINCHE, Cimex. 

CHINCHINA, Cinchona. 

CHINCHUNCHULLI, Ionidiurn marcucci. 

CHINCOUGH, Pertussis. 

CHINESE, MEDICINE OF THE, Medici'- 
na Sin'ica. Medicine has been long, but most 
imperfectly, practised by the Chinese. From 
their therapeutics we have obtained the old 
operations of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 

CHIN1CUS ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of 
— c. Citras, Quinine, acetate of. 

CHINII ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of. 

CHIN1NI ACETAS, Quinine, acetate of. 

CHIN1NUM, Quinina. 

CHINIUM ACETICUM, Quinine, acetate of 
— c. Ferrocyanogenatum, Quinine, Ferrocya- 
nate of — c. Hydrochloricum, Quinine, muriate 
of — c. Muriaticum, Quinine, muriate of— c. Ni- 
tricum, Quinine, nitrate of— c. Phosphoricum, 
Quinine, phosphate of — c. Salitum, Quinine, 
muriate of. 

CHINNEYWEED, Lichen roccella. 

CHIN WHELK, Sycosis. 

CHIOCOCOE RADIX, Cainca: radix. 

CHIOLI, Furunculus. 

CHION, Snow. 

CHIQUE, (F.) Pulcx pen'etrans, Tick. A 
email insect in America, which gets under the 
epidermis, and excites great irritation. 

CHIR^or CHEIR, X tto, ' the hand,' hence: 

CHIRAGRA, from X mq, ' hand/ and ayQa, 
' a seizure.' Gout in the hand. 

CHIRAPOTHECA, Arsenal. 

CHIRIATER, Surgeon. 

CHIRI ATRIA, Surgery. 

CHFROMANCY, Chiromanti'a, from X e,g, 
1 the hand,' and fiavrtia, ' divination,' (F.) Chi- 
romancie. Art of divining by inspection of the 
hand. 

CH1RONAX, Surgeon. 

CHIRO'NIA, (from Chiron, Xuquv, the Cen- 
taur, who is said to have discovered its use.) 
A genus of plants. Fam. Gentianeae. 

Chiro'nia Angula'ris, American Centaury, 
Sabba'tia Angula'ris. Every part of this plant 
is a pure and strong bitter, which property is 
communicated alike to alcohol and to water. 
It is used as a tonic and a stomachic. 

Chiro'nia Chilen'sis, Gentia'na Cachenla- 
huen, Cachcn-laguen, Erylhra/a Chilensis, Gen- 
tiana Peruviana. A very bitter plant, indige- 
nous in Chili. It possesses the virtues of the 
Chironece. Given in infusion — (^ j, to water 

°j) 

Chiro'nia Centau'rium, Centau'rium minus 

vulga're, Centau'rium parvum, Gentia'na cen- 
tau'rium, Centau'rium minus, Erythrrfa Cen- 
tau'rium, Smaller Centaury, Lesser Centaury, 
(F.) Centaurie petite. The tops of the lesser 
Centaury, Centaurii Cacu'mina, are aromatic 
and tonic, and are sometimes employed as 
such. 

CHIRONFUM, from X tiQwr, ' bad, malig- 
nant.' An ulcer difficult of cure : — of a swol- 
len, hard, and callous nature. — Galen. Some 
have supposed the word to come from Chiron, 



the Centaur; who was unable to cure such 
ulcers. 

CHIRONOMIA, Cheironomia. 

CHIROP'ODIST, (F ) Pidicure. One who 
treats diseases of the hands and feet, or rather 
whose profession it is to remove corns and bu- 
nyons, from X tiQ, ' * ne hand,' and novg, 'the 
foot.' 

CHIRORRHEUMA, Chirrheuma. 

CH1ROSIS, Subactio. 

CHIROTHE'CA, from X t, Q , 'the hand,' and 
dtjxti, ' a sheath.' A bandage for the hand ; a 
kind of bandage in which the fingers and hand 
are enveloped in spiral turns. When the whole 
hand and fingers are covered, it is called the 
double or complete Chirotheca, Ch. comple'ta, 
Vinctu'ra omnibus dig"itis ; and when only a 
finger is covered, the half or incomplete, Ch. 
incomple'ta, Vinctu'ra pro uno dig"ito. See 
Gantelet. 

CHIROTRI'BIA, from X ti Q ,' the hand,' and 
T0t/?<u, ' 1 rub.' Friction with the hand. Ac- 
cording to others, dexterity in an art. — Hippo- 
crates, Galen. 

CHIRRHEU'MA, Chirorrheu'ma, Rheuma- 
tis'mus manus, from X n(>, ' the hand,' and (ttvfia, 
' flux.' Rheumatism of the hand. 

CHIRURGEON, Surgeon. 

CHIRURGIA, Surgery — c. Anaplaslica, 
Morioplastice — c. Curtorum, Morioplastice — c. 
Infusoria, Infusion of medicines — c. Transfu- 
soria, Transfusion. 

CHIRURG1CUS, Surgical. 

CH1RURGIE, Surgery— c. Militaire, Sur- 
gery, military. 

CHIRURG1EN, Surgeon— c. Hernieux, see 
Hernial. 

CHIRURGIQUE, Surgical. 

CHIRURGUS, Surgeon. 

CHIST ; an Aiabic word, which signifies the 
sixth part. The sixth part of the Congius or 
gallon. 

CHITON, Tunic. 

CHITONISCOS, Indusium. 

CHIUM VINUM, from Chios, the island 
where it was produced ; Chian icinc, used by 
the physicians of antiquity in cases of deflux- 
ions and ophthalmias. — Scribonius Largus. 

CHLPAROS, X Xtaoo;, ' tepid.' A name 
given to slight fevers, in which the heat is not 
great. — Galen. 

CHLIAS'MA, x Xiac^ia, same etymon. A 
tepid and moist fomentation. — Hippocr. 

CHLOAS'MA, Pityriasis versicolor, P. ni- 
gra, itplMide scorbutique, Macula hepatica, Li- 
veispot, from X looe, ' a greenish-yellow colour.' 
A cutaneous affection, characterized by one or 
more broad, irregular-shaped patches, of a yel- 
low or yellowish-brown colour, and occurring 
most frequently on the front of the neck, 
breast, abdomen, groins, &c. The patches do 
not generally rise above the surface. There is 
usually some degree of itching. 

The causes are not very evident. Sulphur 
externally — in any and every form — generally 
removes it speedily. Should there be difficulty, 
the external use of the remedy by baths or fu- 
migations may succeed. 

CHLORA, Chlorine. 

CHLORAS KAL1CUS DEPURATUS, Po- 
tassoc murias hyperoxygenatus. 



CHLORASMA 



153 



CHOLERA 



CJ I LORASM A, Chlorosis. 
CHLORETUM CALCARLE, Calcis chlo- 
ridum. 

CHLO'RINE, from /XwQoq, ' green.' Cldo- 
ra, Oxymuriat'ic Acid Gas, Oxygena'ted Muri- 
atic Acid Gas, Dephlogisticatcd Marine Acid, 
Hal'ogene, Mu'rigenc, Chlorum. So far as we 
know, this is an elementary substance. It is a 
greenish, yellow gas, of a strong suffocating 
smell, and disagreeable taste : incapable of 
maintaining combustion and respiration, and 
very soluble in water. One of its character- 
istics is, that of destroying, almost immediately, 
all vegetable and animal colours. It is em- 
ployed in fumigations, as a powerful disinfect- 
ing agent. A very dilute solution has been 
administered internally, in certain cases of di- 
arrhoea and chronic dysentery. Immersion of 
the hands and arms in it has often removed itch 
and other cutaneous affections. It has also 
been inhaled in a dilute state in the early stage 
of phthisis, but it is of doubtful efficacy, and is 
better adapted for chronic bronchitis. 

CHLOROPHYLLE, Fecula, green. 

CHLORO'SIS, from x^'Qo?, ' green,' Pal'U- 
dus Morbus, Fadus Vir'ginum color, Pal'lidus 
color virgin'eus, lcteri"tia alba, Ic'terus a/bus, 
Morbus virgin'eus, Morbus Parthenius, Dyspep'- 
sia chloro'sis, Febris amato'ria, Cachexfia vit ' gi- 
num, Febris alba, Anepithym'ia chloro'sis, Green- 
sickness, Chloras'ma, Citto'sis. (FJ Chlorose, 
P ales- coul curs. A disease which affects young 
females, more particularly those who have not 
menstruated. It is characterized by a pale, lu- 
rid complexion, languor, listlessness, depraved 
appetite and digestion, palpitation, &c. The 
disease generally goes off on the occurrence of 
the menstrual flux; but sometimes it is long 
before this is established. 

On auscultation, a bellozcs' sound has been 
almost invariably detected over the heart, and 
a continuous blowing sound in the larger arte- 
ries, (especially the carotids and subclavians,) 
reinforced by each systole of the ventricle, and 
resembling the buzzing of a humming-top, the 
cooing of doves, the whistling of air through a 
keyhole, &c, (see Bruit.) Very similar sounds 
are heard in the arteries after copious hemor- 
rhage : they seem, therefore, to coincide with 
enfeebled circulation. 

Tonics are usually required in the treatment: 
the disease most commonly occurring in those 
in whom there is considerable torpor of the 
system. 

Chlorosis Amatohia, Hectic fever. 

CHLOROT'IC, Chlorot'iais,(F. ) Chlorotique. 
Affected with chlorosis, or pertaining to chlo- 
rosis ; — as a chlor otic female, chlorotic symptoms, 

CHLORUM, Chlorine. 

( fILORURE D'OR, Gold, muriate of. 

CHLORURETUM OXIDI CALCII, Calcis 
chloridum. 

CHOA, Chu. 

CHOA'CUM EMPLAS'TRUM NIGRUM. 
A black plaster, mentioned by Celsus, and 
composed of equal parts of litharge and resin. 
The litharge was first boiled in oil. 

CHOAK, Cynanche trachealis — c. wolf, 
Ly cane he. 
20 



CHOANA, Pelvis— c. Cerebri, Infundibu- 
lum of the brain. 

CHOANE, Infundibulurn. 

CHOANORRHAGIA, Epistaxis. 

CHOAVA, Coflea Arabica. 

CHOCOLATE, Chocola'ta, Succola'ta. Dr. 
Alston says, that this word is compounded of 
two Indian words: — choco, 'sound,' and atle, 
' water,' because of the noise made in its prepa- 
ration. Chocolatum. An alimentary paste pre- 
pared from the kernels of the Theobro'ma cacao 
or Cacao, with sugar, and often aromatics. 
(See Cacao.) The chocolate thus simply pre- 
pared — as it is met with, indeed, in commerce — 
is called in France, Chocolat de sante. It is 
not very easy of digestion. 

The chocolat a la vanille contains three 
ounces of vanilla and two of cinnamon to 
twenty pounds of common chocolate. The ad- 
dition of the aromatic renders it somewhat 
more digestible. Chocolates may likewise be 
medicated. 

CHOCUS, Chu. 

CHCENICIS, Trepan. 

CHGENION,Cord. 

CHOSNOS, Cord. 

CHOHRUS, Scrofula. 

CHOIROS, Vulva. 

CHOLAGO, Cholas. 

CHOL'AGOGUE, Cholago'gus, Chole'gon, 
from /uXtj, ' bile,' and ayu>, ' I expel.' The an- 
cients gave this name to cathartics, which were 
reputed to cause the flow of bile. — Galen. 

CHOLAS, %oZas,P]\ir. xoZadi-g. The cavity 
of the hypocondres ; Cholago. The intestines. 
— Homer. 

CHOLASMA, Cholosis. 

CHOLE and CHOLOS, x^n, and x oX °i 
' bile,' (q. v.) in composition. — Hence : 

CHOLECYST, Gall-bladder. 

CHOLECYSTITIS, Inftamma'tio Vesi'ccc 
fell'ca, I. cystidis fell'ea, Cysli'tis fellea, from 
X"'^n> ' bile,' and y.vciric, 'bladder.' Inflamma- 
tion of the gall-bladder. 

CHOL'EDOCH, Choled'ochus, from ^oJt>?, 
' bile,' and Sox»g, ' containing or receiving.' 
The Ductus choledochus, Ductus communis cho- 
ledochus, (F.) Conduit ou Canal Choltdoque, is 
the duct, formed by the union of the hepatic 
and cystic ducts, which pours the hepatic and 
cystic bile into the duodenum. 

CHOLEDOG'RAPHY, Choledogra'phia, 
from /oXt], 'bile,' and ynacpeiv, 'to describe.' 
A description of what relates to the bile. 

CHOLEDOL'OGY, Choledolo" 'gia, from 
/oXtj, ' bile,' and kuyog, ' a discourse.' A trea- 
tise on the bile. 

CHOLEGON, Cholagogue. 

CHOLEH.EMIA, Icterus. 

CHOLE1A, Claudication. 

CHOLELITHIA ICTERUS, Icterus. 

CHOLELITHUS, Calculi, biliary. 

CHOLEN'CHYSIS, from xoZ v , ' bile,' and 
ixxvaig, ' effusion.' Effusion of bile. 

CHOL'ERA and CHOL'ERA-MORBUS, 
XoHsqcc, Cholerrha'gia, Passio cholerica, Fellif- 
lua passio, Holera, from x^i ' bile,' and ntut, 
' I flow.' According to others, from x o ^aSeg, 
' intestines,' or from x°^ t Q a > ' the gutter of a 
house to carry off the rain.' A disease, cha- 
racterized by anxiety, gripings, spasms in the 



CHOLERAPHOBIA 



154 



CHORDA 



legs and arms, and by vomiting and purging 
(generally bilious:) vomiting and purging are. 
indeed, the essential symptoms. The disease 
is most common in hot climates, — and in tempe- 
rate climates, during summer. In India, the 
spasmod! ic chol'era, Asiatic cholera, Malignant 
ch., Cholera asphyxia, Trisplanch'nia, morbus 
oryzeus, Rice discuse, (because supposed by 
Tytler to be caused by damaged rice,) (F.) 
Mort de Chien, is frightful in the rapidity of its 
progress, the patient sometimes dying in a few 
hours from the first onset. In temperate cli- 
mates, common cholera is not usually a disease 
of much consequence. It requires, that the 
stomach and bowels should be cleared, and 
afterwards the irritation be allayed by full doses 
of opium. In the malignant cholera of India, 
bleeding at the outset, without regard to the 
signs of apparent depression, and large doses 
of calomel, with opiates, form the great reli- 
ance of the practitioner. 

Cholera Infantum. The Cholera of Chil- 
dren. A disease, so termed by American phy- 
sicians. It occurs generally in the middle states 
of the Union, in June or July, and continues 
during the hot weather, hence called the ' sum- 
mer complaint.' The chief symptoms are vo- 
miting, purging of green or yellow matter, 
slime or blood, attended with pain or uneasi- 
ness; and swelling of the abdomen, with some 
pyrexia, generally. The heat of the weather 
seems to be the predisposing, if not the ex- 
citing, cause. It is a fatal disease in towns; 
differing little, if at all, from what is vulgarly 
called the Watery Gripes in England. Clear- 
ing, gently, the alimentary canal, so as to re- 
move the offending matter, and then exhibiting 
chalk mixture and laudanum, with counter- 
irritants, as sinapisms to the abdomen, is the 
most satisfactory plan of treatment. 

CHOLERAPHOBIA, Choleromania. 

CHOL'ERIC, Choler'icus. Belonging to 
cholera morbus or to the bile. The French 
use the term Fiecrc cholerique for the fever ac- 
companying cholera. 

Choleric Temperament is the same as 
Bilious Temperament. 

CHOLERINE. A diminutive of cholera. 
The first stage of epidemic cholera; also, the 
precursory symptoms of cholera. 

CHOLEROMA'MA, Choleropho'bia, from 
cholera and mania. A dread of cholera to such 
an extent that the individual fancies himself 
affected or threatened by it. 

CHOLFRRHAGIA, Cholera. 

CHOLES'TERINE, CHOLOSTERFNA, 
Cholestcarine, from x°^U ' bile,' and ortotoc, 
< solid.' An inodorous, insipid substance, in 
white, shining scales; fusible and crystallizing 
in radiated fibres, on cooling. Soluble in alco- 
hol. It forms the crystalline part of certain 
biliary calculi. See Adipocire. 

CHOL'ICELE, from X oX n , < bile,' and y. h Xr t , 
' tumour.' A swelling, formed by the bile 
morbidly accumulated in the gall-bladder. 

CHOLOLITHUS. See Calculi, biliary. 

CHOLO'MA, from x '* ?, 'lame, maimed.' 
Distortion of a limb: incapacity of moving 
it. Also, the act of limping, claudication, 
(q. v.) 

CHOLOS, Bile, Chole. 



CHOLO'SIS, from ^oj^oc, Maine.' Chahttf, 
Cholas'ma, Claudication, (q. v.) Hippocrates 
employs this word particularly for a lameness 
of the hand, which renders a person one-handed, 
manchot, (F.) 

Cholo'ses, from /oX>j, ' bile.' M. Alibert in- 
cludes, under this head, every morbid affection 
of the liver and spleen. 

CHOLOTES, Cholosis. 

CHONDRODES, Cartilaginous. 

CHONDROGEJSE'SIA, Chondrogen'esis, 
from jforfyo;, 'a cartilage,' and ytviaiq, 'form- 
ation.' Formation of cartilage. A morbid con- 
version of parts into cartilage. 

CHONDROGLOS'SUS, from yorS^og, <a 
cartilage,' and yAwooa, ' the tongue.' A fasci- 
culus of fleshy fibres, passing from the lesser 
cornu of the os hyoides to the tongue. It forms 
part of the Hyoglossus. 

CHONDROG'RAPHY, Chondrogra'phia, 
from %ov$qoc, 'cartilage,' and yoacpyj, ' descrip- 
tion.' A description of cartilages. 

CHON DROIT), Chondroi'des, from jcov^oc, 
' cartilage,' and eidoc, ' resemblance.' Resem- 
bling cartilage. 

CHONDROL'OGY, Chondrolo" gia, from 
Xortyoe, ' a cartilage,' and Xoyoq, ' a discourse.' 
A treatise on cartilages. 

CHONDRO'MA, Enchondro'ma, from yo\- 
$Qoq, ' cartilage.' A cartilaginous growth pro- 
ceeding from bones, and including the spina 
ventosa, osteo-sarcoma, &c. of many. 

CHONDRO-PHARYNGE'US, from X or- 
3qo?, ' a cartilage,' and ipu<>vyq,, ' the pharynx.' 
Fibres of the muscular coat of the pharynx, 
which arise from the lesser cornua of the os 
hyoides, and form part of the Constrictor me- 
dius. See Constrictor Pharyngis. 

CHONDROS, ^ov^joc, 'a cartilage.' (q. v.) 
The Xiphoid cartilage, (q. v.) in particular. 

CHONDROSYNDES'MUS, x°^Qoo V y3ca- 
uoq, from ^oicJ^oc, ' a cartilage,' and avrdtcifto:, 
' a ligament.' Union of bones, by means of 
fibro-cartilage. — Galen. 

CHONDROT'OMY, Chondroto'mia, from 
/ovd(>oc, ' a cartilage,' and xfuvtu-, ' to cut.' 
Dissection of cartilages. 

CHONDRUS, Alica— c. Crispus, Fucus 
crispus — c. Polymorphus, Fucus crispus. 

CHONOS, Infundibulum. 

CHOPINE, CFIOPPJSO, CHEOPPNA. A 
measure, which contains 16 ounces. A pint 
measure. 

CHORA, /o)Qa, ' region.' Any void space. 
Also, the orbit of the eye. 

CHORD, TESTICULAR, Spermatic chord. 

CHORDA or CORDA. A string of an in- 
strument. It has several meanings. A ten- 
don, — the intestines (Chorda:.) Paracelsus calls 
the genital organs, chorda. Chorda or Funic- 
ulus Tympani; a branch of the 7th pair of 
nerves, which passes through the tympanum, 
Nerf Tympaniaue—(Ch.) Cordedu Tambour ou 
du Tijmpan. Chorda Willis'ii, Trabedula IVil- 
lis'ii, the small fibres, which cross the sinuses 
of the dura mater: so called from their first de- 
scribe^ Willis. Chorda Tendin'ea\; the tendi- 
nous and cord-like substances, which connect 
the columna carnea of the ventricles of the 
heart to the valves, &c. 

Chorda, Intestine — c. Veneris, Chordee. 



CIIORD.E 



155 



CHRONIC 



CHORD.E, Chordee— c. Ferrenii, Chords, 
vocal. 

Chokdje Longitudina'les Lancisii. Two 
or three longitudinal elevations and lines on 
the upper surface of the corpus callosum. 

Chorus Vocales, Chords, vocal. 

CHORDAP'SUS, from X oqS n , 'intestine,' 
and u/iztiv, ' to tie.' Constriction or twisting 
of the intestines. — Celsus. The Colica Ileus. 
See Enteritis and Ileus. 

CHORDEE' or CORDEE', Chorda Ven'eris, 
Chorda, Chorda' la Gonorrhoea. A painful af- 
fection of the penis, attending gonorrhoea, and 
happening chiefly at night. It occurs when 
the violence of the inflammation is such, that 
the urethra cannot expand as much as the cor- 
pora cavernosa during erection, and conse- 
quently the glans seems painfully drawn down- 
wards. The application of cold water topi- 
cally and the administration of opium inter- 
nally palliate it. 

CHORE'A, Chorea Sancll Viti, from /ojjtia. 
1 a dance.' Sometimes called Scelotyr'bg, Viti 
Saltus, Saltu'tio Sancti Viti, BalliWrnus, Con- 
vul'sio ha.bi.tua' lis, Siph'ita prava, Syn'clonus 
Chorea, Myotyr'bi, and Choreomu'nia, because 
the movements resemble dancing. (F.) Cho- 
ree, Danse de Saint-Witt, Danse de St. Guy. 
The characteristics are: — irregular and invo- 
luntary motions of one or more limbs, and of 
the face and trunk. It is a disease, which usu- 
ally occurs before puberty; and is generally 
connected with torpor of the system, and of 
the digestive system in particular. Its dura- 
tion is long, but it is devoid of danger; al- 
though frequently, but little under the control 
of medicine. The spasms do not continue 
during sleep. The indications of treatment 
are: — to strengthen the general system, and 
stimulate the intestinal canal. Purgatives, 
once or twice a week, and chalybeates, with 
appropriate regimen, will fulfil these. 

CHORE'GIA, from /ooog, ' a troop of dan- 
cers and singers,' and uyw, ' I lead.' Hippo- 
crates uses this term for the whole of the appa- 
ratus, necessary for a physician or surgeon. 

CHOREOMAN1 A, Chorea. 

CHORIODEI'TIS, Chorioiditis, Chorioi- 
ditis, from /oi>un5r t Q, 'the choroid.' and itis. 
Inflammation of the choroid coat of the eye. 

CHORION, /o^yioy, ' skin,' from %wqsiv, 'to 
contain,' ' include.' Camis'ia Fatus, the che- 
mise or shirt of the foetus in utero. A thin, 
transparent membrane, which surrounds the 
foetus in utero on every side. It is exterior to 
the amnion. 

Chorion also means the true skin. See Cutis. 

Chorion Fungosum, Decidua — c. reticula- 
tum, Decidua — c. Shaggy, Decidua — e. Spon- 
giosum, Decidua — c. Spongy, Decidua — c. To- 
mcntosum, Decidua. 

CHOROID, Choroideus, Choro'i'des, from 
jfuoiov, ' the chorion,' and aSoe, ' shape,' ' re- 
semblance.' Several parts are so called, which 
resemble the chorion, in the multitude of their 
vessels. 

Mkmbha'na or Tu'nica Choroidea, or sim- 
j)lv the Choroid. (F.) Membrane choro'ide, 
Choro'ide. A thin membrane, of a very dark 
colour, which lines the sclerotica, internally. 
The part, behind the iris, is called Urea. It is 



situate between the sclerotica and retina, has 
an opening, posteriorly, for the passage of the 
optic nerve; and terminates, anteriorly, at the 
great circumference of the iris, where it is con- 
tinuous with the ciliary processes. The inter- 
nal surface of the membrane is covered with a 
dark pigment, called Pig men' turn nigrum, 
JEthiops animal, (F.) Enduit choro'idicn. Its 
use seems to be, to absorb the rays of light 
after they have traversed the retina. 

Plexus Choroi'des, Plexus choroideus, Cho- 
roid Plexus. Two membranous and vascular 
duplicatures of the pia mater, situate in the 
lateral ventricles. They are fixed to the Tela 
choroidea by one edge, and are loose and float- 
ing at the other. 

Tela Choroidea, (F.) Toile chorotdienne. 
A kind of vasculo-membranous prolongation of 
the pia mater, which lines the lower surface of 
the fornix, united with the corpus callosum. It 
is stretched above the third ventricle, and 
covers the posterior commissure and corpora 
quadrigemina. Anteriorly, the tela choroidea 
is continuous with the plexus choroides. 

Ven^: Choroideus, Vena; Gale'ni, (F.) Veincs 
choro'idiennes. Two veins, which creep along 
the tela choroidea; and into which almost all 
those of the lateral ventricles, of the upper 
part of the cerebellum, of the pineal gland, and 
the corpora quadrigemina open. The Venae 
Galeni open into the sinus quartos or fourth 

StTtllS 

CHOROIDS, CEINTURE BLANCHE DE 
LA, Ciliary ligament — c. Commissure de la, 
Ciliary ligament. 

CHOSES COJVTRE NATURE, Res contra 
naturam — c. JYaturelles, Res naturales — c. non 
JYaturelles, Res non naturales. 

CHOUCABUS, Brassica capitata— c. Croule. 
Sauer kraut — c. Fleur, Brassica Florida, Cauli- 
flower excrescence — c. Marin, Convolvulus 
soldanella — c. JYavet, Brassica rapa — c. Pomm6 
Brassica capitata — c. Potagcr, Brassica — c. Ro- 
quetta, Brassica eruca. 

CHR1SIS, xQ' a '$> from *?" > ' * anoint.' 
The action of anointing. Inunction (q. v.) 

CHRIST1 MANUS. Troches, prepared from 
refined sugar boiled in rose-water, with or 
without prepared pearls. 

CHRISTOS, %oioro?, from XQ lb) > ' I anoint.' 
Any medicine applied under the form of lini- 
ment or ointment. 

CHRCEAS, Scrofula. 

CHROMATOG"ENOUS; from^^.a, ' co- 
lour,' and yswao), ' 1 make.' 

Chromatog"enous Appaka'tus. A parti- 
cular apparatus for producing the colouring 
matter of the skin, composed of a glandular or 
secreting parenchyma, situate a little below 
the papillae, and presenting special excretory 
ducts, which pour out the colouring matter on 
the surface of the true skin.— Breschet. 

CHROMATOPSEUDOPS1A, Achromatop- 

CHROMOP'SIA, Chromopia, lisus coloru'- 
tus, from xqowu, ' colour,' and oxpig, 'vision.' 
A state of vision in which a coloured impres- 
sion is made on the retina. Said to be occa- 
sionally observed in jaundice. 

CHRONAGUNEA, Menstruation. 

CHRONIC, Chron'icus, Chro'nius. Pohj- 



CHRYSALEA 



15G 



CHYME 



tkro'nius, from xQorog, ' time.' Of long dura- 
tion. 

Chronic Diseases, Morbi chronici, (F.) Ma- 
ladies Chroniques, Macronos'ia, Macro' sice, are 
those whose duration is long, or whose symp- 
toms proceed slowly. The antithesis to chronic 
is Acute, (q. v.) 

CHRYSALEA, Nitromuriatic acid. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM, Calendula officinalis. 

Chrysan'themum Leucan'themum, from 
XQvoog, ' gold,' and avSos, ' a flower.' The Ox- 
eye daisy, Maudlin- Wort , Bcllis major, Buph- 
thal'mum majus, Leucan'themum vulga're, Belli- 
dio'i'des, Consolida media, Oc'ulus Boris, (F.) 
Chrysanthhne, Chrysene, Grande Marguerite 
des pr6s. The flowers and herb are slightly 
acrid ; and were once used in pulmonary dis- 
eases. 

CHRYSE, from j^naoc, 'gold.' The name 
of a yellow plaster, described by Paulus of 
.ZEgina, and composed of thus, alum, lead, co- 
lophany, resin, oil, and orpiment, boiled in 
vinegar. 

CHRYSENE, Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 
mura. 

CHRYSITIS. See Plumbi oxydum semivi- 
treum. 

CHRYSOBALANUS GALENI. See My- 
ristica moschata. 

CHRYSOCALIS, Matricaria. 

CHRYSOCHALCOS, Brass. 

CHRYSOCOLLA, Borax. 

CHRYSOCOMA. Achillea millefolium. 

CHRYSOLACHANUM, Chenopodium bo- 
nus Henricus. 

CHRYSOLTTHUS, Chrys'olite,from xQvcoc, 
' gold,' and Zidoc, ' stone.' A precious stone, 
of a golden colour, regarded by the ancients as 
cardiac, cephalic, &c. 

CHRYSOMEL1A. See Citrus aurantium. 

CHRYSOPHYL'LUM CAI'NITO, Cai'nilo, 
Siderox'ylon, Broad-leaved Star-apple. A tree 
of the Antilles, which produces one of the best 
fruits of the country. There are several varie- 
ties of it. 

CHRYSOPUS, Cambogia. 

CHRYSOS, Gold. 

CHRYSOSPERMUM, Sempervivum tecto- 
rum. 

CHTHONOPHA'GIA, Cachexia Africa' na., 
from x^wv, ' earth,' and qiuyio, ' I eat.' A disor- 
der of the nutritive functions observed amongst 
the negroes in the West Indies, in which there 
is an irresistible desire to eat earth. It is ac- 
companied with most of the signs of chlorosis. 

CHU, Choa or Chus, ^-ec, Chocus. A liquid 
measure amongst the Greeks, answering to 
the Congius of the Romans, and containing six 
sextarii, or twelve attic cotylte, or nine pints. — 
Galen. 

CHUTE, Prolapsus — c. du Fondement, Proc- 
tocele — c. de la Matrice, Procidentia uteri — c. du 
Rectum, Proctocele. 

CHYLA1RE, Chylosus. 
CHYLAR, Chylous. 
CHYLARION, Chyle, 

CHYLE s Chy'lus, xvXog, Succus nutri"tius, 
from x V{a i ' I flow.' The word, in Hippocrates, 
means Tisane or Decoction of Barley, Chyla! ■ 
rion, xvlaqiov. Galen first used it in its present 
eeneei — i e. for a nutritive fluid, extracted 



from the food by intestinal absorption ; after 
the food has been subjected to the action of the 
digestive organs. It is of a whitish appear- 
ance ; is separated from the chyme in the duo- 
denum, and the rest of the small intestines: 
and is absorbed by the chyliferous vessels, 
which arise at the mucous surface of the intes- 
tine. Along these it passes through the mesen- 
teric glands to the thoracic duct, and is finally 
poured into the left subclavian. It is composed, 
like the blood, of acoagulable part and of serum 

CHYLEUX, Chylous. 

CHYLIF'EROUS VESSELS, Vasa chylif- 
era, Vena lactea, Vasa lactea. The Lacteal s, 
(F.) Vaisseaux chyliferes, V. Lactes. Vessels 
which convey the chyle from the intestines to 
the thoracic duct. 

CHYLIFICA'TION, Chylifica'tio, Chylo'sis, 
Chy lopoie' sis, from chy I us, 'chyle,' and ficcrc, 
' to make.' Formation of chyle by the diges- 
tive processes. 

CHYLINE, Cyclamen. 

CHYLISMA, Extract. 

CHYLOCYSTIS, Receptaculum chyli. 

CHYLOG'RAPHY, from y M<>c, 'chyle,' 
and yqatpri, ' a description.' A description of the 
anatomy, &c. of the chyliferous vessels, &c. 

CHYLOPOIES1S, Chylification. 

CHYLOPOIET'IC, Chylopoiet'icus, from XV 
Hoc, ' chyle,' and noma, ' I make.' Any thing 
connected with the formation of chyle. Chiefly 
applied to the organs immediately concerned 
in it; as the stomach, intestines, omenta, and 
mesentery. Assistant Chylopoictic : — those vis- 
cera which aid in the formation of chyle, as the 
liver and pancreas. 

CHYLORRHCEA,Cceliae flux— c. Pectoris, 
Chylothorax — c. Renalis, Chyluria — c. Urinalis, 
Chyluria. 

CHYLOSIS, Chylification. 

CHYLOSTAG'MA DIAPHORETTCUM 
MINDERE'RI. A compound prepared by dis- 
tilling the theriaca of Andromachus, the mith- 
ridate of Damocrates, and other alexipharmics, 
&c. It is nearly the same preparation as the 
Aqua Theriaca'lis Bczoar'dira. 

CHYLOTHO'RAX, Pleurorrlnr'a chylo'sa, 
C/tylorrha/a Pectoris, Hydrothorax chylosus ; 
from %vXog f 'chyle,' and 6wqa$, 'the chest.' 
Effusion of chyle into the chest, owing to the 
rupture of a chyliferous vessel. 

CHYLOUS or CHYLAR, Chylo'susvel C/iy- 
la'ris, (F.) Chyleux, Chylaire. Relating to the 
chyle ; or having some analogy with that fluid. 

CHYLU'RIA, Galactu'riu, Diabe'tcs lactea, 
Pyu'ria lactea, P. Chylo'sa, Ca/liaca urina'lis, 
C. rena'lis, Chylorrha'a urina'lis, Ch. rena'lis, 
from xvlo?> ' chyle,' and ovqov, ' urine.' A dis- 
charge of milky urine, without any apparent 
lesion of the kidneys or bladder. 

CHYME, Chymus, x v t l °Si ' jiaice ,' from^uw, 
' I flow.' A kind of grayish or homogeneous 
pulp, formed by the food, after it has been for 
some time in the stomach. It continues in the 
state of chyme as far as the biliary and pan- 
creatic ducts, which open into the duodenum ; 
where the conversion into chyle occurs, which 
is absorbed by the chyliferous vessels : — the ex- 
crementitious portion of the food traversing the 
large intestine to be evacuated per anuni. 
Castelli asserts, that Chyme and Chyle were 



CHYMI 



157 



CICHORIUM ENDIV1A 



used in an inverse sense, by the ancients, from 
that accepted at present. 

CHYMI, Humours. 

CHYMIA, Chymistry. 

CHYMIA'TER or CHIMIA'TER, from X v- 
fna, ' chymistry,' and hitoos, 'a physician.' 
Jatro-chymicus. A chemical physician. 

CHYMIATRFA or CHIMIATRI'A, latro- 
cliym'iu, Ars Chymiat'rica, from ^vuia, 'chy- 
mistry,' and larnna, ' cure.' The art of curing 
by chemical means. 

CHYM'ICAL. A medicine, formed by the 
aid of chymistry, in contradistinction to Gale- 
nical. 

CHYMICOPHANTA, Chymist. 

CHYMICUS, Chymist. 

CHYMI E, Chymistry. 

CHYMIFICA'TlON, Chymifica' do .from %v 
hoc, 'juice,' and facere, ' to make.' Formation 
of chyme. Chymo'sis. 

CHYM'IST or CHEM'IST, Chymicopkan'ta, 
Chym'icus, (F.) Chimiste or Chymiste. One 
acquainted with chymistry. In Great Britain 
it has, also, the signification of " one who sells 
chemicals." 

CHYMISTE, Chymist. 

CHYM'ISTRY or CHEM'ISTRY, Chymia 
Chimia, Chemeutice, Philosoph'ia per ignem, 
Spagyr'ia, Pyrotech'nia, Pyrosophla, Ars her- 
metica, Archima! ' gia, Ars magorum, Ars scpara- 
to'ria, Ars spagir'ica; from X vuos, 'juice,' or 
from Arab, chema, ' a secret,' (F.) Chimie or 
Chymie. A branch of the natural sciences, 
whose object is to investigate the principles of 
bodies; — to examine the properties, enjoyed by 
the different compounds, produced by the union 
of those principles ; and to study the force or 
power, by virtue of which every combination 
is effected. It investigates the action between 
the integrant molecules or atoms of bodies. 

Animal Chym'istrv is the chymistry of sub- 
stances, afforded by the dead or living animal 
body. This branch of chymistry has been far- 
ther subdivided into physiological, when it con- 
siders the changes produced in animal sub- 
stances by the action of life ; pathological, 
when it regards those produced by organic or 
other diseases. Antkropochyrny is the chymistry 
of the human body. 

Chymistry is called Therapeu'tical or 
Pharmaceutical, when it is engaged in the 
analysis of simple medicines; in improving the 
prescribing and preparing of chemical and Ga- 
lenical medicines; in the means of preparing 
them, and detecting adulterations, &c. Hy- 
cien'ic Chym'istry is that which is applied to 
the means of rendering habitations healthy, of 
analyzing the air we breathe, preventing the 
occurrence of disease, pointing out healthy ali- 
ments, and appreciating the influence of pro- 
fessions, &.c. on the health of man. All these 
different subdivisions, with vegetable chymis- 
try, are, at times, included under the head of 
Medical Chym'istry : at others, the term com- 
prehends only the Animal, Vegetable and Phar- 
maceutical subdivisions. 

A knowledge of chymistry is of great impor- 
tance to the physician. Many of the functions 
are of a chemical nature : many diseases re- 
quire a chemical mode of treatment; and with- 
out an acquaintance with it, two or more sub- 



stances might be given in combination, which, 
by forming a chemical union, might give rise 
to other compounds, possessing very different 
virtues from the components taken singly, and 
thus the prescriber be disappointed in the re- 
sults. 

CHYMOCHEZIA, Coeliac flux. 

CHYMORRHCEA, Coeliac flux, Lientery. 

CHYMOSIS, Chy.nification. 

CHYTLEN, RADIX. A cylindrical root, bit- 
ter and inodorous, brought from China. It is 
held by the Chinese to be stomachic. — Murray. 

CHYT'LON, yvrXov, from £seu, ' I pour out.' 
A liquid formerly used for rubbing the body 
after bathing. 

CIBARIUM, Aliment. 

CIBA'RIUS PANIS. 'Coarse Bread.' Bread, 
made of second flour. — Celsus. 

CIB A'TIO. The taking of food, Trophc,Tno<pv. 
In Pharmacy, it is the same as Incorporation. 

CJBUS, Aliment — c. Albus, Blanc manger. 

CICATRICE, Cicatrix. 

CICATR1CULA. Diminutive of Cica'trix. 
A. small cicatrix. The term is, also, applied to 
a small white spot, called the tread, observable 
at the surface of a fecundated egg. See Mole- 
cule. 

CICATR1SANTIA, Epulotica, Synulot'ica, 
Apulot'ica, Ulot'/ca. Remedies formerly consi- 
dered to be capable of producing cicatrization. 

CICA'TRIX, C&ca'trix, Uls,eh], from cacare, 
' to conceal,' because it conceals the wound, 
(F.) Cicatrice. The union of parts, which have 
been divided. A scar or formation, of a red- 
dish colour, afterwards whitish, and more or 
less thick, which takes place at the surface of 
wounds or ulcers after their cure. A cicatrix 
may vary much in shape, consistence, and 
thickness. The cicatrix of a bone is called 
Callus. A vic"ious cica'trix (F.) Cicatrice vi- 
cieuse, is one which interferes with the action 
of the parts on which it occurs. 

The scars, which occur after small-pox, are 
called Pits or Pockmarks, (F.) Coutures par la 
petite verole. 

CICATRIZA'TION, Cicatrisa'tio, Epulo'st's. 
The process by which a cicatrix is formed. 
Every tissue, except the nails, epidermis, hair, 
and enamel, is probably, capable of cicatriza- 
tion. 

CICELY, SWEET, Chaerophyllum odora- 
tum, Scandix odorata. 

CICER ARIETI'NUM. The Cicer plant. 
Er chin' 'tints, (F.) Cicirole, Pois Chiche. The 
seeds are ground into flour, and used as bread 
in some countries. 

CI'CERA TAR'TARI. Small pills of tur- 
pentine and cream of tartar — of the size of a 
vetch or cicer. 

CICERBITA, Sonchus oleraceus. 

CICliROLE, Cicer arietinum. 

CICHO'RIUM ENDIV'IA. The systematic 
name of the Endive. Endiv'ia, Endi'va, In' la- 
bum, Jn'tybum (Antiq.), Scariola, In'tybus hor- 
ten'sis, (F.) Chicoree des Ja.rdins, Scariole. 
Family, Cichoraceoe. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia 
Polygamia a>qualis. It is a common pot herb, 
and is eaten as salad. 

Cicho'hium In'tybus, Seris, In'tubum <rrali- 
cum. The systematic name of the Wild Suc- 
cory, Wild Cich'ory, Cich'ory, Wild Endive, 



CICHORY, WILD 



158 



CI LIAR V 



Ambuleia, Heliotro'pion, Catanan'cS, Cichoreum, 
(F.) Chicorie sauvage. It is bitter, and was 
once used as a tonic. The root, roasted and 
ground, is often used instead of, or mixed with, 
coffee. 

CICHORY, WILD, Cichorium intybus. 

CICI, Ricinis communis. 

CICINDE'LA, Lampyris, AapTcvPtc, Nocti- 
luca, JYited'ula. The Glow-worm, (F.) Vcr 
luisant. This insect was once thought anodyne 
and hthontriptic. 

CICIS. See Quercus cerris. 

CICON'GIUS; an ancient measure, con- 
taining 12 pints. 

CICUTA, Conium maculatum. 

Cicu'ta Aquat'ica, Cicu'ta viro'sa, Cicuta'- 
ria aquat'ica, Water Hemlock, Cowbane, (F.) 
Cigue aquatique ou vireuse. Family, Umbelli- 
ferae. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. A vio- 
lent poison, often eaten by mistake for the 
Wild Smallage, Apium Graveolens. It produces 
tremors, vertigo, burning at the stomach, and 
all the symptoms occasioned by the JYarcotico- 
Jlcrid class of poisons. 

Ciccta Major, Conium maculatum — c. Ma- 
jor fcetida, Conium maculatum — c. Terrestris, 
Conium maculatum — c. Virosa, Cicuta aquatica 
— c. Vulgaris, Conium maculatum. 

CICUTARIA, Chserophyllum sylvestre— c. 
Aquatica, Cicuta aquatica, Phellandrium aqua- 
ticum. 

CIDER, Poma'ceum, (F.) Cidre. This word 
is said to have been, formerly, written sidre, 
and to have come from Sicera, aixiya, which 
signifies any kind of fermented liquor other 
than wine. It is made from the juice of apples, 
and, when good, is a wholesome drink. 

CIDRE, Cider. 

CIGNUS; an ancient measure, which con- 
tained about two drachms. 

CIGUE AQUATIQUE, Cicuta aquatica— c. 
d'Eau, Phellandrium aquaticum — c. Grande, 
Conium maculatum — c. Ordinaire, Conium ma- 
culatum — c. Vireuse, Cicuta aquatica. 

CILIA, p?.i(fuQtSie. The eyelashes. The hairs 
on each eyelid, (F.) Cils. Their use seems to be, 
to prevent the entrance into the eye of light 
bodies flying in the atmosphere: and to dimin- 
ish, in certain cases, the intensity of light. Also 
the tarsi, rewoi. Also a peculiar sort of moving 
organs, resembling small hairs, which are visible 
with the microscope in many animals. These 
organs are found on parts of the body, which 
are habitually in contact with water, or other 
more or less fluid matters, and produce motion 
in these fluids, impelling them along the sur- 
face of the parts. 

Cilia have been found to exist in all verte- 
brated animals except fishes, having been dis- 
covered on the respiratory and uterine mucous 
membranes of mammalia, birds, and reptiles. 

The terms "vibratory motion" and ciliary 
motion'' have been used to express the appear- 
ance produced by the moving cilia; and it is 
probable, that this motion is concerned in the 
progression of fluids along the mucous mem- 
branes. 

As yet, the motion has been observed only in 
the direction of the outlets of canals. 

CILIAIRE, Ciliary. 

CIL'IARY, Cilia'fis. Relating to the eye- 



lashes, or to cilia, (F.) Ciliaire. This epithet 
has, also, been applied to different parts, which 
enter into the structure of the eye ; from the 
resemblance between some of them (the ciliary 
processes) and the eyelashes. 

Corpus Cilia're, Cil'iary Body, (F.) Corps 
ciliaire. A ring, surrounding the crystalline in 
the manner of a crown; placed behind the iris 
and the ciliary circle. It resembles the disk of 
a radiated flower, and is formed by the union 
of the ciliary processes. 

Cii/jary Proc"esses, Proces'sus cilia'res, 
Rad'ii cilia'res, Rayons sous-iricns — (Ch.,) (F.) 
Proces ciliaires. Triangular folds, sixty or eighty 
in number, placed at the side of each other, and 
radiating, so as to resemble the disk of a radiated 
flower. They are lodged in depressions at the 
anterior part of the vitreous humour. The uses 
of these processes are not known. 

Ciliary Ligament, or C. Circle, Ligamen'- 
tum cilia'rg, Ann'ulus cilia'ris, A. cellulo'sus, 
Com'missure of the Uvea, Commissure de la 
Choroide, — (Ch.,) (F.) Ligament ou Ccrcle 
ciliaire, Cercle de la Choroide, Ceinture blanche 
de la Choroide. A species of grayish ring, of a 
pulpy consistence, situate between the choroid, 
iris, and sclerotica. It seems to be nothing 
more than cellular tissue. 

Ciliary Ar'teries, Artc'rice cilia'res, (F.) 
Arteres ciliaires. These are furnished by the 
ophthalmic artery. They are distinguished into 
1. Short or posterior {Art. uviales, — Chauss.) 
30 or 40 in number, which are distributed to the 
ciliary processes. 2. Long (Art. Iriennes of 
Chauss.,) two in number, which, by the anas- 
tomoses of their branches, form two arterial cir- 
cles at the anterior surface of the iris: and, 3. 
The anterior, Arte'ria. cilia'res anterio'res of 
Haller, the number of which is variable. These 
pierce the sclerotic a few lines from its union 
with the cornea ; and are principally distributed 
to the iris. 

The Ciliary Stri* are numerous, pale, 
radiated strife, in the posterior portion of the 
Corpus ciliare, but so covered by the Pigmen- 
tum nigrum, as not to be distinctly seen till the 
paint is removed. The ciliary processes are 
formed by these strife. 

Zo'nula Cilia'ris vel Membran'ula Cora' nee 
Cilia'ris. Under the corpus ciliare, the capsule 
of the vitreous humour sends off an external 
lamina, which accompanies the retina, and is 
inserted, with it, into the forepart of the capsule 
of the lens, a little before its anterior edge. 
This is the Zonula ciliaris. It is of a striated 
appearance and circular form, and assists in 
fixing the lens to the vitreous humour. 

The Ciliary Veins, (F.) Veines ciliaires, fol- 
low nearly the same course as the arteries. In 
the choroid they are so tortuous, that they have 
received the name Vasa vortico'sa. They open 
into the ophthalmic vein. 

Ciliary Nerves (Nerfs Iriens, — Chauss.) 
(F.) JYcrfs ciliaires. These are 12 or 10 in num- 
ber. They arise from the nasal nerve, and par- 
ticularly from the anterior part of the ophthal- 
mic ganglion. They unite in two fasciculi, 
which pass around the optic nerve, and pierce 
the sclerotica near the entrance of that nerve 
into the eye. They are lost in the ciliary 
ligament. 



CILLEMEA'T 



159 



CINEMA 



Gil'iary or Tarsal Margin of the eyelids; 
(F.) Board ciliaire, the edge in which the cilia 
or eyelashes are situate. 

Cil'iary Motion. See Cii/ia. 

Cii/iary Muscle, Mus'culus cilia'ris. The 
part of the orbicularis palpebrarum in the vi- 
cinity of the ciliary margin. 

CILLEMEjYT, "Nictation. 

CILLO. A name given by some authors to 
those, whose upper eyelid is perpetually trem- 
ulous. A trembling, which in some cases is 
called Life's blood. " To have life's blood in 
the eye," in other words, is to have this affec- 
tion. Vogel calls it Cillo'sis. 

CILLOSIS, Cillo. 

CILS, Cilia. 

CIMEX, Koris, kooi;, Cimcx lectu/a'rius. The 
Wall or House or Bed Bug or Chinche. (F.) 
Punaisc. Six or seven of these, given inter- 
nally, are said to have prevented ague ! There 
is scarcely any thing, which is sufficiently dis- 
gusting, that has not been exhibited for this 
purpose, and with more or less success. The 
bug has also been esteemed emmenao-ogue. 

CIM1CIFUGA. See Actea Racemosa. 

CIMO'LIA PURPURES'CENS, Terra Sa- 
pona'ria, Terra Fullo'nica. Fuller's Earth. A 
compact, bolar earth, employed in the arts. 
Used at times as a cooling application to in- 
flamed breasts, legs, &c. 

Cimo'lia Terra, Cimo'lia alba, Smectis, 
Smectris, Cimo'los, from Kipwlog, an island in 
the Cretan Sea, where it is procured. It was 
formerly used as an astringent, &c. — Scri- 
bonius Largus, Pliny. Probably the same as 
as the last. 

CINA CINA, Cinchona. 

CINABARIS, Hydrargyri sulphuretum ru- 
brum. 

C1NABAR1UM, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
rubrum. 

CINARA HORTENSIS, Cynara scolymus. 

CINCHO'NA. So called from the Spanish 
Viceroy's Lady, the Countess de Cinchon, who 
was cured of fever by it at Lima, about 1638. 
Called also Cortex or PuJvis Jesuit'icus, Jesuit's 
Bark or Powder, Cortex Patrum, because it was 
introduced into Europe by the Jesuits ; and also 
Pulvis Comitissa or the Countess's Powder, 
and Cardinal del Lugo's Powder, Cortex Car- 
dina'lis de Lugo, because he introduced it at 
Rome. It is the pharmacopoeial name of several 
kinds of barks from various species of the Cin- 
chona. JYat. Order, Cinchonace®. Sex. Syst. 
Pentandria Monogynia. Called, also, Cortex, 
Bark, Peru'vian Bark, English Remedy, Cortex 
China, Cortex China Regius, China, Chinchi'na, 
Palos de Calentura, Kina Kina {Bark of Barks,) 
Kinki'na, Cina Cina, Quina Quina, Quinqui'na, 
Magnum Dei donum. (F.) Quinquina. 

Cinchona Lancifo'li/e Cortex. Cortex 
Peruvia'nus, Cortex pal'lidus, Cinchona officinal - 
lis, Cortex commu'nis, Cinchona pal'lida. — Pale 
Bark, Loxa Bark, Crown Bark. (F.) Quinquina 
gris de Loxa, Quinquina Orange. Its odour is 
aromatic; taste pleasant, bitter, and astringent. 
The pieces are rolled in double or single quills 
Epidermis brown, cracked; fracture resinous. 
Internally of a cinnamon colour. Its active 
principle is the Cinchonine. 

Cikcho.nje Cohdifo'li^: Cortex, Cortex fla- 



tus, Cinchona officiiia'lis cortex flams, Yellow 
Bark, Culisuya Bark. (F.) Quinquina jaune oil 
jaune royal, Cakisaya. Odour aromatic; taste 
strong, bitter, astringent. Not rolled; often 
without the epidermis, which is very thick and 
inert: light, friable; fracture fibrous. Active 
principle Quinine. 

Cinchona: Oblongifo'lije Cortex, Cortex 
ruber, Cinchona officinalis, Cortex ruber. Red 
Bark, (F.) Quinquina rouge. Odour and taste 
the same as the pale, but more intense: in large 
flat pieces, solid, heavy, dry: fracture short 
and smooth ; of a deep brownish-red colour. 
Although this variety of bark is assigned to the 
Cinchona oblongifolia by some, it would seem, 
that nothing is certainly known as to its source. 
Active principles, Cinchonine and Quinine. 

Cincho'na: CARiBiE'iE Cortex. Exostt'ma 
Cariba/a, C. Caribaan Bark; the Saint Lucia 
Bark, (F.) itcorce de Saint Lucie, Quinquina 
Piton, and the Pitaya Bark, Quinquina bicolor, 
from an exosterna (?) or from the Strychnos 
pseudoquina(?), are useful substitutes for the 
cinchona of Peru. 

All these barks are bitter, astringent, tonic, 
and eminently febrifuge. The yellow bark, is, 
at least, equal to any of the others, although the 
red contains more active principle. The dis- 
covery of their active principles is one of the 
most important gifts of modern chymistry. 
Still, in pernicious intermittents, the bark, in 
substance, is often demanded. It is employed 
in every disease in which there is deficient 
tone: but in cases where the stomach is much 
debilitated, the powder had better be avoided, 
in consequence of the woody fibre, which might 
disagree. Externally, it is used in enemata, 
gargles, &c, and in gangrenous ulcerations. 
When it excites nausea, an aromatic may be 
added to it: if purging, opium ; if costiveness, 
rhubarb, &,c. Dose, ^ss to jzj or more. 

The Essential Salt of Bark, as it is called, 
is an extract, prepared by macerating the 
bruised substance of bark in cold water, and 
submitting the infusion to a very slow evapora- 
tion. 

Cinchona Officinalis, (Cortex Flavus,) 
Cinchon® cordifolia? cortex — c. Pallida, Cin- 
chonae lancifolia? cortex — c. of Virginia, Mag- 
nolia glauca. 

CINCH'ONINE, Cinchoni'na, Civchonin. 
Cincho'nia. The active principle of the Cin- 
cho'na lancifo'lia. An organic, crystalline al- 
kali; of a white colour, and bitter, slightly as- 
tringent taste; very soluble in alcohol and 
ether, but almost insoluble in water. 

The sulphate of Cinchonine, which is formed 
directly from the cinchonine, is soluble in wa- 
ter and alcohol. The action of the sulphate of 
cinchonine is similar to that of the sulphate of 
quinine; but it is less energetic, and conse- 
quently requires to be given in a stronger dose, 
Cinchonine, Tartrate of. See Quinine, 
tartrate of. 

CINC'LISIS, y.iyy.liotq, Cinclis'mus, agita- 
tion; rapid and frequent motion. The move- 
ment of the thorax in dyspncea — Hippocr. It 
has been used, also, synonymously with Nicta- 
tion, (q. v.) 

CINK'MA, Cine'sis, from given, '1 move.' 
Motion. 



CINERARIA MAR1T1MA 



100 



C1RCUMDUCTTO 



CINERARIA MARITIMA, Achaovan, 
Abiat. 

CINERES CLAVELLATI, see Potash— c. 
Gravellati, see Potash — e. Russici, Potash of 
commerce. 

CINEREUS, Cineritious. 

CINERP'TIOUS, Cinereus, from ci'nercs, 
'ashes;' (F.) Ccndrd, of the colour of ashes. 
The cortical substance of the brain has, by some, 
been so called. See Cortex Cerebri. 

CINESIS, Cinema, Motion. 

CINETH'MICS, from xnew, ' I move.' The 
science of movements in general. 

CINET'ICA. Same etymon. Diseases af- 
fecting the muscles, and characterized by ir- 
regular action of the muscles or muscular 
fibres, commonly denominated Spasm. The 
3d order in the class Neurotica of Good. 

CINETUS, Diaphragm. 

CINGULARIA, Lycopodium. 

CIN'GULUM, Zone, tu» •»/, from Cingo, ' I 
bind.' (V.) Ceinture. The part of the body, 
situate below the ribs, to which the girdle is 
applied. The waist. 

Cingulum Hilda'ni, Zo'nula Hilda'ni. (F.) 
Ceinture de Hildane. A leathern girdle for- 
merly used for the reduction of luxations and 
fractures of the extremities. 

Cingulum Mercuria'le, C. Sapien'tia, C. 
Stulti"tiai. A woollen girdle, containing mer- 
curial ointment. It was used as an antisyphi- 
litic, and in diseases of the skin. (F.) Cein- 
ture de vif argent. 

Cingulum Sancti Joannis, Artemisia vul- 
garis. 

CINIS F^ECUM, see Potash— c.Infectorius, 
see Potash. 

CINNABARIS, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
rubrum — c. Grrecorum, see Calamus rotang. 

CINNAMOMUM, Laurus cinnamomum— c. 
Album, Canellaalba — c. Indicum, Laurus cassia 
— c. Malabaricum, Laurus cassia — c. Sinense, 
Laurus cassia. 

CINNAMON, Laurus cinnamomum — c. Ma- 
labar, Laurus cassia — c. Wild, Laurus cassia. 

CINON'OSI, from kivbw, ' 1 move,' and vooos, 
' a disease.' Diseases of motion. 

CINOPLANE'SIS,from xivew,'! move,' and 
nUaniaig, ' a wandering about.' Irregularity of 
motion. 

CINQUEFOIL, Potentilla reptans. 

CINZILLA, Herpes zoster. 

CION, Uvula. 

CI'ONIS. The V'vvla, (q. v.) Also, tume- 
faction, or elongation of the uvula. Staphylo- 

ClONI'TIS, from niovig, 'the uvula,' and 
itis, 'inflammation.' Inflammation of the uvula. 

CIPIPA. See Jatropha manihot. 

CIRCS/A LUTETIA'NA, Enchanter's 
Nightshade, (F.) Herbe de Saint- Etienne, Herbe 
aux Sorciers. This plant, common in the vi- 
cinity of Paris, was formerly considered to be 
resolvent and vulnerary. It was also supposed 
to possess wonderful magical and enchanting 
properties. 

CIRCOCELE, Cirsocele. 

CIRCQNC1SION, Circumcision. 

CJRCOJYFLEXE, Circumflexus. 

C1RCONSCRIT, Circumscribed. 

CIRCONVOLUTION, Convolution. 



CIRCUIT, Circuities, in Pathological lan- 
guage, generally means ' period,' ' course.' 

CIRCU1TUS, Period. 

CIR'CULAR, Circula'ris, from cir'culus, ' a 
circle.' (F.) Circulaire. Having the form or 
figure of a circle. As Circular Amputation, 6ic. 

The French use the expression "Une circu- 
laire," for a turn of a bandage around any part. 

CIRCULATION, Circula'tio, Cyclopho'ria, 
from cir'culus, ' a circle : or rather, from circum, 
'around,' and ferre, latum, 'to carry.' (F.) 
Circulation. Physiologists give this name to 
the motion of the blood through the different 
vessels of the body : — to that function, by 
which the blood, setting out from the left ven- 
tricle of the heart, is distributed to every part 
of the body by the arteries ; — proceeds into the 
veins, returns to the heart, enters the right 
auricle, and passes into the corresponding ven- 
tricle, which sends it into the pulmonary ar- 
tery to be distributed to the lungs, whence it 
issues by the pulmonary veins, and passes into 
the left auricle. From this it is sent into the 
left ventricle, and is again distributed by means 
of the arteries. 

The Pulmon'ic or lesser Circulation, is 
the circle from the right to the left side of the 
heart by the lungs. — The greater or system- 
atic or system'ic, that through the rest of the 
system. 

The Cap'illary Circula'tion, C.des Paren- 
chymas, is that, which takes place in the capil- 
lary vessels ; and which is, in some measure, 
independent of the action of the heart. It is 
in this capillary circulation, that the various 
secretions are effected; and that animal heat is 
evolved. It is the seat of nutrition. 

CIRCULATOR, Charlatan. 

CIR'CULUS. A circle or ring; Cyclus, Ci- 
rios, (FA Cercle. Any part of the body which 
is rouna or annular, as Cir'culus Oc'uli — the 
globe, bulb, or orb of the eye. — Hippocr., Galen. 
It is, also, applied to objects, which, by no 
means, form a circle, — as to the Circle of Wil- 
lis, an Anastomotic circle at the base of the 
brain, formed by the carotid and basilary ar- 
teries. 

Circulus Arteriosus i'ridis. The artery, 
which runs round the iris, and forms a circle. 

Circulus Membranosus, Hymen. 

Circulus Quad'ruplex ; a kind of bandage 
used by the ancients. 

CIRCUMCAULALIS MEMI3RANA, Con- 
junctiva. 

CIRCUMCIS'lON, Circumcis'io, Prmcis'io, 
Abscis'sio Prapu'tii, Circumcisu'ra, Circum sec 1 '- 
tio, Pcrit'ome, from Circum ' around,' and 
ccedere, ' to cut.' (F.) Circoncision. An an- 
cient operation, performed by some nations as 
a religious ceremony. It consists in removing, 
circularly, a portion of the prepuce of infants : 
— a custom, which was probably suggested, 
with a view to cleanliness. In cases of extra- 
ordinary length of prepuce, or when affected 
with disease, the operation is, sometimes, un- 
dertaken by surgeons. A similar operation is 
performed on the female, by removing a por- 
tion of the nymphoe, amongst the ^Egyptians, 
Arabians, and Persians. 

CIRCUMCISURA, Circumcision. 

CIRCUMDUCTIO, Perisphalsis. 






CIRCUMDUCT! ON IS OPIFEX 161 



CITRIC ACID 



CIRCUMDUCTIONS OPIFEX, Obliquus 
superior oculi. 

CJRCUMFLEX'US, from circum, 'around,' 
anil flexus, 'bent.' (F.) Circonflexe. Curved 
circularly. A name given to several organs. 

Circumflexus Mus'culus, Tensor Pala'ti, 
Peristaplajli'nus exter'nus vel infe'rior, Circum- 
flex'us Pala'ti Mollis, Spheno-salpin'go staphyli'- 
nus sen Staphyli'nus extcr'nus, Mus'culus tuba 
novm, Pala'to-saipingeus, Pter'ygo-staplujli'nus, 
Pelro-sulpiu'go-st.aphyli'nus, Spheno-pter' i/go-pa- 
lati'nus, (F.) Palato-salpingien. A muscle, 
which arises from the spinous process of the 
sphenoid bone, and is inserted into the velum 
pendulum paluti. Its use is to stretch the 
velum. 

The CmcuMFLEx or Artic'ular Ar'teries 
of the arm are distinguished into ;— anterior and 
posterior. They arise from the axillary, and are 
distributed around the shoulder. 

The Circumflex Arteries of the Thigh 
are distinguished into external and internal (A. 
Sous-Trochanteriennes — Ch.) They are given 
off from the Profunda, and surround the head 
of the thigh bone. 

The Circumflex Veins follow the arteries. 

CIRCUMFORANEUS, Charlatan. 

CIRCUMFU'SA. Halle has thus desig- 
nated the first class of subjects, that belong 
t0 Hygiene — as the atmosphere, climate, re- 
sidence, &c. ; in short, every thing which 
acts constantly on man externally and gene- 
rally. 

CIRCUMLF'TIO, Perichrisis, Pcrichriston. 
A term formerly used for liniments, but espe- 
cially for those to be applied to the eyelids; 
from Circum.lino, ' I anoint all over.' 

CIRCUMOSSALE, Periosteum. 

CIRCUMSCRIBED, Circumscrip'tus, (F.) 
Circonscrit- A term applied, in Pathology, to 
tumours, which are distinct at their base from 
the surrounding parts. 

CIRCUMSECTIO, Circumcision. 

CI RE JAUJVE ET BLANCHE, Cera flava 
et alba — c des Orcilles, Cerumen. 

CJROJY, Acarus, Psora. 

C1RIOS, Circulus. 

CIRRAGRA, Plica. 

CIRRHOSIS, Cirronosis. 

CIRRONO'SIS, Kirrhono'sis, from y.iqoog, 
' yellow.' A yellow colouring matter, some- 
times secreted in the tissues, owing to a morbid 
process. Also called cirrho'sis, or Kirro'sis. It 
is not uncommon in the liver. 

CIR'SIUM ARVEN'SE, Car'duus hemor- 
rhoida'lis, Ceano'thos, (F.) Chardon h&mor- 
rhoidal. A common plant used in France in 
the form of cataplasms in hemorrhoids, and 
worn as an amulet. 

CIRSOCE'LE, Cir'coce'le, from xiQoog, ' va- 
rix? and nyjXtj, ' hernia.' Va'ricose Hernia. 
The greater part of authors have employed the 
term synonymously with Varicocele, (q. v.) 
Pott gives it a different signification. Varico- 
cele, he calls the tumour formed by the veins 
of the scrotum; Circocele, Funiculus varico'- 
sus, the varicose dilatation of the spermatic 
veins. The scrotum feels as if it contained 
earthworms. It is commonly an affection of 
no consequence, demanding merely the use of 
a suspensory bandage. 

21 



CIRSOI'DES, from mqaog, 'varix,' and tiSog 
'resemblance.' Varicose, or resembling a va 
rix. Rufus of Ephesus, according to James 
applies this term to the upper part of the brain 
as well as to the spermatic vessels. ( ? ) 

CIRSOM'PHALUS, from y.^ooc, 'varix, 
and ouipaXog, ' navel.' Varicose dilatation of 
the veins surrounding the navel. The term 
has, likewise, been applied to the aneurismal 
dilatation of the arteries of that region, called 
also Varicomphalus, (F.) Hargne anivrysmale , 
Aneurismal Hernia. 

CIRSOPHTHAL'MIA, from y.i Q oog, ' varix,' 
and o</ dtjckpog, ' the eye.' Varicose ophthal'mia, 
Ophthalmia varico'sa, Varicos'itas conjuncti'vm. 
A high degree of ophthalmia, in which the 
vessels of the conjunctiva are considerably in- 
jected. 

CIRSOT'OMY, Cirsotom'ia, from y.iqoog, ' a 
varix,' and rofnj, 'an incision.' Any operation 
for the removal of varices by incision. 

CIRSUS, Varix. 

CISEAUX, Scissors. 

CISSA, Malacia. 

CISSAMPELOS, Pareira brava. 

CISSARUS, Cistus creticus. 

CISSI'NUM, y.ioanov. Name of a plaster of 
ivy, used in wounds of the nerves or tendons. — 
Paulus of iEgina : — from y.iooog, ' ivy.' 

CISSOIDES, Capreolaris. 

C1SSOS, Hedera helix. 

CISTER'NA, from * ( <m„ 'a chest,' (F.) 
Citerne. This term has been applied to various 
parts of the body, which serve as reservoirs for 
different fluids. The fourth ventricle of the 
brain has, also, been so called. — Arantius. 

The Lumbar Cistern, Cister'na lumba'ris or 
Res'ervoir of Pecquet, consists of a dilatation, 
which the thoracic duct presents in the lumbar 
region. See Receptaculum Chvli. 

CISTHORUS, Cistus creticus. 

CISTUS, GUM, Cistus creticus. 

Cistus Cret'icus, Cistus Ladanifcra, Cis'- 
thorus, Cissarus, Dorycin'ium, Gum Cistus. 
Sex. Syst. Polyandria Monogynia. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant, whence the Lad'a- 
num is obtained — Gum' mi Lad'anum. Lad'- 
anum is a gum-resinous substance, of a very 
agreeable smell, found in the shops in great 
masses. Its colour is blackish-green ; taste,warm 
and bitter. It is but little used now. For- 
merly, it was a component of warm plas- 
ters, and was prescribed internally as a sto- 
machic. 

CITERNE LOMBAIRE, Receptaculum 
chyli. 

CITHARUS, Thorax. 

CITRAGO, Melissa. 
CITRARIA, Melissa. 
CITREA MALUS. See Citrus medica. 
C1TREOLUS, Cucumis sativus. 
CIT'RIC ACID, Acidum cit'ricum. The Acid 
of Lemons, Ac"idum Limono'rum, (F.) Acide 
Citrique. This acid is found in the lemon, 
orange, &c. It is in rhomboidal prisms, which 
slightly effloresce on exposure to the air. It 
dissolves in a twelfth part of its weight of boil- 
ing water, and has an extremely acid but agree- 
able taste. It is employed in medicine as "anti- 
septic, refrigerant, and diuretic. Rubbed up 
with sugar and with a little of the essence of 



CITRON 



162 



CLAUDITAS 



lemon, it forms the dry Lemonade, (F.) Limo- 
nade shche. 

CITRON, see Citrus medica — c. Tree, see 
Citrus medica. 

CITROJVELLE, Artemisia abrotanum, Me- 
lissa. 

CITRUL. SICILIAN, Cucurbita citrullus. 

CITRULLUS, Cucurbita citrullus. 

CITRUS. See Citrus medica. 

Citrus Auran'tium. The systematic name 
of the Orange Tree, Auran'tium, A. Hispalcn'se, 
Mains Auran'tia Major, Mains Auran'lia, Au- 
ran'tium nulga're, Mains Anran'tia vulga'ris. 
Nat. Ord. Aurantiaceae. Sex. Syst. Polya- 
delphia Icosandria. The fruit are called Mala 
Aurea, Chrysome'lia, Neran'tia, Martia'na Po- 
ma, Poma Anran'tia, Anran'tia Curassavica, 
Oranges, Poma Chinen'sia. The Flowers of 
the Orange, Flores Naphce, are highly odorife- 
rous, and used as a perfume. On distillation, 
they yield a small quantity of essential oil — 
Oleum vel Essen'tia Nero'li. They were once 
used in convulsive and epileptic cases. The 
leaves, Fo'lia Auran'tii, have a bitterish taste, 
and furnish an essential oil. They have been 
used for the same purposes as the flowers. The 
yellow rind of the fruit, Cortex Auran'tii, 
Orange Peel, is an aromatic bitter, and is used 
in dyspepsia, and where that class of remedies 
is required. The Juice, Succus Aurantii, 
Orange juice, is a grateful acid, and used as a 
beverage in febrile and scorbutic affections. 

Citrus Mei/ica. The systematic name of 
the Lemon Tree. 

The Lemon, Limo'nium malum, Limonum 
Bacca, Malus Med'ica, Malus Limo'nia Ac"ida, 
Limon, Cit'rea Malus, Citrus, (F.) Citron, has 
a fragrant odour, depending upon the essential 
oil, O'lcum Limo'nis, of the rind. The juice, 
Succus Limo'nis is sharp but gratefully acid, the 
acidity depending upon the citric acid it con- 
tains. The outer rind, Cortex Lima 'num., Lemon 
Peel, Zest, Flavc'do Cor'ticum Citri, is used in 
the same cases as the Cortex Auran'tii. The 
juice is given as a refrigerant beverage, in fe- 
brile affections. Alone, orcombined with wine, it 
is prescribed in scurvy, putrid sore throat, &c. 
Its general properties are refrigerantand antisep- 
tic. Sweetened and diluted, it forms a Lemonade. 

The Citron Tree is likewise considered to 
belong to the same species — the Citrus Med'ica. 
Its fruit is called cedrome'la. It is larger and 
less succulent than the lemon. Citron juice, 
when sweetened with sugar, is called by the 
Italians Agro di Ccdro. 

The Citrus Mella Rosa of De Lamarck, 
another variety of the Citrus Medica, affords 
the Bergamote, (which see.) 

CITTA, Malacia. 

CITTAHA, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These springs are in the Isle of Ischia, near 
the sea. They contain carbonate and sulphate 
of lime, and muriate of soda. Their tempera- 
ture is 10()° Fahrenheit. 

C1TTOS, Hedera helix. 

CITTOSIS, Chlorosis, Malacia. 
CIVET'TA, Zib'ethum, Civ'et. (F.) Civette. 
An unetuous perfume, of a very penetrating 
odour, obtained from different mammalia of the 
Viver'ra kind, particularly from the Viver'ra 
elvct'ta. It is contained in a fold of the skin, 



situate between the anus and the organs of 
generation. 

CLAD1SCOS, Ramusculus. 

CLADOMIA ISLANDICA, Lichen Islandi- 
cus. 

Clado'nia RANGiFERni'NA. The ancients 
regarded this European plant as pectoral and 
stomachic. It enters into the composition of 
the Poudre de Chypre. 

CLADOS, Ramus. 

CLAIRET, Claret. 

CLAIRVOYANCE, (F.) ' Clearseeing.' A 
clearness of sight, said to be communicated by 
animal magnetism, which not only enables the 
magnetized person to see in the dark, through 
stone walls, &c but even to observe prospects, 
whilst he fancies he is flying in the air, which 
he has never seen previously. It need hardly 
be said, that the possession of such powers is 
fabulous. 

CLANGOR, Paraphonia. 

CLAP, Gonorrhoea impura. 

CLAP1ER (F.) A clapper, Latib'ulum. A 
purulent focus of disease : concealed in the 
flesh or under the skin — from y.luntir, 1 to con- 
ceal.' See Sinus. 

CLAR'ET, Clare' turn, Vin de Bordeaux. (F.) 
Clairet. A pleasant French wine, which may 
be used, whenever wine is required. Also, a 
wine impregnated with spices and sugar, called 
likewise Vinum Hippocrat'icum, or Potus Hip- 
pocrut'icus, Hip'pocras, Hyp'pocras. Schroder 
speaks of a Clare'tumal'terans&nd a C. pur guns. 

CLARETA, Albumen ovi. 

CLARETUM, Claret. 

CLARIFICATION, Clarifica'tio, Depura- 
tion, from clarus, 'clear,' and fa'cio, '1 make.' A 
pharmaceutical operation, which consists in se- 
parating from a liquid every insoluble substance 
held in suspension by it, and which affects its 
transparency. Decanting and filtering are the 
operations necessary for this purpose. 

CLARY, COMMON, Salvia sclarea. 

CLASIS, Fracture. 

CLASMA, Fracture. 

CLASS, C/as'sis, (F.) Classe. An assem- 
blage of a certain number of objects. In Natu- 
ral History and in Medicine, a class is a group 
of objects or individuals having one or more 
common characters. The classes are divided 
into orders, the orders into genera, the genera 
into species, and these last into varieties. 

CLASSIFICATION, Classifica'tio, from 
clas'sis, ' a class,' and facio, ' I make.' The for- 
mation of classes. A methodical distribution 
of beings, or any objects whatever into classes, 
orders, genera, species, and varieties. See 
Nosography and Nosology. 

CLASSY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Classy is near Laon in Picardy, France. The 
waters are chalybeate. 

CLAUDICATION, Claxidica'tio, from Chu- 
dica're, ' to be lame.' The act of halting or 
limping. Lameness, Cluu'ditas, Cholo'sis, (q. 
v.) Cholei'a, Cholo'ma. (F.) Claudication, Boitc- 
ment. This condition is not any particular 
disease, but is produced by different causes or 
affections. It may be the effect of the shortening 
orelongation of oneof thelowerlimbs, of anchy- 
losis of the joints, palsy of the muscles, pain, &c. 

CLAUDITAS, Claudication. 



CLAUSTRUM GUTTURIS 



163 



CLIMACTERIC 



CLAUSTRUM GUTTURIS, Isthmus of the 
fauces— c. Palati, Velum pendulum palati— c 
Virginitatis, Hymen. 

CLAUSU'RA, from clau' dere, 'to shut.' An 
imperforation of any canal or cavity. 

Clausu'ra Uteri, preternatural imperfora- 
tion of the uterus. 

CLAVA MYOSA, Acorus calamus. A 

CLAVALIERA FEUILLES DE FREJYE, 
Xanthoxylum clava Herculis. 

CLAVA'RIA CORALLOI'DES, Coralloi- 
des Fungus, Coralwort. Said to be corroborant 
and astringent. A kind of clavaria, called 
Digital blanc, Digital humain, Champignon de 
Vapparcil des fractures, formed of digitations, 
grouped together, and two or three inches in 
length, is said to have been often found, for- 
merly at the Hotel Dieu of Paris, on the splints 
of white wood used in the treatment of frac- 
tures, in autumn. — H. Clouquet. 

CLAVATIO, Gomphosis. 

CLAVES CALVARLE, Wormiana ossa. 

CLAVICLE, Clavidula, Clavis, Clavic'ulus, 
Lig'ula, Fur'cula, Os Jug'uli, Cleis, Clei'dion, 
from cluvis, l a. key,' (F.) Clavicule. The collar- 
bone. The clavicle is shaped like the letter S, 
and is placed transversely at the upper part of 
the thorax. It is articulated, at one extremity 
with the sternum, at the other with the acro- 
mion process of the scapula. It gives attach- 
ment, above, to the Sterno-cleido-mastoideus ; 
bcloic, to the Subclavius; before, to the Pectora- 
lis Major and Deltoides; and behind, to the Tra- 
pezius. It serves as a point of support for the 
muscles of the arm, and protects the vessels and 
nerves passing to that extremity. 

The fibres, connecting the lamellae or plates of 
bones, have, also, been called Clavic'uli ox Nails. 

CLAVICULE, Clavicle. 

CLAVIS, Clavicle, Key — c. Anglica, Key — 
c. Secalinus, Ergot. 

CLAVUS. A nail, Helos, ItXog, Gomphos, 
■yoiMfog, (F.) Clou. This word is employed in 
Medicine in various senses. It means,] .A Corn., 
(q. v.) from its resemblance to the head of a 
nail. 2. Certain condylomatous excrescences 
of the uterus. 3. A callous tumour, which 
forms on the white of the eye, and resembles 
a nail, the Clavus Oc'uli, (F.) Clou de [ail. 
This last, by some, is considered to be synony- 
mous with staphyloma; by others, with staphy- 
loma of the cornea. 

Clavus Hystericus, Monopa'gia, (F.) Clou 
hysterique. An acute pain, confined to a small 
point of the head, described by the sick as re- 
sembling that which would be produced by a 
nail, driven into the head. It has been particu- 
larly noticed in hysterical females, hence its 
name. It is called Ovum hyster'icum, when the 
pain occupies a greater extent. 

Clavus Siliginis, Ergot. 

CLEANS1NGS, Lochia. 

CLEARSEEING, Clairvoyance. 
CLEAVERS, Galium aparine. 

Cleavers' Bees, Galium aparine. 

CLEF DU CRANE, Wormianum, os— c. de 
Garcngcot, Key — c. a Noiz, see Key — c. a, Pivot, 
see Key — c. a Pompe, see Key. 
CLEIDAGRA, Cleisagra. 
CLEIDION, Clavicle. 
CLEIDO-COSTAL, Costoclavicular. 



CLEI'DO-MASTOIDEUS. Albinus thus 
designates the posterior portion of the sterno- 
cleido-mastoideus, (q. v.) which he considers 
a separate muscle. It has been corrupted into 
clino-mastoideus. 

CLEIS, Clavicle, Key. 

CLEIS'AGRA, Cleid'agra, from *A«s,<the 
clavicle,' and uyou, ' a seizure.' Gout in the 
clavicle. — A. Pare. 

CLEMATIS DAPHNOIDES MAJOR, Vin- 
ca minor. 

Clem'atis Recta, Flam'mula Jovis, Upright 
Virgin's Bower, (F.) Clematitc droite. Family 
Ranunculaceae. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Poly- 
gynia. The leaves contain an acrid principle. 
They have been esteemed anti-venereal; and, 
in the form of powder, have been used as es- 
charotic. 

Clematis Vital'ba, Vital'ba, Vior'na, Atra- 
gene, the Traveller's Joy, Common Virgin's 
Bower, (¥.} Clematite, Herbe aux gueux, Aube- 
vigne. It lias been used in the same cases as 
the former. In infusion it has been applied in 
cases of itch. The leaves of the Clematis crispu 
have similar properties. 

CLEMATITE, Clematis vitalba— c. Droite, 
Clematis recta. 

CLEO'NIS COLLYR'IUM. A collyrium, 
described by Celsus, composed of equal parts of 
Samian earth, myrrh, and thus, mixed with 
white of egg. 

Cleo'nis Gluten. An astringent formula 
of myrrh, frankincense, and white of egg. 

CLEP'SYDRA, from xtenxu, 'I conceal, 
and vSwq, 'water.' An instrument contrived by 
Paracelsus to convey fumigations to the uterus. 

CLEVES, MINERAL WATERS OF. This 
spring is a quarter of a league from Cleves in 
Westphalia. It contains carbonate and sul- 
phate of iron. 

CLIGNEMENT, Nictation. 

CLIGJYOTEMEJYT, Nictation. 

CLIMA, Climate. 

CLIMACTER'IC, Climacter 1 'icus or Clima- 
tcr'icus, from xliuaxTr\Q, 'a step,' (F.) Climact'- 
irique ou Climateriquc. A word, which pro- 
perly signifies, by degrees. It has been applied 
to certain periods of life, regarded to be critical. 

Anni Climacter'ici. Climacter'ic Years, 
are, according to some, all those in the life of 
man, which are multiples of the number 7, Sep- 
tenniads. Others have applied the term to 
years, resulting from the multiplication of 7 by 
an odd number. Some have admitted only 
three climacterics; others, again, have extended 
them to multiples of 9. Most, however, have 
considered the 63d year as the Grand Climac- 
teric; — 63 being the product of the multiplica- 
tion of 7 by 9; and all have thought that the 
period of three, seven, or nine, which they re- 
spectively adopted, was necessary to the entire 
renewal of the body ; so that there was, at these 
times, in the economy, none of the parts of 
which it had previously consisted. The climac- 
teric years have also been called, hebdomad'ici, 
scala'res,grada'rii,scan'siles,genethliaci,natali"- 
tii,fata'les, crit'ici, decretolrii, hero'ici, &c. The 
whole of the notions on the subject are essen- 
tially allied to the doctrine of numbers of Py- 
thagoras. 

At present, the word Climacteric is chiefly 



CLIMATE 



164 



CLIMATE 



applied to certain periods of life, at which great 
changes occur, independently of any numeri- 
cal estimate of years. Such are the period of 
puberty, in both sexes, that of the cessation of 
the menses in women, &c. 

CLIMATE, Clima, yMua, (F.) Climat. In 
Geography, the word climate is applied to a 
space of the terrestrial globe, comprised be- 
tween two circles parallel to the equator, and 
arbitrarily measured according to the length of 
the days. In a Hygienic point of view, we 
understand by climate, since Hippocrates, a 
country or region, which may differ from an- 
other in respect to season, qualities of the soil, 
heat of atmosphere, &c. Climate, indeed, em- 
braces, in a general manner, all the physical 
circumstances belonging to each district: cir- 
cumstances which exert considerable influence 
on living beings. The dark complexion, e. g. 
of the inhabitants of the torrid zone is easily 
distinguishable from the paleness of those of 
the frigid, — so are the diseases. They are all 
modified, more or less, by climate or locality. 
Hot climates predispose to abdominal compli- 
cations in febrile affections, cold climates to 
thoracic, &c. 

One of the most important considerations 
with regard to climates, is their comparative 
fitness for the residence of invalids, and es- 
pecially of those who are liable to, or suffering 
under catarrhal or consumptive affections. 



derive every advantage, which this form of re- 
vulsion is capable of effecting. 

To an inhabitant of the northern and middle 
portions of the United States— and the same 
applies to Great Britain, France, and the north- 
ern parts of the old world — a more southern 
climate alone affords these advantages in an 
eminent degree. 

During the summer months, there are few, 
if any, diseases, which require a milder climate 
than that of the United States, or of the milder 
districts of Europe. The temperature of the 
winter months is, consequently, the most im- 
portant object of attention. 

Equability of temperature is essential, inas- 
much as all sudden changes interfere with the 
great desideratum — exercise in the open air. 
In the whole continent of North America the 
changes are very sudden and extensive. It is 
not uncommon for the range to be 40°, between 
two successive days. So far, therefore, as this 
applies, the American climate is not well adapt- 
ed to the invalid. In the southern portions, 
however, of the Union, this objection is coun- 
terbalanced by many advantages. 

The following Tables exhibit the mean tem- 
perature of the year, and of the different sea- 
sons — with the mean temperature of the warm- 
est and coldest months of different places in 
America, Europe, Africa, &.c. , as deduced from 
the excellent paper of Von Humboldt on Iso- 



The great object, in such cases, is to select thermal Lines, the Meteorological Registers 
a climate which will admit of regular and daily kept by the Surgeons of the United States Army, 
exercise in the open air, so that the invalid may the work of Sir James Clarke on Climate, &.c. 

1. AMERICA, &c. 



Nain, Labrador, - - 
Fort Brady, Mich. 

Quebec, L. C. - - - 

Eastport, Me. - - - 

Fort Howard, Mich. - 

Fort Crawford, Miss. - 

Cambridge, Mass. - - 

Council Bluffs, Miss. - 

Newport, R. I. - - - 
Philadelphia, ... 

New York, - - - - 
Cincinnati, .... 

Monticello, Va. - - 
Washington, D. C. 

Smithville, N. C. - - 

Charleston, S. C. - - 

Natchez. Miss. - - - 

Pensacola, Flor. - - 

St. Augustine, do. - - 

Tampa Bay, do. - - 

Vera Cruz, .... 

Havanna, - - - - 



Bahamas, 

Barbadoes, 
Cumana, 



Lati- 
tude. 



57.°08' 
4C.39 
46.47 
44.54 
44.40 
43.03 
42.21 
41.25 
41.30 
39.56 
40.40 
39.06 
37.58 
38.53 
34.00 
32.47 
31.34 
30.28 
29.48 
27.57 

19.11 
23.10 
26.40 

to 
27.5 
13.10 
10.27 



Mean 
temper- 
ature of 
several 

years. 



26°42 
41.37 
41.74 
42.44 
44.50 
45.52 
50.36 
50.82 
51.02 
53.42 
53.78 
53.78 
55.40 
55.56* 
58.88 
60.18 
64.76 
68.77t 
72.23 
72.37 

77.72 
78.08 

78.3 

79.3$ 

81.86 



Mean temperature of different, 
seasons. 



Mean tempera- 
ture of 



Winter. Spring. Summer •.' Autumn, warmest coldest 
r ° i month, month. 



0.°60 
14.09 
14.18 
23.44 
20.82 
23.76 
33.98 
27.38 
33.82 
32.18 
29.84 
32.90 
37.67 
36.80 
53.44 
51.09 
48.56 
55.13 
59.29 
61.24 

71.96 
71.24 

71. 

76.7 
80.24 



23 ° 6 
37. 9 
38.84 
38.58 
41.40 
43.09 
47.66 
46.38 
46.87 
51.44 
51.26 
54.14 
54.67 
53.83 
64.76 
66.73 
65.48 
69.67 
71.47 
72.93 

77.90 

78.98 

77. 

79. 
83.66 



48.^38 
61.83 
68.00 
60.54 
68.70 
69.78 
70.70 
72.84 
68.70 
73.94 
79.16 
72.86 
73.33 
75.90 
80.46 
80.89 
79.16 
82.57 
82.73 
80.14 

81.50 
83.30 

83. 

81. 

82.04 



33.°44 
43.94 
46.04 

-45.43 
45.18 
46.74 
49.82 
48.60 
53.83 
56.48 
54.50 
54.86 
56.50 
56.59 
68.15 
67.55 
66.02 
69.05 
75.15 
75.28 

78.62 
78.98 

80. 

80. 
80.24 



51 °80 
62.87 
73.40 
63.52 
73.67 
71.34 
72.86 
75.92 
71.46 
77.00 
80.78 
74.30 
75.00 
79.13 
82.93 
82.81 
79.70 
83.55 
*»3.94 
80.72 

81.86 

83.84 

90. 



84.38 



ll.°20 
12.65 
13.81 
20.91 
17.95 
20.14 
29.84 
27.19 
32.14 
32.72 
25.34 
30.20 
36.00 
34.6<> 
50.69 
49.43 
46.94 
53.80 
56.60 
58.70 

71.06 
69.98 

64. 



79.16 



* St. Louis, Missouri, Lat. 38.°46'. Mean temperature 55.°86. New Harmony, Lat. 38.°11'. Mean temperature 
56.°74. 
f New Orleans, Lat. 30.°. Mean temperature 69.°01. Baton Rouge, Lat. 30.°2C. Mean temperature G8°.07, 
j Jamaica, coast, Mean temperature 80.°b\ 



\ 



CLIMATE 



1.;;. 



CLIMATE 






2. EUROPE, AFRICA, &c. 



Places. 



Lati- 
tude. 



Mean temperature of different 

seasons. 



Geneva, - - - - - 

Gosport, 

Newport, Isle of Wight, 

Paris, - 

Sidmouth, - - - - 
Penzance, - - - 

Pau, 

Sienna, 

Nantes, 

Bourdeaux, - - - - 
Montpelier, - - - 

Avignon, 

Florence, - - • - - 

Nice, 

Marseilles, - - - - 

Toulon, 

Leghorn, 

Genoa, ------ 

Pisa, - 

Rome, - - - - - 
Naples, ----- 
St. Michael's, Azores, 
Cadiz, ------ 



48.°12' 
48.1 
50.40 
48.50 

52.11 
43.7 
43.24 
47.13 

44.50 
43.30 



Madeira, Funchal, 
Algiers, - - - - 
Canaries, Santa Cruz, 
Cairo, ------ 



43.46 
43.42 
43.17 
43.07 
43.33 
44.25 
43.43 
41.53 
40.54 
37.47 
36.32 

32.37 

36.48 
28.28 
30.02 



60.37 
60.60 
60.40 
61.40 
62.40 
62.88 

64.56 
69.98 
70.94 
72.32 



59.50 
61.52 
64.65 
58.46 



Spring. Summer. .1 A lUumn. 



47.66 
47 63 
49.00 
49.28 
50.66 
49.66 
54.96 
54.10 
53.10 
56.46 
53.33 
57.13 
56.00 
56.23 
57.56 
5370 
57.60 
58.60 
57.20 
57.74 
58.50 
61.17 
59.53 

62.20 
65.66 

68.87 
73.58 



64.94 

o-j.oo 
6:109 
64.58 
63 83 
60.50 
67.41 
70.80 
70.73 
70.88 
71.30 
74.66 
74.00 
72.26 
72.50 
74.30 
74.10 
75.03 
75.15 
75.20 
70.83 
68.33 
70.43 

09.33 
80.24 
76.68 
85.10 



50.00 

50.88 
51 .63 
51.44 
53.50 
53 84 
55. 04 
57.10 
56.41 
56.30 
61.30 
59.00 
60.70 
61.63 
60.08 
59.00 
62.00 
62.94 
62.80 
62.78 
64.50 
62.33 
65.35 

67.23 
72.50 
74.17 
71.42 



Mean tempera- 
ture of 

warm'sc coldest 
month, j month. 

66.56 I34-.16 



65.30 



36.14 



70 52 ' 39.02 
73.04 41.00 



77.00 i 42.26 



82.76 
85.82 



60.08 
56.12 



* London, L,at 51.°30'. Mean temperature 50. Q 36. Environs of London, Mean temperature 48. °81. 
t Lyons, Mean temperature 55. Q 76. X Perpignan, Mean temperature 59.°54. 

§ Nismes, Mean temperature 60 s .26. 



The following tabular views show the mean monthly temperature, maximum, minimum, and 
range, as well as the greatest daily, and mean daily range, during the corresponding months — 
but of different years — at some of the prominent retreats for the valetudinarian, in Great Britain, 
on the continent of Europe, and in the African islands. It is proper, however, to remark, that 
in nosituations, except in those towhich an asterisk is affixed, was the register thermometer used. 
In the others, the observations were made during the day only, and consequently the numbers 
given are far below the real range throughout the twenty-four hours. 

The places are ranged in the order of their mean temperature. 
Table of Mean Temperature. 



Places. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


Sidmouth, 


43 .00 


36 . 30 


42. 00 


45 . 00 


51 . 00 


Penzance, 


46 . 50 


43.00 


44 .50 


46 .50 


48 . 50 


Pau, 


41 . 53 


38 . 89 


44 . 96 


46 . 80 


55 . 79 


Montpellier, 


46.00 


42 .00 


45 . 00 


47. 00 


53 . 00 


Nice, 


48 .60 


45.85 


49 . 00 


51 .45 


57 . 00 


Rome, 


49.62 


47 . 65 


49 . 45 


52 . 05 


56 . 40 


Naples, 


50.50 


46 .50 


48 .50 


52 . 00 


57 . 00 


Madeira, 


60.50 


59.50 


58 . 50 


61 . 06 


62 . 50 



Table of Maximum, Minimum and Range of Temperature. 



Places. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


'3 


E 


6 

c 


ed 

g 

47 
54 
56 
53 
58 
58 
58 
69 


a 
8 

21 

28 
21 
27 
27 
29 
29 
50 


03 

en 
C 
a 

26 
26 
35 
26 
31 
29 
29 
19 


a 

52 
55 

60 
55 

58 
60 
60 
68 


a 

27 
33 
35 
30 
37 
33 
31 
51 


be 

25 
22 
25 
25 
21 
27 
29 
17 


H 

cS 
S 

56 
59 
65 
58 
65 
65 
69 
69 


a 
"| 

26 
34 
35 
35 
41 
37 
38 
51 


en 

S 

30 
25 
30 
23 
24 
28 
31 
18 


s 

60 
62 
71 
64 
69 
74 
78 
72 


c 

a 

31 
36 
43 
41 
46 
44 
43 
55 


o 

c 

29 
26 
28 
23 
23 
30 
35 
17 


Sidmouth, 4 

Penzance,* 

Pau, 

Montpellier. 

Nice 

Rome, 

Naples, 

Madeira,* 


54 
56 
56 
57 
59 
60 
61 
68 


25 
34 
25 
32 
40 
31 
34 
52 


29 
22 
31 
25 
19 
29 
27 
16 



CLIMATERIC 



ICG 



CLOANX 



Table of Daily Range 


of Temperature 


• 








December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 




& 












>> 




>> 












>> 












Places. 


'3 .; 




'■3 «; 

T3 gj 


£ <D 


•i & 


•O eg 


■° to 


CO . 
_■ DJ) 


<3 „; 

-a a 


CO 




c c 

cO « 


£i " 


C = 
CO c3 


cO •" 


2 •"• 




e e 

cS ci 

CD b, 


I cO 


c 5 
* S3 


co £ 

CO K 




a 


sb 


a 


cu 


s 


g 

US 


E 


a> 


S 




Sidmouth, 




13 




13 




12 




12 




13 


Penzance, 


3 




4 




6 




8 




9 




Pau, 


7 


13 


7 


1(5 


9 


16 


9 


17 


8 


18 


Montpellier, 


9 




8 




9 




14 




14 




Nice, 


6 


14 


8 


16 


9 


18 


9 


17 


11 


18 


Rome, 


9 


15 


11 


16 


10 


18 


12 


19 


10 


20 


Naples, 


9 


13 


9 


14 


11 


19 


11 


18 


14 


20 


Madeira* 


11 


14 


11 


17 


9 


13 


10 


14 


9 


13 | 



In the United States, the most favourable 
region for the phthisical invalid is that of Flo- 
rida, — especially of Pensacola. St. Augustine 
is frequently chosen, but it is liable to north-east 
storms, which interfere with the movements of 
the valetudinarian, and are the source of much 
discomfort. Still, great benefit has often been 
derived from it as a winter retreat. 

Of the Atlantic Islands, Madeira appears to 
be best adapted for the consumptive: and those 
affected with chronic bronchitis. In Italy, 
Rome and Pisa, — and in England, Torquay 
and Undercliff, are to be preferred. 

Chronic Rheumatism and Gout are bene- 
fited by a warm climate. This, again, is un- 
favourable to those who are predisposed to 
cerebral diseases, especially to diseases that are 
characterized by debility and mobility of the 
nervous system — as paralysis, epilepsy, mania, 
&c. Hypochondriasis and Dyspepsia require 
rather change of climate and travelling exer- 
cise than a sojourn in any one. (See the Au- 
thor's Elements of Hygiene, Philad. 1835.) 

For the mortality of different countries and 
cities, see Mortality. 

CLIMATERIC, Climacteric. 

CLIMATIC, Climaticus. Belonging to, or 
dependent upon climate. 

Climatic Diseases, Morbi climat'ici, are 
such as are caused by climate. 

CLINE, xAivij, ' a bed.' Hence : 

CLIN'ICAL, Clinicus, (F.) Clinigue. Re- 
lating to a bed. 

Clinical Lecture, (F.) Lccon diniquc. One 
given at the bedside, or on a particular case or 
cases. 

Clinical Medicine, (F.) Medecine clinigue, 
that which is occupied with the management 
of diseases, taken at the bedside or indivi- 
dually. 

Clinique, in French, is occasionally used, 
substantively, for Ecole clinique, or Clinical 
School; — a school in which Medicine is taught, 
by examining diseases on the patients them- 
selves. Thus, the French say, — La Clinique 
de la Charite; "The Clinical School of the 
Hospital La Charite." 

CLINIQUE, Clinical. 

CLINOID, Clino'i'des, from nXivrj, 'a bed,' 
and fi(5oc, ' form.' Resembling a bed. 

The Ci.inoid Progresses, (F.) Apophyses 



clino'idcs, are four processes at the upper sur- 
face of the sphenoid bone, which have been 
compared to the posts of a bed. On them the 
pituitary gland rests. They are divided into 
anterior and posterior. Each of the anterior 
terminates in a point called Transverse Spinous 
Process. 

CLINOPODIA, Thymus mastichina. 

CLINOPO'DIUM VULGA'RE,from y.ln n , 
' a bed,' and vtodc, ' foot,' so called from the 
shape of its flowers. Wild Basil. (F.) Grand 
Basilic sauvage. A European plant, which 
was formerly considered to be an antidote to 
the bites of venomous animals, to facilitate la- 
bour, relieve strangury, stop diarrhoea, &c. 

CLIQUETIS. Crepitation. 

CLISEOM'ETER, Clisconi 'etrum, from 
y.ltoii, ' inclination,' and .uitqov, ' measure.' 
An instrument, intended to measure the de- 
gree of inclination of the pelvis, and to deter- 
mine the relation between the axis of the pelvis 
and that of the body. — Osiander, Stein. 

CLITBUR, Arctium lappa. 

CLITORIDIS JNFERIORIS LATI ET 
PLANI MUSCUL1, Constrictores cunni. 

CLITORIS, from yJ.ijToQ, 'a servant who 
invites guests.' (?) Dulce'do Amoris, Mijrton, 
CEstrum, Penis niulie'bris, Mcntula mulie'bris, 
Mernbrum mulie'brS, Superla'bia, Ccrco'sis, 
(q. v.) A small, round organ, situate at the 
upper part of the vulva, and separated by a 
small space from the anterior commissure of 
the labia. Its base is surrounded by a slight 
fold, similar to the prepuce; and it is, inter- 
nally, of the same structure as the corpora ca- 
vernosa penis. The artery of the Clitoris, (F.) 
Clitorienne, is a branch of the internal pudic. 
The vein communicates with the internal pu- 
dic; and the nerve with the pudic. 

CLIT'ORISM; a word, invented to express 
the abuse made of the clitoris. Also, an un- 
usually large clitoris, Cercosis externa. 

CLOACA, (F.) Cloaque, from clucrc, 'to 
purge itself;' from xXvtm, ' I wash.' The 
pouch at the extremity of the intestinal canal, 
in which the solid and liquid excretions are 
commingled in birds, fish and reptiles. In the 
male it gives exit to the excrements, sperm 
and urine: in the female to the eggs, faecal 
matters, and urine. 

CLOANX, Orpiraent. 



CLOAQUE 



1G7 



COAGULUM 



CLOJIQUE, Cloaca. 

CLOCHE (F.) A popular expression in 
France, for a blister or other vesicle. 

CLOISON, Septum — c. des fosses nasales, 
Septum nariuin — c. Transparente, Septum lu- 
ciduin. 

CLONIC, Clon'icus, from xXorog, • agitation,' 
' motion.' (F.J Clonique. Irregular convulsive 
motions. Convulsion with alternate relaxa- 
tion; in contradistinction to tonic, which sig- 
nifies a constant rigidity. Clonus, Clonici par- 
tia'lcs. 

CLONICI UNIVERSALES, Synclonus. 
CLOMQUE, Clonic. 

CLONISM, Clonis'mus ; same etymon. Clo- 
nic spasm. — Baumes. 

CLONO'DES, from y.Xorog, ' agitation,' and 
tiSog, ' resemblance.' Convulsive. Galen ap- 
plies this term to the pulse, when convulsive, 
as it were, and unequal. He compares the 
sensation it communicates to the finger to that 
produced by a bundle of sticks or rods in vi- 
bration. 

CLONOS EPILEPSIA, Epilepsy— c. Hy- 
drophobia, Hydrophobia. 

CLONUS, Synclonus — c. Nictitatio. Nicta- 
tion — c. Palpitatio, Palpitation — c. Pandicula- 
tio, Pandiculation — c. Pandiculatio maxilla- 
rum, Yawning — c. Singultus, Singultus — c. 
Sternutatio, Sneezing — c. Subsultus, Subsul- 
tus tendinum. 

CLOPEMANIA, Klopemania. 
CLOPORTES ORDINAIRES, Onisci aselli. 
CLOT OF BLOOD. See Blood. 
CLOTHING, Vestitus. 

CLOU, Clavus, Furunculus — c. Hystirique, 
Clavus hystericus — c. de I' QUI, Clavus oculi. 
CLOUDBERRIES, Rubus chamamiorus. 
CLOUDBERRY TREE, Rubus chamsemo- 
rus. 

CLOVE, see Eugenia caryophyllata — c. 
Bark, see Myrtus caryophyllata— c. Pink, Di- 
anthus caryophyllus — c. July flower, Dianthus 
caryophyllus. 

CLUBFEET, Kyllosis. 
CLUBMOSS, Lycopodium— c. Fir, Lyco- 
podium Selago — c. Upright, Lycopodium se- 
lago. 

CLUNES, Nates. 

CLUNE'SIA, from Clunes, ' the nates.' Proc- 
talgia, Procti'tis. An inflammation of the but- 
tocks. — Vogel. 

CLUPEA THRYSSA. The Yellow-billed 
Sprat; a very poisonous fish of the West In- 
dies. 

CLYDON, Flatulence. 

CLYSMA, Clyster— c. Tonicum, Enema foe- 
tid urn. 

CLYS01RE (F.) An apparatus consisting 
of a long funnel-shaped tube of elastic gum, 
furnished with a pipe at the apex; for adminis- 
tering enemata. 

CLYSTER, Clystc'rium, Clysma, Enclys'ma, 
Clysmus, Enema (q. v.) from y.lvtuv, ' to 
wash.' (F.) Clystere, Lavement, Remede. A 
liquid, thrown into the large intestine by 
means of a syringe, or bladder and pipe pro- 
perly prepared, &c; the nozzle of the syringe 
or pipe being introduced into the anus. See 
Enema. 

Clystek, Anodyne, Enema anodynum— c. 



Common, Enema commune— c. Domestic, En- 
ema commune — c. Foetid,- Enema foetidum — c. 
Pipe, Elasma— c. Purging, Enema catharti- 
cum — c. Starch and opium, Enema anodynum 
— c. Tobacco, Enema tabaci— c. Turpentine, 
Enema terebinthin^' — c. Uterinus, Sparallium. 

CLYSTERE, Enema. 
CNEME, Leg, Tibia. 

CNEORON, Daphne gnidium. 

CNEORUM TRICOC'CUM, Almeze'rion, 
Acnes'tos, Chama/lea, Widow-wail, Spurgr- 
Olivc. (F.) Camelie. This plant, a native of 
Southern Europe, contains a very irritating, 
acrid principle. The ancients employed its 
leaves as a powerful purgative. It is now 
sometimes used for deterging ulcers. 

CNESIS, y.rijoi;, Cnesmos, y.yyjouug. A pain- 
ful itching. — Galen. 

CNESMOS, Cnesis, Itching. 

CNICELiF/UM, from y.nxog, ' carthamus,' 
and iXaiov, ' oil.' Oil of Carthamus. — Diosco- 
rides. 

CN1CUS, Carthamus tinctorius — c. Sylves- 
tris, Centaurea benedicta. 

CNIDELJEON, Cnidcla/um, from xvifot?, 
' cnidia,' and * Xuior, ' oil.' Oil made from the 
Grana Cnidia or Mezereon Berries. — Diosco- 
rides. 

CNIDIA GRANA, Cnid'ii Cocci, Coc'cogni- 
d'ia, JEto'lion, Coccum. The berries of the 
Daphne Cnidium. — Foesius. 

CNIDO'SIS. A pungent itching, compared 
to that produced by the Urtica urcns or Mettle. 
Cxndij.) — Hippoc. 

CNIP'OTES, Pruri'ius. Itching. The dry 
ophthalmia, Xerophthalmia. 

CNISSA. See Nidorous. 

CNISSOREG'MIA, from xvioact, ' the smell 
of burnt fat,' and oqtyw, ' I put forth.' A nido- 
rous eructation. 

CNYMA, xvvfia. A slight itching. Also, a 
puncture or vesication. — Galen. 

COAGMENTATIO, Gomphosis. 

COAG'ULANTS, Coagulan'tia, Remedies 
or poisons, supposed to possess the power of 
coagulating the blood, or to give consistency 
to animal fluids. The word, and the absurd 
notions connected with it, are equally aban- 
doned. 

COAGULA'TION, Coagula'tio. The con- 
version of a liquid into a more or less soft and 
tremulous mass. Many animal and vegetable 
fluids are capable of coagulation. 

COAG/ULUM, Grumus, (F.) Caillot. A 
soft mass, formed in a coagulable liquid. The 
Clot of the Blood is particularly so called — the 
Cruor, Insula, Placen'ta, Hcpar San'guinis, 
Crassamen'tum: — the red mass, composed of 
fibrine, serum, and colouring matter, which se- 
parates when the blood is left to itself. See 
Blood. 

The word is also applied, in Pathology, to 
the sanguineous concretions, which form in 
different natural and accidental cavities; and 
which, when they occur at the mouth of a di- 
vided artery, sometimes suspend the flow of 
blood. This is, indeed, one of the means by 
which hemorrhage is arrested. 

Coac/ulum Alu'minis, Coag'ulum Alumina'- 
sum. This is made by beating the white of 
cirivs with a little alum, until a coagulum is 



COALESCENCE 



168 



COCHLEA 



formed. It is applied in cases of ophthalmia, 
where an astringent is necessary. 

COALES'CENCE, Coalesced tia, from cw- 
les'cerc, ' to run together,' (from cum, ' with,' 
and alere, ' to nourish,') Sym'physis. The ad- 
hesion or union of parts previously separated, 
as in case of wounds and preternatural adhe- 
sions. 

COALFTION. The same etymon as coa- 
lescence. It has been used in the same cases 
as coalescence; as well as to express the action 
of several parts of the frame, which have the 
same nutrition. 

COALTER'NjE FEBRES. A name, given 
to two intermittents, which attack a person at 
the same time, but whose paroxysms are dis- 
tinct: so that the attack of one supervenes 
when the other has ceased. The term Double 
Intermittent expresses the same meaning. 

COAPTA'TION, Coapta'tio, from cum, 
' with,' and aptu're, ' to adjust,' ' adapt;' Pa- 
rago'ge. The act of adapting the two extre- 
mities of a fractured bone to each other; or of 
restoring a luxated bone to its place. Coapta- 
tion must be effected gently. Usually, exten- 
sion and counter-extension are, in the first 
place, necessary. 

COARTICULATIO, Diarthrosis, Synarthro- 
sis. 

COARCTATIO, Stricture. 

COARCTATION, Coarcta'tio, from coarc- 
tare, ' to straiten.' Stricture. Avicenna speaks 
of Coarctation of the Pulse. 

COBALT, PROTOXIDE OF, Smalt. 

COBHAM, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Cobham is seven miles from Kingston, in Sur- 
rey, England. The waters are weak saline 
purgatives. 

COBRA DE CAPELLO, Crotalus horridus. 

COBWEB, Aranei Tela. 

COCCA'RIUM. A very small pill. 

COCCHIA, Cochia. 

COCCI GRANUM, Kermes— c. Orientales, 
see Menispermum cocculus. 

COCCIGIO-CUTAJVE SPHINCTER, 
Sphincter ani externus. 

COCCINELLA, Coccus cacti. 

Coccinel'la Septempuncta'ta. Lady-bird, 
Lady-cow, Lady-bug. This insect, bruised upon 
an aching tooth, has long been regarded antio- 
dontalgic ! 

COC'CION, xoy.xiov. A weight, mentioned 
by Myrepsus, the same as the Siliqua. 

COCCIONELLA, Coccus cacti. 

COCCOBALSAMUM. See Amyris opobal- 
samum. 

COCCOGNIDIA, Cnidia grana. 

COCCONES. See Punica granatum. 

COCCULyE OFFIC1NARUM. See Menis- 
permum cocculus. 

COCCULI INDI AROMATICI. See Myr- 
tus pimenta. 

COCCULUS CRISPUS, Menispermum tu- 
berculatum — c. Indicus, see Menispermum coc- 
culus — c. Palmatus, Columba — c. Suberosus, 
see Menispermum cocculus. 

COCCUM, Cnidia grana, Kermes — c. Ba- 
phicum, Kermes — c. lnfectorium, Kermes — c. 
Scarlatinum, Kermes — c. Tinctorium, Ker- 
mes. 

COCCUS AMERICANUS, Coccus cacti. 



Coccus Cacti. The systematic name of the 
Coch'ineal Insect. Coccinel'la, Cochinil'lu, Coc- 
cionel'la, Coccip.il' la, Ficus In'd'uc grana, Coc- 
cus Polon'icus, Scaraba/olus hcmisphcc'ricus, 
Cochinelif era cochinil'lu, Coccus America' nus , 
Coccus ln'dicus Tincto'rius, Cochincllc, Coccus. 
The Coch'ineal Animal, (F.) Cochenil/e, Grainc 
de PEcarlatc. The cochineal insects have a 
faint, heavy odour; their taste is acrid, bit- 
terish, and astringent: colour blackish-red ex- 
ternally, — purple-red within. They are used 
chiefly for giving a red colour to tinctures, &c. 
They were, at one time, esteemed astringent, 
stimulant, diuretic, and anodyne. 

Coccus Ilicis, Kermes — c. Indicus tinclo- 
rius, Coccus cacti — c. Indicus, see Menisper- 
mum cocculus — c. Polonicus, Coccus cacti. 

COCCYGIO-AJYAL, Sphincter ani eUernus. 

COCCYGIO-CUTAN& SPHINCTER, 
Sphincter ani externus. 

COCCYMELEA, Prunus domestica. 

COCHEMJ1R, Incubus. 

COCHERIA, Cochia. 

COCHIN LEG. See Elephantiasis. 

COCCYCEPH'ALUS, from coccyx (q. v.) 
and xtcpaXTj, ' the head.' A monster whose 
head has the shape of the os coccygis. 

COCCYGEUS, from xoxxvl, because it is 
inserted into the coccyx. lschio-Coccygcus, 
(F.) Ischio-coccygien. Belonging both to the 
ischium and coccyx. The muscle Ischio-coccy- 
geus, Lcva'tor Coccy'gis, Triangularis Coccy'- 
gis. It arises from the spinous process of the 
ischium, and is inserted into the extremity of 
the sacrum; and into nearly the whole length 
of the os coccygis laterally. It retains the 
coccyx in place, and prevents it from being 
forced backwards during the evacuation of the 
faeces. 

COCCYX, Os Coccy'gis, ' a cuckoo;' whose 
bill it is said to resemble. Cauda, Ossis sacri 
acu'men, Os M'agas, Rump Bone, Cu'culus, 
Uropygion. An assemblage of small bones, 
suspended at the lower part of the sacrum; the 
curvature of which it prolongs, and of which 
it seems to be an appendage. Generally, it 
consists of four bones. Behind the base of the 
coccyx are two small tubercular eminences. 
These are called Cornua of the Coccyx. 

COCHEMLLE, Coctus cacti. 

COCHIA, COCCHIA, COCHE'RIA, from 
xor.xoQ, ' berry,' ' seed,' or from xo/vw, ' to flow 
profusely.' An ancient name for several offi- 
cinal purgative pills; thus called, either be- 
cause they produced copious evacuations, or 
because they were shaped like a seed. 

COCHINEAL, Coccus cacti. 

COCHINELIFERA COCHINlLLA,Coccus 
cacti. 

COCH1NILLA, Coccus cacti. 

COCHLEA. A Snail's shell, (F.) Limacon, 
Coquille. Anatomists have given this name to 
the most anterior of the three cavities, which 
constitute the labyrinth of the ear, the Pelvis 
Au'rium — or Concha auris interim; — Cav'itas 
cochlea'ta, C. buccina'ta, Antrum buccino'sum, 
Concha Labyrin'thi, and that of Scalce of the 
Cochlea, (F.) Rampes du limacon, to two spiral 
cavities in the interior of the cochlea. One of 
these seals terminates at the Fenes'tra rotmi'da, 
and is called Scala Tympani: the other opens 



COCHLEA 



1G9 



CQZLIAC 



at the anterior and inferior part of the vesti- 
bule. Jt is called the Scalce cestib'uli. 

Cochlea, Scalje of the. See Cochlea, 

COCHLEAR AURICULARE, Earpick. 

COCHLEA'RE, from cochlea; its bowl re- 
sembling a shell:— a spoonful; (F.) Cuillerie. 
abbreviated in prescriptions usually to Cock. 
See Abbreviation. Also, -a scoop, (q. v.) 

Cochlea're Magnom a table-spoonful; C. 
Me' dium, a dessert or pap-spoonful ; and C. 
Min'imum, a tea-spoonful. 

COCHLEA'RlA, from cochlea'rS, ' a spoon,' 
so called from its resemblance. 

Cochlea'ria Armora'cia, Raph'anus rus- 
tica'nus, Armora'cia, Raph'anus mari'nus, Raph'- 
anus sylves'tris, Horseradish. Family, Cruci- 
ferce. Sex. Syst. Tetradynamia Siliculosa. (F.) 
Raifort sauvage, he Cran. The root of horse- 
radish is frequently used at table ; and has 
long been in the Materia Medica. It is stimu- 
lant and diuretic. Externally it is rubefacient. 

Cochlea'ria Coron'opus, Coron'opus, Wild, 
Scurry Grass, Swine s Cress. This European 
plant is considered to be diuretic and antiscor- 
butic. (F.) Come de Cerf, Coron'opus Ruel'lii. 
The term Coron'opus was given, by the an- 
cients, to various plants. 

Cochlea'ria Hortensis, Cochlearia offici- 
nalis. 

Cochlea'ria Officina'lis, C.horten'sis, Le- 
mon Scurvy Grass, Common Scurvy Grass, (F.) 
Cranson, Herhe aux cuillers. It has been con- 
sidered a powerful antiscorbutic. It is some- 
times eaten in salad. 

COCHLEARIFORMIS, from cochlea'rt, ' a 
spoon,' and forma, ' shape.' (F.) Bee de Cuiller. 

Proces'sus Cochleariformis : — a small, very 
thin plate, which separates the bony portion of 
the Eustachian tube from the canal for the 
passage of the tensor tympani. 

COCHO'NE, icoxuvt;. The junction of the 
ischium, near the seat or breech. — Foesius. 
The breech properly, from the hip bones to the 
anus. The perinaeum, (q. v.) 

COCIL'lO; a weight of eleven ounces. 

COCKLES, INDIAN. See Menispernum 
Cocculus. 

COCKM1NT, Tanacetum balsamita. 

COCLES, Borgne. 

COCO, Cocos nucifera. 

COCOA CACAVIFERA, Cacao. 

COCOBAY, Mai de San Lazaro. 

COCOS NUCIF'ERA, (F.) Cocoticr. Or- 
der, Palm®. The systematic name of the plant 
whose fruit is the Cocoa nut, (F.) Coco. It is 
an agreeable kernel, but not easy of digestion. 
Emulsions, orgeat, &c. are made from it. The 
juice of the cocoa, when fermented, forms wine, 
and arrack is distilled from it. 

Cocos Butyra'cea. The name of the plant, 
which affords the palm oil, O'leum Palma, ob- 
tained chiefly from the fruit, by bruising and 
mixing the kernels with water, without the aid 
of heat, by which the oil is separated and rises 
to the surface. It is of the consistence of an 
ointment, with little taste, and a strong, though 
not disagreeable, smell. It is applied to sprains, 
«&c; but has no advantages over other oils. It 
has been called, also, O'leum Raima sebafceum, 
O. fixum nucum cocos butijra'cece and Mackaw 
fat. It is procured likewise from the Ela'is 
22 



Guineen'sis, and Ela'is Occidenta' lis , two species 
of palms. 

Coco of the Maldives, Cocos de Maldi'va. 
The fruit of a palm, called Lodo'ice'a by Com- 
merson. It was formerly termed, in the shops, 
JYux Med'ica, and enjoyed great reputation. 

COCOTIER, Cocos nucifera. 

COCTIO, Digestion. 

COCTION, Coctio, Pepsis, Pepansis, Pepas'- 
mos, Concodtion, from coquere, ' to boil.' This 
word has been employed in various senses. 1. 
With the ancients, coclion meant the particular 
kind of alteration, which the food experiences 
in the digestive organs, particularly in the sto- 
mach. Itmeant a preparation from its crude state. 
2. It expressed the maturation or change, which 
the Humoral Pathologists believed morbific mat- 
ter to experience before elimination. It was con- 
sidered, that coction was produced during the 
violence of the disease; and hence this was 
called the Period of Coction. See Humorism. 

COCYTA,Malis. 

CODAGAPALA,BARK,Neriumantidysen- 
tericum. 

CODE, Codex. 

CODEINE, from xmSia, 'a poppy head.' An 
alkaloid, discovered, by Robiquet, in opium, in 
1832. It is soluble in water, alcohol and ether, 
and unites readily with acids. As a hypnotic, 
Magendie thinks one grain of Codeine equal to 
half a grain of Morphine. The muriate of 
Codeine appears to be stronger thau the pure 
Codeine. 

CODESELLA, Anthrax. 

CODEX, a collection of laws. (F.) Code. 
By extension, a collection of approved medical 
formulae, with the processes necessary for form- 
ing the compounds, referred to in it. The Pa- 
risian Pharmacopoeia is styled Codex Medica- 
mentu'rius. 

Codex Medicamentarius, Formulary. 

CODIA, Papaver (capsule.) 

CODOCELE, Bubo. 

CODOSCELLA, Bubo. 

CCECUM, Caecum. 

COEFFE, Caul. 

CGS'LIA, y.oiXia, y.oikt], 'a hollow place.' 
This word generally meant a cavity in the 
body: — the abdomen, in particular. It has also 
been used for the alimentary canal, &c: — cwo> 
xoiXia, ' the stomach,' k«tw koiXiu, ' the abdo- 
men.' Also, an alvine evacuation. 

COZ'LIAC, Cm'liacus. (F.) Cceliaque ou Ce- 
liaque, from xoilia, 'the abdomen,' 'intestine.' 
Relating to the abdomen or intestine. 

Coxliac Artery, A. Ccefliaca, (A. opistogus- 
trique Ch.), A. Cceliaque, Tronc caliaque, Tri- 
pled de la cceliaque, is situate above the pancreas, 
and behind the upper part of the stomach. It 
arises from the anterior part of the abdominal 
aorta, where it passes between the pillars of the 
diaphragm, and soon divides into the coronaria 
ventriculi, hepatic, and splenic arteries. 

Celiac or Solar Plexus, Plexus mesente'rii 
proprius et maximus, P. ganglifor 'mis semiluna'- 
ris, (Plexus median ou opistogastrique Ch.,) (F.) 
PL Cceliaque ou solaire, Ganglion rfeViEussENs, 
is formed of numerous nervous filaments, which 
proceed from the semilunar ganglia of the great 
sympathetic. It is strengthened by several 
branches of the right and left pneumogasU.c 



CCELIACA 



170 



COL 



nerves ; is seated around the trunk of the cce- 
liac artery, behind the stomach, and furnishes 
the secondary plexuses— the diaphragmatic, co- 
ronary of the stomach, splenic and hepatic, which 
accompany the arteries of the same name. 

Cceliac Flux or Passion, Caliaca chylo'sa, 
Diarrhafa chylo'sa, D- chymo'sa, Fluxus cccliacus, 
Passio caliaca, P. Ventriculo'sa, Chymoche'zia, 
Fluor alius intcstino' 'ruin, Chylorrhafa, Chymor- 
rha'a, Caliaca lac'tea, Morbus cailiacus. (F.) 
Flux caliaque. A species of diarrhoea, in which 
the food is discharged by the bowels in an un- 
digested condition. By some, defined to be 
diarrhoea attended with discharges of chyle or 
chyme. It is, in general, symptomatic of tu- 
bercular disease of the mesenteric glands. See 
Lientery. 

CCELIACA, from xoiXiaxog, ' caliac,' (q. v.) 
Diseases of the digestive organs ; the 1st class 
in Good's Nosology. It comprises two orders, 
Enterica and Splanchnica. 

Cceliac a Chylosa, Cceliac flux — c. Lactea, 
Cceliac flux — c. Renalis, Chyluria — c. Urinalis, 
Chyluria. 
CCELIALGIA, Tormina. 
CCELMQUE, Trepicd de la, Cceliac artery. 
CCELIUCELE. See Hernia, hypogastric. 
CCELIOPYO'SIS, from koiXkx, 'the abdo- 
men,' and nvuxfis, 'suppuration.' Suppuration 
in the abdomen or its parietes. 
CCELIORRHCEA, Diarrhoea. 
CCELO'MA, from noikog, ' hollow.' A round 
ulcer of the cornea, broader and deeper than 
that described under the name Bothrion. 
CCELON, Cavity. 

CCELOPHTHAL'MUS, from y.oiUg, ' hol- 
low.' and o(p6a?./Lio?, ' eye.' One who is hollow- 
eyed. 

CCELOSTOM'IA, from noilog, < hollow,' and 
oro/tia, 'mouth.' A defect in speaking, when 
the voice seems as if it came from a cavern; — 
that is, obscure, and as if at a distance. 

CCELOS'TOMUS, same etymon. One who 
has a hollow voice. 
CGELOTES, Cavity. 

CCEJNMESTHE'SIS, from xonog, ' common,' 
and aio&Tjaig, ' feeling.' Conaslhesis. Common 
feeling. Some German writers mean, by this, 
a sixth sense. It is the feeling of self-existence 
or individuality, and is manifested by the sense 
of buoyancy or depression, which we experience 
without any known cause; — by involuntary 
shuddering, feeling of chill or glow, &c. 
CCENOLOG1A, Consultation. 
CCE'NOTES, KotvoTi/s, ' commonness,' from 
xoivog, 'common.' The physicians of the Me- 
thodic Sect asserted that all diseases arise from 
relaxation, stricture, or a mixture of both. These 
were called Canotes: or what diseases have in 
common. 

CCEUR, Heart. 

COF'FEA ARAB'ICA, (F.) Cafier and Ca- 
feyer. Family, Rubiacete. Sex. Syst. Pentandria 
Monogynia. The plant, which affords the coffee. 
Jasminum Arab'icum, Choava, Bon. Originally 
from Yemen. Buna. (F.) Cafd. 

The infusion of coffee 13 an agreeable and 
wholesome article of diet. It is, to a certain 
extent, tonic, and is employed as such in con- 
valescence, especially from fevers, &c. In 
cases of poisoning by opium, and in old asth- 



mas, its use has been extolled. For this pur- 
pose the Moka is the best. It ought to be newly 
torrefied, but not too much burnt; should be 
strong, and drunk soon after grinding. Fac- 
titious Coffees have been, from time to time, 
recommended, but they are infinitely inferior 
to the genuine. Various substitutes have been 
proposed; — wheat, barley, hollyberries, acorns, 
sunflower-seeds, beechmast, peas, beans, succory- 
root, seeds of gooseberries and currants left in 
making wine, and washed : — sliced turnips, &c. 
These have been roasted, with the addition of a 
little butter or oil : but they have not the aroma 
of coffee. The best substitute is said to be the 
seeds of the Yellow water flag — Gladiolus luteus 
or Iris pseudacorus. 

Hunt's CEconomical Breakfast Powder 
consists of rye, roasted with a little butter. It 
is a good substitute for coffee. 

COGNITIO PHYblOLOGICA, Physio- 
logy. 

COHABITATIO, Coition. 
COHABITA'TIOJN, Cohabita'tio, from cum, 
'with,' and habita're, 'to dwell.' The act of 
dwelling together. In Legal Medicine, it means 
the consummation of marriage. Copulation. 

COHE'SION, Coha/sio, from cum, 'with,' 
and h&'rere, ' to stick.' Vis cohmsio'nis, Vis ad- 
hasio'nis, Vis attr actio 1 nis, Force of cohesion, 
Attraction of cohesion, J}, of aggregation. That 
force, in the particles of matter, whereby they 
are connected in such a way as to resist any at- 
tempt towards their removal or separation. 
This force has to be attended to, in the manage- 
ment of disease. Emollients, rubbed into a 
part, act by diminishing the cohesion. 

COHOBA'TION, Cohoba'tio, Coho'bium, Co'- 
hob, Co'hoph. Distillation of a liquid, — already 
distilled, — on the same substances. When this 
was repeated three or four times, it was called 
Rccohobation. 

COHOL. Synonyme of Alcohol. Also, a dry 
collyrium. — Avicenna. 

COHOSH. See Aetata racemosa. 
COIFFE, Caul. 
COIGN. See Pyrus cydonia. 
COIGNASSIER, Pyrus cydonia. 
COINCIDENTIA. Some authors have 
translated, by this term, the word nuQtpnrojaig, 
used by Galen to designate the occlusion of the 
foramen opticum by a humour, proceeding from 
the base of the brain, and occasioning blind- 
ness. — Castelli. 

COIN'DICANT, Coin'dicans, from con, 
' with,' and indico, ' I indicate.' 

Coin'dicant Sicns are those, which furnish 
the same indications; or which confirm the 
indication afforded by another sign : — ovvtv- 
Stiy.vvuiva. 

COIRA, Catechu. 
COIRAS, Scrofula. 
COIT, Coition. 

COFTION, Coitus, from coco, 'to go to- 
gether.' Copulu'tio, Copula'tion, Copula car- 
na'lis, Aphrodis'ia, Aphrodisiasm'us, Jlcces'sus, 
Basia'tio, Jlmplexa'tio, Complcx'io, Conju'gium, 
Lagncia, Syndyas'mus, Concu'bitus, Congrcs'sus, 
Cohabita'tio, Venus, Res venerea, Vcncry, Sexual 
intercourse. (F.) Coit, Approche. The carnal 
union of the sexes. 
COL, Colluin. 



COLA 



171 



COLICA ACCIDENTALIS 



. COLA, Articulation. 

COLATO'RIUM. A strainer of any kind. 
(F.) Couloir. A term, by which the ancient 
physicians described every canal or conduit, 
through which the excrementitious humours of 
the body are evacuated. Ulcers, fistulas, setons, 
caustics, &c, have been called artificial ox ac- 
cidental C«/«torio, because they were considered 
to be passages by which the animal economy is 
freed from some morbific matter. 

COLATU'RA, from colare, 'to strain.' A 
filtered or strained liquor. It likewise means, 
straining a liquid. (F.) Colature. 

COL'CHESTER, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Aqua Colccstren'sis. The waters of Col- 
chester are of the bitter purging kind, similar 
to that of Epsom. 

COL'CHICUM AUTUMNA'LE. The Mea- 
dow Saffron. Col'chicum, Coum, (F.) Colckique, 
Tue-chien, Mort aux chiens, Safran des pres, 
Safran batard. Family, Colchicaceae. Class, 
Hexandria. Order, Monogynia. The bulb or 
root (Bulbus vel Radix,) and the seeds are the 
parts used in medicine. The taste is acrid, 
excoriating the mouth; but the acrimony is lost 
by drying. It is narcotic, diuretic, and cathar- 
tic: and has been given in dropsy, gout, and 
rheumatism. Dose, from gr. j to vj of the fresh 
bulb. It is supposed to be the active ingre- 
dient of the Eau medicinale d'Husson. The 
active principle is called Veratrine. The Col- 
chicum, in an overdose, is an acro-narcotic 
poison. 

Dr. Wilson's Tincture for the Gout, is merely 
an infusion of Colchicum. — Paris. 

Colchicum Zjeylanicum, Kasmpferia ro- 
tunda. 

COLCHIQUE, Colchicum autumnale. 

COL'COTHAR, Col'cothar Vitrioli, Henri'- 
cus rubens, Chalci'tis, Brown red, Rouge, Crocus, 
Oxidurn Ferri rubrum, Trilox'ydum Ferri, (F.) 
Safran de Mars astringent, Sulphas Ferri cal- 
cina'tum, Ferrum vitriola' turn ustum, Terra 
vitrioli dulcis, Crocus martis vitriola' tus seu 
adstrin' gens. (F.) Rouge d'Angleterre. The 
red oxide of iron, obtained by calcining sulphate 
of iron to redness, with or without the contact 
of air. Jt possesses the general properties of 
the preparations of iron, and has been applied 
to stanch blood, &c. 

COLD, Frigus, Psychos, ipv/o;, (F.) Froid. 
The sensation produced by the abstraction of 
caloric from our organs. See Heat. 

Three degrees of cold are generally distin- 
guished in disease. 1. The simple feeling of 
cold (Algor), 2. Chilliness (horror), and 3. Shi- 
vering (Rigor). Cheima, Chimon x i 'P a > x tl P wv - 
Cold is employed in medicine, chiefly, as a re- 
frigerant and sedative. 

Cold in the Head, Coryza. 

COI.EITIS, Colposis. 

COLEOPTOSIS, Prolapsus vaginae. 

COLEOSITIS, Leucorrhcea. 

COLERE, Rage. 

COLES, Penis. 

COLIBERT, Cagot. 

COLIC, Colicus, from xtalov, l the colon.' 
(F.) Colique. Relating to the colon. 

Colic Arteries, Arte'ria colica. (F.) Ar- 
teres coliques, are six in number, three of which, 
given off by the superior mesenteric, are called 



Colica dextra; and three, proceeding from the 
inferior mesenteric, Colicce sinistra. All pro- 
ceed towards the colon, passing between the 
two lamina? of the peritoneum, which form the 
meso-colon, where they ramify and anastomose 
with each other. The first Colica dcxtra, Ramus 
colica dexter, is called C. dextra superior (M6so- 
colique, — Ch.) The second, C. dextra media, 
Colica media, Ramus colicus medius, Arteria 
media anastomot' ica, (C. droitc, — Ch.), and the 
third, C. dextra infe'rior, or Ileo-colica (A. cm- 
C ale, — Ch.) Of the three Colica sinis'tra, the 
first or superior is called by Chaussier, Colica 
magna sinistra ; the second or media is not dis- 
tinguished from the preceding, as they often 
arise from a common trunk ; and the third is 
called by Chaussier, Colica parva sinis'tra. 
To these arteries as many veins correspond, 
which open into the great, and little mesen- 
teric. 

The Colic Lobe of the liver is the great 
lobe of that organ. 

Colic, Colica Passio, Col' ica, Bellyache, Col'- 
ice, Colicodyn'ia, Enteral' gia. In its etymo- 
logical acceptation, this word signifies an 
affection or pain in the colon. But it is em- 
ployed in a more extensive signification. It 
includes every acute pain of the abdomen, ag- 
gravated at intervals. The word has, however, 
epithets affixed to it, which render it more or 
less precise. See Tormina. 

Colic, Devonshire, Colic, metallic — c. 
Horn, Priapismus — c. Lead, Colic, metallic — 
c. Madrid, Colica Madridensis — c. Menstrual, 
Colica menstrualis — c. Metallica, Colica me- 
tallica — c. Painters', Colic, metallic — c. Plum- 
bers', Colic, metallic — c. of Poitou, Colic, me- 
tallic — c. Saturnine, Colic, metallic — c. of Su- 
rinam, Colic, metallic — c. Worm, Colica ver- 
minosa. 

COLICA ACCIDENTALIS, Colica crapu- 
losa — c. Acuta, Enteritis. 

Colica Bilio'sa, Bilious Colic, (F.) Colique 
bilieuse. Colic, occasioned by an accumulation 
of bile in the intestines or in its own passages. 
The treatment required resembles that proper 
for the next variety. 

Colica Convulsi'va, C. spasmod'ica, C.pi- 
tuito'sa, C. nervo'sa, C. idiopath'ica. Colic, not 
the symptom of any other affection. It is cha- 
racterized by griping pain in the bowels, chiefly 
about the navel, with vomiting and costive 
ness, — the pain increasing at intervals. The 
indications are to clear the intestines, and allay 
spasm. Calomel and opium — castor oil and 
opium — emollient and cathartic enemata, with 
fomentations, wet or dry, to the abdomen usu- 
ally succeed. 

Colica Crapulo'sa, C. accidenta'lis, C. Hel- 
luo'num, Surfeit, Colique d' Indigestion. A colic, 
arising from eating indigestible aliments, or 
digestible aliments in too great abundance. 
The remedy is obvious. 

Colica Callo'sa. Colic, attended with sense 
of stricture in some part of the intestinal canal : 
often of flatulency and pain: the flatulency 
gradually passing off by the stricture: the 
bowels tardy : at length discharging small li- 
quid stools. 

Colica Damnoniorum, Colic, metallic — c. 
Febricosa, Colica inflammatoria. 



COLICA FLATULENTA 



172 



COLLICULl,&c 



Colica Flatulen'ta, Infiatio, Gastrodyn'ia 
fatulen'ta, Physospas'mus, (F.) Colique Jiatu- 
lente, C. flatueuse, C. vcnteuse. Colic, arising 
from an accumulation of air in the intestines. 
It is very common in infants, and may be re- 
lieved by aromatics, especially when combined 
with antacids — e. g. oil of aniseed with mag- 
nesia. 

Colica Helluonum, Colica crapulosa. 
Colic a HEMORRHOiDA'Lis,.He»?o7?7(oid'a/C0- 
lic, (F.) Colique hdmorrhoidale. A kind of colic, 
supposed to precede haemorrhoids or to super- 
vene on their suppression. 

Colica Hepat'ica, Hepatic colic. Fain in 
the region of the liver, chiefly about the gall- 
bladder, occasioned by the passing of a biliary 
calculus through the cystic and choledoch 
ducts. 

Colica Idiofathica, Colica convulsiva — c. 
Ileus, Ileus — c. Lapponica, see Seta equina — c. 
Lochialis, Dyslochia — c. Madridensis, Colic of 
Madrid — c. Nervosa, Colica, convulsiva, Colic, 
metallic — c. Phlogistica, Colica inflammatoria. 
Colica Inflammato'ria, C. phlogistica, C. 
plethor'ica, C. febrico'sa, C. pulsat'ilis, Inflawf- 
matory colic. The same as enteritis, (q. v.) 

Colica Madridensis, Colic of Madrid, Ma- 
drid' Colic. A species of colic, endemic in seve- 
ral provinces of Spain, whose nature is not 
clear. Its symptoms resemble those occasioned 
by lead. 

Colica Menstrua'lis, Men'strual Colic,(F.) 
Colique mcnstruelle. Colic, which precedes 
or accompanies the menstrual evacuation, or 
which is owing to the suppression of that eva- 
cuation. 

Colica Metallica, Colic Metallic, Painters' 
Colic, Colica pidtonum, Colic of Poitou, Colic of 
Surinam! , Bellon, Devonshire Colic, Dry Belly- 
ache, Saturnine Colic, Lead Colic, Plumbers' 
Colic, Rachial'gia Pic'tonum, R. Pictavien'sium, 
Morbus Metallicus , Colicople'gia, Col'ica Rachial'- 
gia, Rachial'gia, Col'ica Damnonio'rum, C. Plum- 
bario'rum, Paralysis rachial'gia, Col'ica ner- 
vosa, Col'ica Pictdrum, Palmus Plumba'rius,(F.) 
Colique de Poitou, Colique vigitalc, (?) Colique 
des peintres, (F.) Colique de Plomb. There is 
not much to distinguish this variety of colic 
from others. The same violent pain about the 
navel is present, with retraction of the abdomen 
towards the spine. It is apt also to occasion 
palsy. The only difference of treatment is, the 
necessity of employing more opium along with 
the purgative. The paralytic sequelae must be 
treated by change of air, rubbing the spine, ex- 
ercise, &.c. Treating the disease upon general 
principles is infinitely more philosophical, and 
more successful than the empirical manage- 
ment at la Charitt, Paris, which it is unneces- 
sary to detail. 

Colica Nephret'ica, JVephret'ic Colic, (F.) 
Colique Nephrdtique. Acute pains, which ac 
company nephritis, and especially calculous 
nephritis, or the passage of a calculus into the 
ureters. 

Colica Pictonum, Colic, metallic — c. Picto- 
rum, Colic, metallic-^c. Pituitosa, Colica con- 
vulsiva — c. Plethorica, Colica inflammatoria — 
c. Plumbariornm, Colic, metallic — c. Pulsatilla, 
Colic, inflammatory — c. Rachialgia, Colic, me- 
tallic — c. Spasmodica. Colica convulsiva, Ileus 



— c. Stipata, Colica stercorea— c. Ventriculi, 
Cardialgia. 

Colica Sterco'rea, Stercoral ceous Colic, 
Col'ica Stipa'ta, (F.) Colique ster cor ale. A spe- 
cies of colic, ascribed to the retention of ftecal 
matters in the intestines. The retention is 
itself, however, an effect, that may be caused in 
the same manner as the colic pains themselves. 

Colica Uteri'na, Uterine Colic, (F.) Colique 
utirine. Pain seated in the uterus, sometimes 
called Hysteral' gia. 

Colica Vermino'sa, Worm Colic, (F.) Co- 
lique vermineuse. Abdominal pain, occasioned 
by the presence of worms in the intestines. 

COLICODYNIA, Colica. 

COLiCOPLEGIA, Colic, metallic. 

COLIMACOJV, Limax. 

COLIQUE, Colic — c. d' Indigestion, Colica 
crapulosa — c. de Misiricorde, Ileus — c. des Pein- 
tres — Colic, metallic — c. de Plomb, Colic metal- 
lic — c. de Poitou, Colic, metallic — c. Venteuse, 
Colica flatulenta — c. Vig'ttale, Colic, metallic. 

COL1QUES, Pains (after.) 

COLFTIS, from xwXov, ' the colon,' and itis, 
1 denoting inflammation.' Coloni'tis, Inflamma- 
tion of the peritoneal or mucous membrane of 
the colon. Dysentery, (q. v.) 

COL1X, Trochiscus. 

COLLA PISCIUM, Ichthyocolla. 

COLLAP'SUS, Collapse, Conciden'tia. A 
sudden and complete prostration of strength, 
either at the commencement or in the progress 
of a disease. 

COLLAR-BONE, Clavicle. 

COLLAT'ERAL, Collatera'lis, from cum, 
'with,' and latus, 'side.' That which accom- 
panies or proceeds by the side of another. 

Arte'ri^: Collatera'les Brachii, Collat- 
eral Ar'teries of the Arm, (F.) Arteres collate- 
rals du bras. They are given off by the bra- 
chial. They are distinguished into, 1. The 
collateral — superior or external ( Grande muscu- 
laire du bras — Ch.) They arise from the inner 
part of the brachial, and extend as far as the 
inferior and external part of the arm. 2. The 
collateral — inferior or internal (Col/at6rales du 
Coude — Ch.) They arise from the brachial, near 
the elbow-joint, and descend towards the upper 
part of the fore-arm. 

The vessels which pass to the fingers and 
toes, are also called collateral. 

Speaking generally, collateral branches are 
those which follow nearly the same course as 
the vessel, whence they emanate. 

COLLATE R A LIS, Ischio-cavernosus. 
COLLE- CHAIR, Sarcocolla. 
COLLE DE POISSOJY, Ichthyocolla. 

COLLEC'TION,Co//ec'^o, from colligere,'to 
collect.' This word is often united to the epi- 
thet purulent, serous, &c., to express a gather- 
ing of pus, serum, &c. 

COLLESIS, Agglutination. 

COLLETICUS, Agglutinant. 

COLLF'CLE. Drains to collect and convey 
away water. See Gouttiere. Union of the 
ducts passing from the puncta lachrymalia. 
Collie" im punctorum lachrymalium,. 
COLLICULA VAGINA, Nymphaj. 
COLLICULI NERVI ETHMOIDALS, 
Corpora striata — c. Nervorum opticorum. Thai* 
ami nervorum opticorum. 



CALLICULUS, &c. 



173 



COLON 



CALLICULUS CAVE^ POSTERIORIS 
VENTRICULORUM LATERAL1UM, Hip- 
pocampus minor. 

COLLIER (F.) A collar. A name given to 
certain eruptions which surround the neck like 
a collar. 

COLLIGAMEN, Ligament. 

COLLINSON1A CANADENSIS. This in- 
digenous plant is possessed of diuretic proper- 
ties, which seem to reside in a volatile oil. In- 
fusion is the best form of administration. The 
leaves are, in domestic practice, applied to 
wounds and bruises. 

COLLIQUAMEN'TUM, from colli'quco, ' I 
melt.' The first rudiments of an embryo. — 
Harvey. 

COLLIQUA'TION, Colliqua'tio, Eliqua'tio, 
Syntcxfis, Ectex'is, Solu'tion, Dissolu'tion. The 
ancients meant, by this term, the progressive 
diminution of the solid parts, with copious ex- 
cretion of liquids by one or more passages. 
They thought, that all the solids melted ; and 
that the liquids, and particularly the blood, lost 
a portion of their density. 

COLLIQUATIVE, Colliquati'vus,Colliques'- 
cens, from colliques'cere, 'to grow liquid.' (F.) 
Colliquatif. An epithet, given to various dis- 
charges, which produce rapid exhaustion. 
Hence we say, Colliquative sweats, Colliquative 
diarrhcea, &c. 

COLLIQUESCENS, Colliquative. 

COLLISIO, Contusion. 

COLLIX,Trochiscus. 

COLLODES, Glutinous. 

COLLOID, from xolla, ' glue,' and siSog, 're- 
semblance.' An epithet applied to a product 
of morbid secretion, resembling glue. 

COLLOSTRUM, Colostrum. 

COLLUM, Cervix, Trache'los, Auchen, (F.) 
Col, Cou. The part of the body situate be- 
tween the head and chest. Also, a part of an 
organ resembling the neck, as in the following 
cases. 

Collum or Cervix Astrag'ali, Neck of the 
Astragalus, (F.) Col de Vastragale. A depres- 
sion, which separates the anterior extremity of 
the astragalus from its body. 

Collum or Cervix Costarum, Neck of the 
Ribs, (F.) Col des Cotes. The narrow part of 
the ribs, between the head and tubercle. 

Collum or Cervix Dentium. Neck of the 
Teeth, (F.) Col ou Collet des Dents. The part 
of the teeth between the corona and fang, which 
is embraced by the gum. 

Collum or Cervix Fem'oris. Neck of the 
Thighbone, (F.) Col du F6mur. The long, nar- 
row, and oblique portion of the os femoris, 
which separates the head from the two tro- 
chanters. 

Collum or Cervix Ossis Magni vel Capi- 
ta'ti. Neck of the Os Magnum, (F.) Col du 
grand Os. A circular depression beneath the 
head of this bone of the carpus. 

Collum or Cervix Hu'meri. Neck of the 
Hu'merus. A circular, depressed portion, 
which separates the head of the os humeri 
from its two tuberosities. Some surgeons 
place the neck below the tuberosities, no pre- 
cise line of demarcation indicating its extent. 

Collum or Cervix U'teri. Neck of the lite- 
ms, (F.) Col de la Matrice. A narrow, cylin- 



drical, and flattened portion of the uterus,which 
terminates it inferiorly, and opens into the va- 
gina by the Os Uteri or Os Tincm. This neck 
is perceptible on examination per vaginam, un- 
til near the end of the utero-gestation. As the 
uterus enlarges, however, it becomes shorter 
and wider, so that a manifest difference exists 
between its condition at seven and nine 
months. 

Collum or Cervix Mandib'ul^e vel Maxil'- 
lje Inferio'ris. Neck of the lower jaw. (F.) 
Col de los maxillaire infirieure. A depression 
observable on each side of the lower jaw, im- 
mediately below the condyles. 

Collum or Cervix Scap'ulje, Neck of the 
Scapula, (F.) Col de I'Omoplate. A narrow 
portion, observable below the glenoid cavity of 
the scapula, which seems to separate it, as it 
were, from the rest of the bone. 

Collum or Cervix Fis'uLiE. Neck of the 
Fibula, (F.) Col du Pirone. A slight narrow- 
ness, seated below the head or upper extremity 
of the fibula. 

Collum or Cervix Radii. Neck of the Ra- 
dius, (F.) Col du Radius. A narrow portion of 
the radius, which supports the head of the bone. 

Collum or Cervix Vesi'cje. Neck of the 
Bladder, (F.) Col de la Vcssie. The anterior 
part of the base of the bladder, which resem- 
bles the neck of a bottle, and is continuous 
with the urethra. 

COLLUM OBSTIPUM, Torticollis. 

COLLURIUM. Collyrium. 

COLLUTORIUM, Gargarism— c. Adstrin- 
gens, Mel Boracis. 

COLLU'VIES, from colluo, 'I cleanse.' 
Filth, excrement. Discharge from an old 
ulcer. 

Colluvies Gastrica, Embarras gastriquc. 

COLLYR'IUM, Collu'rium, koXXvqiov, koX- 
lovoiov, from xwXvw, ' I check,' and ptto, ' 1 
flow,' or from xoW.a, ' glue,' and ovqa, ' tail.' 
(F.) Collyre. The ancients designated, by this 
term, a solid medicine, of a long, cylindrical 
shape ; proper to be introduced into the vagina, 
anus, or nostrils. They are said to have given 
it this name because it was shaped like a Rat's 
Tail, and because there entered into its com- 
position, powders and glutinous matters. — Cel- 
sus, Oribasius, Scribonius Largus. At the pre- 
sent day, Collyrium means an application to 
the eye. Some are pulverulent and dry, but 
the greatest part are liquid ; when they receive 
different epithets, as astringent, emollient, &c. 
The term is now little more than synonymous 
with Eye-water. Collyria are generally extem- 
poraneous formula?. 

Collyrium Siccum Alexandrinum. See 
Alexandrine. 

COLOBO'MA, Colobo'sis, ' Mutilation.' 

COLOCYNTH,Cucumis colocynthia. 

COLOMBINE, COMMON, Aquilegia vul- 
garis. 

COLOMBO, Columba. 

COLON, kwHov, Colum, Intesti'num majus, I. 
cellula'tum, J. crassum et plenum, I. grande, I, 
laxum. That portion of the large intestines, 
which extends from the csecum to the rectum. 
It is said to have been so called from y.otXov, 
' hollow,' or from y.wlvw, ' I arrest,' because the 
excrements are arrested, for a considerable 



COLONITIS 



174 



COLUMNA 



time, in its sacs. The colon is usually divided 
into four portions. 1. The right lumbar or 
ascending, Colon dextrum, situate in the right 
lumbar region, and commencing at the caecum. 
2. Transverse colon, Colon transver 1 sum, or 
transverse arch of the colon, the portion of the 
colon, which crosses from the right to the left 
side, at the upper part of the abdomen. 3. The 
left lumbar or descending, Colon sinis'trum, 
extending from the left part of the transverse 
arch, opposite the outer portion of the left kid- 
ney, to the corresponding iliac fossa. 4. The 
Iliac colon or Sigmoid flexure of the colon, 
(F.) Colon iliaque ou S. du colon, the portion 
of the intestine which makes a double cur- 
vature in the left iliac fossa, and ends in the 
rectum. 

Colon, Membranum. 

COLONITIS, Colitis, Dysentery. 

COLONNE, Columna— c. Vertibrale, Verte- 
bral column. 

COLOJYJYES CHARNUES, Carneae colum- 
ns — c. Charnues du cazur, Columns carnese. 

COLOPHAjYE, Colophonia. 

COLOPHO'NIA, so called from Colophon, 
a city of Ionia ; Phrycte, Fricta, Fix Grmca. 
Resina nigra, Black Rosin, Pitch, Brown Rosin, 
(F.) Colophone, Colophane, Arcanson, Brai sec, 
The black resin, which remains in the retort, 
after the distillation, by means of a strong fire, 
of common turpentine. It is used like the tur- 
pentines in general, and in some pharmaceuti- 
cal preparations. 

COLOQUIJYTE, Cucumus colocynthis. 

COLOQUINTIDA, Cucumus colocynthis. 

COLOR V1RGINEUS PALLIDUS, Chlo- 
rosis — c. Virginum fcedus, Chlorosis. 

COLOSTRA'TION, Colostra' tio. The dis- 
eases of new-born children, attributable to the 
colostrum. 

COLOS'TRUM, Colos'tra, Collostrum, Co- 
lus'trum, Trophalis, Protog'ala, JYeog'ala, (Bi- 
estings or Beastings in the cow, &c.,) from 
xo/Loi, <food,'(?) (F.) Beton. The first milk 
after accouchement. It contains more serum 
and butter, and less caseum than common milk ; 
and seems to possess an evacuant property, 
which renders it fit to aid in the expulsion of 
the meconium. Colostrum formerly meant an 
emulsion prepared of turpentine and yelk of 
,egg. 

COLOURS, ACCIDENTAL. Opposite co- 
lours, Complementary and Harmonic colours. If 
the eye has been for some time regarding a par- 
ticular colour, the retina becomes insensible to 
this colour ; and if, afterwards, it be turned to 
a sheet of white paper, the paper will not seem 
to be white, but will be of the colour that 
arises from the union of all the rays of the so- 
lar spectrum, except the one to which the re- 
tina has become insensible. Thus, if the eye 
be directed for some time, to a red wafer, the 
sheet of paper will seem to be of a bluish-green, 
in a circular spot of the same dimensions as the 
wafer. This bluish-green image is called an 
ocular spectrum, because it is impressed upon 
the eye and may be retained for a short time ; 
and the colour bluish-green is said to be the 
accidental colour of the red. If this experiment 
be made with wafers of different colours, other 
accidental colours will be observed, varying 



with the colour of the wafer employed, as in 
the following table : — 

Colour of the Accidental colour, or colour of 

Wafer. tne ocular spectrum. 
Red ..- Bluish-green. 

Orange - - - Blue. 

Yellow - - - Indigo. 

Ch-een - - - Violet, with a little red. 

Blue - - - Orange-red. 

Indigo - - - Oiange-yellow; 

Violet - - - Yellow-green. 

Black - - - White. 

White - - - Black. 

If all the colours of the spectrum be ranged 
in a circle, in the proportions they hold in the 
spectrum itself, the accidental colour of any 
particular colour will be found directly oppo- 
site. Hence the two colours have been termed 
opposite colours. 

It will follow, from what has been said, that, 
if the primary colour, or that to which the eye 
has been first directed, be added to the acci- 
dental colour, the result must be the same im- 
pression as that produced by the union of all 
the rays of the spectrum — that of white light. 
The accidental colour, in other words, is what 
the primitive colour requires to make it white 
light. The primitive and accidental colours 
are, therefore, complements of each other; and 
hence accidental colours have also been called 
complementary colours. They have likewise 
been termed harmonic, because the primitive 
and its accidental colour harmonize with each 
other in painting. 

COLPITIS, Colposis. 

COLPOPTO'SIS, from ko^o?,' the vagina,' 
and nxwoig, 'fall.' Prolapsus of the vagina, 
(q. v.) 

COLPORRHAPHY, Elytrorrhaphy. 

COLPOS, Sinus, Vagina. 

COLPORRHA'GIA, from xoXnog, < vagina,' 
and qrjyrvui, ' I break forth.' Discharge of 
blood from the vagina. 

COLPO'SIS. Inflammation of the vagina. 
Synonymous with Elytroitis, Elytri'tis,Colei'tis, 
Colpi'tis. 

COLPOSTEGNO'SIS, from xoXrrog, < vagi- 
na,' and artyvov), 'I close.' Atresia or oblite- 
ration of the vagina. 

COLT'S FOOT, Asarum canadense, Tussi- 
lago. 

COL'UBER BERUS. The systematic name 
of the viper, Vipera, (F.) Couleuvre, Vipere. 
A poisonous reptile — the poison lying in small 
sacs near its teeth. The flesh is innocent, and 
has been often taken in scrofula, and in cuta- 
neous disorders in general, but it is ineffica- 
cious. 

COLUBRINA DRACONTIA, Arum dra- 
cunculus — c. Lusitanica, Euphorbia capitata — 
c. Virginiana, Aristolochia serpentaria. 

COLUM, Colon. 

COLUMBO, American, see Calumba — c. 
Marietta, see Calumba. 

COLUMELLA, Pillar, Uvula. 

COLUM'NA, Column, (F.) Colonne. Ana- 
tomists use this word for parts which resemble 
a column or pillar, (q. v.) 

Columna Adstans Inguinibus, Penis — c. 
Dorsi, Vertebral column — c. Oris, Uvula — c. 
Spinalis, Vertebral column — c. Virginitatis, 
Hymen — c. Foraminis ovalis, see Ovalis fossa 



COLUMNEA CARNEY 



175 



COMMOTICE 



— c. Valvules Vieussenii, see Valvula Vieusse- 
nii — c. Vertebralis, Vertebral column. 

COLUM'N^E CAR'NEiE, Colum'nce Cordis, 
Laceiti vel Lacertuli vel Funes vel Fasciculi 
teretes Cordis, Trabes Cordis, (F.) Colonnes 
charnucs du cceur. Small, fleshy columns, 
which project, more or less, into the auricles 
and ventricles of the heart, whose use appears to 
be to pre vent too great dilatation of those cavities. 

Colum'na: Nasi. The cartilaginous part of 
the septum of the nostrils. 

COLUMNEA LONGIFOLIA, Bahel. 

COLUMNS OF MORGAGNI ok OF THE 
RECTUM. See Rectum. 

COLUS JOVIS, Salvia sclarea. 

COLUSTRUM, Colostrum. 

COLU'TEA ARBORES'CENS, Bladder 
Senna, (F.) Baguenaudier, Faux Sent 1 . Fam. 
Leguminosa?. Sex. Syst. Diadelphia Decan- 
dria. The leaves are slightly purgative, and 
are often mixed with those of the cassia senna. 

COLUVRINE DE VIRGIME, Aristolochia 
serpentaria. 

COLYM'BADES, Pickled Olives. These, 
when bruised and applied to a burnt part, were 
supposed to be able to prevent vesication. — 
Dioscorides. 

COMA, xwfta. A profound state of sleep, 
from which it is extremely difficult to rouse 
the individual. It is a symptom, which occurs 
in many diseases. Two varieties are distin- 
guished, 1. The Coma vigil, Coma agrypno'des, 
Pervigilium, Vigilia nim'ia, Typhi rnia, Vetcr 1 - 
nus, Jigrypnoco'ma, Cams lethar'gus vigil, 
Typhoma'nia, (q. v.) which is accompanied 
with delirium. The patient has his eyes closed, 
but opens them when called ; and closes them 
again immediately. This state is accompa- 
nied with considerable restlessness. 2. Coma 
Somnolen'tum, C. Comato'des; — in which the 
patient speaks when roused, but remains silent 
and immovable in the intervals. Coma is a 
deeper sleep than sopor, but less so than lethar- 
gy and cams. 

Coma, Capillus — c. Apoplexia, Apoplexy — c. 
Ceesarea, Plica — c. Somnolentum, Somnolency. 

COMACON, Myristica moschata. 

COMAROS, Arbutus unedo. 

CO'MATA, from *<»/«*. Diseases charac- 
terized by diminution of the powers of volun- 
tary motion, with sleep or impaired state of the 
senses. — Cullen. 

COMATEUX, Comatose. 

COMATODES, Comatose. 

COM'ATOSE, Comato'des, (F.) Comateux. 
Relating to or resembling coma; — as comatose 
sleep, comatose fever, &c. 

COMBUSTIBILITY, PRETERNATU- 
RAL, Combustion, human. 

COMBUSTIO, Burn. 

COMBUSTURA, Burn. 

COMBUS'TION, HUMAN, or SPONTA- 
NEOUS COMBUSTION, or PRETERNA- 
TURAL COMBUSTIBILITY, Catacau'sis, 
Incen'dium sponta'neum, Catacau'sis cbrio'sa, 
Combustion humaine, C. spontanie. These 
terms have been applied to the extraordinary 
phenomenon of a rapid destruction of the hu- 
man body, (being reduced to ashes,) either 
spontaneously or by the contact of an ignited 
substance. It is said to have alwavs occurred 



in the aged, and in those that were fat and 
hard drinkers. In such, Dr. Traill has found a 
considerable quantity of oil in the serum of the 
blood. Vicq d'Azyr, Lair, and Dupuytren 
think it necessary, that the body should be 
placed in contact with an ignited substance. 
Le Cat, Kopp, and Marc are of opinion that 
this is not necessary. The former appears to 
be the true view. 

COMES ARCH1ATRORUM. See Exar- 
chiater. 

COMESTIBLE, (F.) Edu'lis, from come- 
dere, 'to eat.' Eatable. When this word is 
used substantively, in French as in English, it 
means solid food. 

Comestible, Esculent. 

COMEZ. Haifa drop. Ruland. 

COMFREY, Symphytum— c. Spotted, Pul- 
monaria. 

COMISTE, Aliment. 

COMMANDUCATIO, Mastication. 

COMMERC1UM, Sympathy. 

COMMEM'ORATIVE. Commemorati'vus, 
from commemora're, ' to cause to remember.' 
That which recalls, or rather which is recalled. 

Commemorative Signs, (F.) Signes commem- 
oratifs are those, deduced from circumstances 
which have gone before : or rather, according 
to others, those which point out the preceding 
condition of the patient. They are also called 
Anamnes'tic signs. 

COMMI, Gummi. 

COMMINU'TED, Comminu'tus, from com- 
minu'ere, * to break to pieces.' (F.) Commi- 
nutif. A comminuted fracture is one in which 
the bone is broken into a number of pieces. 

COMMINU'TION, Comminu'tio, Thrypsis, 
Leio'sis, -&Qvrpig, keiwoig. Fracture of a bone 
into a number of pieces. 

COMMISSURA, Articulation— c. Magna ce- 
rebri, Corpus callosum — c. Ossium carnea, 
Syssarcosis. 

COM'MISSURE, Commissu'ra, Compa'ges, 
Compagina' tio , Sym'physis, Sym'bole, from com- 
mil'to, ' I join together.' A point of union be- 
tween two parts: thus, the commissures of the 
eyelids, lips, &c, are the angles, which they 
form at the place of union. 

Com'missure, Ante'rior, of the Brain, 
Commissu'ra ante'rior cer'ebri, (F.) Commissure 
anUricure du cerveau. A small medullary fas- 
ciculus, situate transversely at the anterior part 
of the third ventricle, and uniting the two he- 
mispheres. 

Commissure, Posterior, of the Brain. A 
similar medullary band, situate at the posterior 
part of the third or middle ventricle. 

The Great Commissure of the Brain, 
Commissu'ra Magna Cer'ebri, (F.) Grande 
commissure du cerveau, which unites the two 
hemispheres for some extent, is the Corpus 
callo'sum. 

Commissure, Oblique or Intercerebral. 
See Valvula Vieussenii. 

COMMO'SIS, xofipwoig, from *o f u<ow, <1 
adorn.' The art of concealing natural deformi- 
ties, as by painting the face. See, also, Propolis . 

COMMO'TICE, xoinivnix-n, in the older wri- 
ters, meant the art of communicating facti- 
tious beauty to a person. — Painting the face, — 
Comoporia . 



COMMOTIO 



176 COMPRESSOR OF DUPUYTREN 



COMMOTIO, Motion. 
COMMOTION, Concussion — c. du Ccrveav, 
Concussion of the brain. 

COMMU'NICANS, Conjurigens. That 
which communicates or establishes a commu- 
nication. Commu'nicant. There are two Ar- 
te'ria Communicun'tes ; both within the crani- 
um ; the one anterior, very short, and extending 
transversely from one anterior cerebral artery 
to the other, — the other, posterior, called also 
Commu'nicans Willis'ii, which passes from the 
internal carotid to the posterior cerebral artery. 
It is a branch of the basilary. 

COMPACT, Compac'tus. Solid, close, (F.) 
Compacle. The term Compact Tissue is given 
to the hardest and closest parts of bone. 

COMPAGES, Articulation, Commissure — c. 
Vertebrarum, Vertebra] column. 
COMPAGINATIO, Commissure. 
COMPAS D'tiPJUSSEUR. See Pelvimeter. 
COMPASSIO, Sympathy. 
COMPEBA, Piper cubeba. 
COMPEPER, Piper cubeba. 
COMPER'NIS. One who has his knees 
turned inwards. A case of distortion of the 
legs. 

COMPLETIO, Plethora. 
COMPLEX, Complex'us. Embracing seve- 
ral distinct things. Chaussier uses this term 
in his anatomical descriptions for complicated. 
COMPLEXIO, Coition, Confusio, Tempera- 
ment. 

COMPLEXION, Complex 'io. This is of- 
ten employed, in English, for the colour of the 
face : as, " He has a. good complexion, ," — a "sal- 
low complexion," &c. It formerly had a more 
extensive signification, and still has in France. 
Jt signifies the aggregate of physical characters 
presented by any individual; considered with 
respect to his external arrangement or condi- 
tion. It means more than constitution, for 
which it is used synonymously in many cases, 
and differs from temperament, which is less the 
external condition of the body than the state or 
disposition of the organs in health. — H. Clo- 
quet. 

COMPLEX'US. 'Complicated, complex,' 
from complec'tor, 'to comprise,' 'embrace.' 

Complexus Mus'culus, Bivcn'ter Ccrvi'cis, 
Complexus Major, Dorsotrachelon-occipital, Tra- 
chilo- occipital (Ch.) (F.) Muscle grand com- 
plexus. A muscle, situate at the hind part of 
the neck, where it extends from the interval 
that separates the two prominent ridges on the 
posterior surface of the os occipitis,to the trans- 
verse and articular processes of the last six cer- 
vical vertebrae, as well as to those of the five 
first dorsal. It serves to straighten, incline, 
and turn the head. 

Comxlexus Minor, Masloideus latcra'lis, 
Trachilo-mastoidicn, Trache'lo-masto'ideus, (F.j 
Muscle petit Complexus. It arises from the 
transverse processes of the last four cervical 
vertebrae, and is inserted into the mastoid pro- 

COMPLICATION, Complica'lio. In Me- 
dicine it means the presence of several diseases, 
or of several adventitious circumstances, fo- 
reign to the primary disease. 

COMPOSITION, Composi"tio, from compo'- 
Hcrc,'to place together." Syn'thesis. The act 



of composing or compounding. Also, the Com- 
pound, Compos' hum, or thing compounded. 
Likewise, a combination. 

COMPOSITUM. Compound. 
TO COMPOUND. Same etymology ; to 
mix medicines. To mingle different ingredi- 
ents into one whole. Used adjectively, it sig- 
nifies the result of the union of several medi- 
cinal ao-ents, as "a compound medicine." 
COMPREHENSIO, Catalepsy. 
COM'PRESS, Compres'sa, Splc'nium, Pla'- 
gula, Penicil'lum, Penidulum, from comprim'- 
ere, 'to press together.' (F.) Compresse. Fold- 
ed pieces of lint or rag, so contrived as, by the 
aid of a bandage, to make due pressure upon 
any part. According to their shape, direction, 
and use, compresses have been called long ( (F.) 
longuettes,) square (Carri.es,) triangular, pris- 
matic, graduated (gradui.es,) split (fendues,) 
fenetri.es, criblies Croix de Make, oblique, circu- 
lar, dividing (divisives,) uniting (unisantes,) &c. 
COMPRESSEUR DE DUPUYTREN, Com- 
pressor of Dupuytren — c. du Nez, Compressor 
nasi — c. de la Prostate, Compressor prostatas. 
COMPRESSIO, Thlipsis. 
COMPRESSION, Compres'sio, Enereisis. 
Same etymology. Pressure, Methodical Com- 
pression. This is an agent, frequently had re- 
course to in Surgery. We compress a limb, 
affected with ozdema, varices, hydrops articuli. 
callous ulcer, &c. The abdomen is compressed 
after delivery, after paracentesis abdominis , &c. 
The compression is produced by means of the 
roller, laced stocking, &c. according to the part 
and to the particular case. Moderate pressure 
aids the contractility of parts, and excites the 
action of the absorbents ; so that large tumours 
will sometimes disappear after it has been for 
some time used. A greater degree of pressure 
occasions, still more, the emaciation of the part, 
but it is apt to impede the circulation. Pres- 
sure is often used to stop or moderate the flow 
of blood in cases of aneurism or wounds of ar- 
teries and veins. In such cases the compres- 
sion may be immediate, when applied upon the 
artery itself, or it may be mediate, when 
applied through the integuments and soft parts. 
The French use the term — Compression imme- 
diate laliralc — for that which is exerted per- 
pendicularly to the axis of a vessel, so as to 
flatten its sides. It is practised with the finger, 
forceps, tourniquet, compresses, &c. 

Compression of the Brain. This may arise 
either from coagula of blood, a soft tumour, a 
bony excrescence, a depressed portion of the 
skull, or the presence of some foreign body. 
The effects vary, according as the compression 
takes place suddenly or gradually. When sud- 
denly, the symptoms are of the comatose or apo- 
plectic character. When gradually, mania, 
convulsions, &c. are more likely to occur. 
Compression, arising from a depressed portion 
of skull, requires the use of the trephine. 

COMPRES'SIVE, Compressive. That 
which compresses. A compressive bandage is 
one that compresses the parts to which it is ap- 
plied. 

COMPRESSOR OF DUPUYTREN, (F.) 
Comprcsscur de Dupuytren. An instrument 
for compressing the femoral artery, invented 
by Dupuytren. It is constructed on the same 



COMPUNCTIO 



177 



CONCRETION 



principles as the tourniquet of J. L. Petit, from 
which it only differs in this respect ;— that, in- 
stead of being maintained in its place by a strap, 
which always compresses more or less the cir- 
cumference of the limb, the two pads are placed 
at the extremities of a semicircle of steel, which 
by passing from one to the other without touch- 
ing the parts, limits the pressure to two oppo- 
site points of the thigh, and permits the collate- 
ral circulation to go on. 

Compressor or Constrictor of Nuck. An 
instrument for compressing the urethra, to ob- 
viate incontinence of urine. It consists of a 
girdle of iron, which surrounds the pelvis, to 
which is fixed a plate of the same metal, that 
compresses the urethra in Perinao. 

Compressor N \r\s , Rina'tis, Nasa'lis, Trans- 
versa'lis Nasi, Myrtifor'mis, Dilato'res ala'rum 
nasi, Mazillo-narinal, Constric'tor JVasi, C. Na- 
rium, C. Nar is, Triangularis Nasi, Sus-maxillo- 
nasal. — (Ch.,) (F.) Compi esseur du nez, Trans- 
versal du nez. A muscle, situate at the sides 
of the nose ; flat and triangular. It arises from 
the inner part of the fossa canina, and passes 
to the dorsum of the nose ; where it is confound- 
ed with that of the opposite side. 

Compressor Pros' t at jE.,Prostat' icus supe' rior, 
Puhio-prostat'icus, Sub-pubio-prostat'icus, (F.) 
Compr esseur de la prostate. A muscle, admitted 
by Albinus, which is formed of the anterior 
fibres of the Levator ani, that embrace the pros- 
tate. It is the Prostat'icus supe'rior of Winslow. 

COMPUNCTIO, Paracentesis, Puncturing. 

CONiESTHESIS, Ccenajsthesis. 

CONARIUM, Pineal gland. 

CO NAT US, Effort. 

CONCJ1SSER (F.,) from conquassa're l to 
break to pieces;' 'to comminute.' To reduce 
roots, woods, &c. into small fragments, in order 
that their active principles may be more readily 
separated from them. 

CONCAU'SA or CONCAUS'SA, awatnov, 
Syna'tion. A cause which co-operates, with 
another, in the production of disease. 

CONCAVITAS CONCHULARIS CERE- 
BRI, Infundibulum of the brain. 

CONCAVUM PEDIS, Sole. 

CONCENTRAN'TIA, from concentrate, < to 
concentrate.' A name once given to acids and 
absorbents. 

CONCENTRATION, Concentra'tio, from 
cum, ' with,' and centrum, ' a centre.' A word 
sometimes used, in medical theories, to express 
an afflux of fluids, or an accumulation of sensi- 
bility or of vital force, towards an organ. It is 
applied, also, to the pulsation of arteries, when 
not easilv felt under the finger. 

POULS CONCENTRE, (F.)is aterm applied 
by the French, to a pulse of the above character. 

CONCEPTACULASEMINARIA, Vesicu- 
las seminarian. 

CONCKPTACULUM, Uterus. 

CONCEPTION, Concep'lio, Cyefsis, y.v n gig, 
from concip'io, 'I conceive.' The impregna- 
tion of the ovum in the ovarium, by the posi- 
tive contact of the male sperm, whence results 
a new being. In order that conception may 
take place, it is necessary, that there should be 
a uterus, and that the female should be capable 
of menstruating in a healthy manner. There 
is every reason, also, to believe, that, occasion- 
23 



ally, the male sperm is not fecundating; but of 
this we know little. The whole subject of con- 
ception is a most mysterious one. It seems to 
occur as follows. During the sexual union, the 
male sperm passes along the uterus and Fallo- 
pian tubes : the fimbriated extremities of the 
latter seize hold of the ovarium: the sperm, in 
this manner, comes in contact with an ovum, 
and impregnates it. The fecundated ovum re- 
mains some time in the ovarium ; but at length 
bursts its covering, is laid hold of by the fimbri- 
ated extremity of the Fallopian tube, and passes 
along the tube into the cavity of the uterus, 
where it remains the full period of utero-ges- 
tation. 

False Conception, Falsus Concep'tus, Spu r - 
rium germen, (F.) Faussc conception, Faux 
germe. An irregular, preternatural conception, 
the result of which is a mole or some similar 
production, instead of a properly organized foe- 
tus. See Mole. 

CONCEP'TUS. The first rudiments of the 
foetus, after conception. 

Conceptos Falsus, Conception, false. 

CONCHA, y-oyxn- A liquid measure, amongst 
the Athenians, equal to half an ounce. Anato- 
mists apply this term to several hollow parts of 
the body ; — as the Concha of the Ear, (F.) 
Conque, — Concha Auris, Concha auridula; the 
hollow part of the cartilage of the external ear. 
It has, also, been applied to the genital organs 
of the female ; to the patella, &c. 

Concha, Patella, Turbinated bone, (middle,) 
Vulva — c. Auris interna, Cochlea — c. Cerebri, 
Infundibulum of the brain — c. Inferior, Turbi- 
nated bone, (inferior) — c. Labyrinthi, Cochlea. 

CONCHiE NARIUM, Turbinated bones. 

CONCHA'RUM ANTIFEBRI'LE. A fe- 
brifuge and sudorific preparation in Bates's 
Pharmacopaia. It was composed of vinegar, mus- 
sel-shells, and water of the Carduus benedictus. 

CONCHO-HELIX. A small, fleshy fasci- 
culus, attached to the concha of the ear and helix. 
It is also called the small muscle of the helix. 

CONCHUS, x.oy X og. The cranium, (q. v.) 
The orbitar cavities. — Castelli. 

CONCHYLIA, Turbinated bones. 

CONCIDKNT1A, Collapse. 

CONCILIUM. A milky plant, referred to, 
by Pliny, as aphrodisiac and antiphthisical. 
Adanson considers it to be a Campanula. 

CONCOCTION, Coction. 

CONCOMBRE ORDINAIRE, Cucumis sati- 
vus — c. Sauvaa-e, Momordica elaterium. 

CONCOM'ITANT, Concom'ituns. That 
which accompanies. A symptom which accom- 
panies others. 

CONCREMATIO, Calcination. 

CONCRETIO, Adherence. 

CONCRE'TION, Concretio, from concres'cere, 
' to condense, thicken, become solid:' Pexis, 
Sympex'is, ni£i?, avfin^ig. The act of becom- 
ing thick or solid. It was once used synony- 
mously with adhesion or growing together, — 
as " concretion of the toes." Most commonly, it 
is applied to extraneous and inorganic bodies, 
of a solid character, met with in different tex- 
tures, after certain chronic inflammations ; or 
which make their appearance in the joints or 
in the reservoirs for excrementitial fluids. Con- 
cretion is, therefore, frequently synonymous 



C0NCUB1TUS 



173 



CONDYLOMA 



with Calculus, and is then rendered, in Latin, 
by the word concrementum. But Concretion has 
a more extensive signification than Calculus ; 
thus, accidental ossifications or deposits of phos- 
phate of lime, in certain organs and especially 
in the liver and lungs, are properly called os- 
seous concretions. They could not well be called 
osseous calculi. 
CONCUBITUS, Coition. 
CONCUR'SUS, from concur' rerc^Vo meet to- 
gether,' Syn' drome, (q. v.) The congeries or col- 
lection of symptoms, which constitute and dis- 
tinguish a particular disease. 

CONCUS'SION or COMMO'TION, from 
concu'tio, ' I shake together.' Concus'sio, Thlas- 
ma Concus'sio, (F.) Commotion. In Surgery, it 
is used for the agitation often communicated to 
an organ by a fall upon another organ; as to 
the brain from a fall on the breech, &c. 

Concussion of the Brain, Encephalosis 1 '- 
mus, (F.) Commotion du Cerveau, sometimes 
gives rise to alarming symptoms, even to aboli- 
tion of the functions of the brain, yet without 
any sensible organic disease. Slight concus- 
sion of the brain, called stunning, consists in 
vertigo, tinnitus aurium, loss of memory, and 
stupefaction; all these being temporary. When 
more severe, there is instant loss of sensation 
and volition, vomiting, the patient being as if 
in a sound sleep, but there is no stertorous 
breathing. Pulse variable, generally more rapid 
and feeble than in compression ; extremities 
cold. Little can be done here, till reaction has 
occurred; after this, the case must be treated 
according to general principles, — by bleeding, 
blisters, cold applied to the head,&c. After se- 
vere concussion, a patient, although apparently 
well, is not safe till some time after the acci- 
dent. 

CONDENSAN'TIA,7hcrass<m'*ia,(q.v.) Me- 
dicines once esteemed proper for inspissating the 
humours. 

CONDENSATJO, Stegnosis. 
CONDENSA'TION, Condensa'tio, Inspissa'- 
tio. Increase in density of the blood and other 
liquids, or of the solids, which enter into the 
composition of the human body. 

CON'DIMENT, aprvfia, Condimen'tum, Ar 1 - 
tyma, Hedys'ma, l t]dvafia, Conditu'ra, from con- 
di're, ' to season,' (F.) Assaissonnement. Some 
substances are called, at times, aliments, and, at 
others, condiments, according as they may con- 
stitute the basis or the accessary to any dish : 
such are cream, butter, mushrooms, olives, &c. 
Others are always condiments, as they are only 
used to improve the savour of food, and contain 
but little nutritive matter. Such are pepper, 
salt, cinnamon, &c. Almost all condiments are 
possessed of stimulant properties. 
CONDIT, Confection. 

CONDI'TUM, same etymon. A pharma- 
ceutical compound of wine, honey, and some 
aromatics, especially pepper. Also, a confec- 
tion. 

CONDITURA CADAVERUM, Embalming. 
CONDOM, Armour, (F.) Baudruckcs, Re- 
dingotes Anglaiscs, Gants des Dames. The in- 
testina caeca of sheep, soaked for some hours 
in water, turned inside out, macerated again in 
weak, alkaline ley — changed every twelve 
hours, — and scraped carefully to abstract the 



mucous membrane, leaving the peritoneal and 
muscular coats, exposed to the vapour ot 
burning brimstone, and afterwards washed with 
soap and water. They are then blown up, dried 
cut to the length of 7 or 8 inches, and bordered 
at the open end with a riband. They are drawn 
over the penis prior to coition, to prevent vene- 
real infection and pregnancy. 

CONDUCTIO, Tonic spasm, convulsion. 

CONDUCTOR, Director, (q. v.) Itinera'- 
Hum, (F.) Conducteur. That which conducts. 
The Conductor was an instrument, formerly 
used in the high operation for the stone, for 
directing the forceps into the bladder. 

CONDUIT, Canal — c. Auditif externe, Audi- 
tory canal, external — c. Auditif interne, Audi- 
tory canal, internal — c. Auricu/aire, Auditory 
canal, external— c. ChoUdoque, Choledoch duct 
— c. Deferent, Deferens vas — c. d'Eustache, 
Eustachian tube — c. Gutturale de Voreille, Eu- 
stachian tube— c. Labyrinthique, Auditory canal, 
internal— c. Ptirygoidien, Pterygoid canal— c. 
Sousorbitaire, Suborbitar canal— c. Spermatiquc, 
Deferens (vas)— c. Thoraciquc, Thoracic duct 
— c. Vidicn, Pterygoid canal. 

CONDUITS ADIPEUX, Fatty canals— c. 
Aqueux, see Aqueous — c. Avcugles de Vurethre, 
see Coecus — c. Dentaircs, Dental canals — c. 
lljaculateurs, Ejaculatory ducts — c. Lacrymaux, 
Lachrymal ducts — c. Lactiferes, Lactiferous ves- 
sels — c. JYourricicrs, Canals, nutritive — c. Nutri- 
ciers, Canals, nutritive. 

CONDULODES, Condyloid. 

COND'YLE, Cond'yle, Con'dylus, Capil'- 
ulum, ' a knot, eminence.' An articular emi- 
nence, round in one direction, flat in the other. 
A kind of process, met with, more particularly, 
in the ginglymoid joints; — such as the condyles 
of the occipital, inferior maxillary bone, &c. 
Some Anatomists have applied the term, how- 
ever, to eminences, that are not articular ; as 
to the lateral tuberosities at the inferior ex- 
tremity of the os humeri, and even to certain 
depressions ; as to the concave, articular sur- 
faces or faces at the upper extremity of the 
tibia. Chaussier calls the transverse root of 
the zygomatic process, Condyle of the Tempo- 
ral Bone. 

CON'DYLI DIGITORUM MANUS, Pha- 
langes of the fingers. 

CON'DYLOID, Condyldideus, Condulo'des, 
from kovSvXoc, a 'condyle,' and tiSoc, 'shape.' 
Having the shape of a condyle. 

FoRABl'lNA CoNDYLOIDEA, (F.) TrOUS C07ldy- 

loidicns. (F.) Fosses condyloidicnncs . These are 
distinguished into anterior and posterior. They 
are four in number, seated in the occipital 
bone ; two anterior, and two posterior, to the 
condyles or condyloid processes of the same bone, 
and to depressions, which are called Fossa 
Condyloidca. 

As the word Condylo'idien means — " that 
which has the shape of a condyle," it has been 
judiciously proposed, by some French anato- 
mists, that condy/ien should be used in pre- 
ference, in the case of the foramina and fos- 
sae. 

CONDYLO'MA, Con'dylus, from y.ordvkoc, 
' a knot,' ' an eminence.' A soft, fleshy ex- 
crescence, of an indolent character, which ap- 
pears near the orifice of the genital organs and 



CONDYLUS 



179 



CONFECTION, fyc 



rectum, and occasionally on the fingers and 
toes. It is the consequence of the syphilitic 
virus. Such tumours are also called Dcrmophy 1 - 
mata venerea. 

CONDYLUS, Condyloma. 

CONESS1 CORTEX, Nerium antidysen- 
tericum. 

CONFEC'TIO, Confection, from conff'cio, ' I 
make up.' Alig'ulus. (F.) Confiture, Condit. 
In general, it means any thing made up or pre- 
served with sugar. In the late London Phar- 
macopoeias, it includes the articles before called 
electuaries and conserves. Confedtio or Con- 
fec'tum also means Confectionary. 

Confectio Alkermes, Alkermes. 

Confectio Amygdala'rum, Almond Confec- 
tion, Almond Paste, Pasta re'gia, P. Amygdali '- 
na, Pasta Emulsi'va, Butifrum Amygdala 'rum 
Dulcium. (F.) Confection d'Amandes. (Sweet 
almonds ^j, gum acacia ^j, white sugar giv. 
Blanch the almonds, and beat into a paste.) 
A good mode of keeping almonds in a state fit 
for making emulsions. 

Confectio Archig"eni, C. Pauli'na. (Cas- 
tor, long pepper, black pepper, storax, galbanum, 
costus, opium, of each ^ss, saffron £ij, syrup of 
wormicood ^ij.) It was much recommended as 
a stimulant in nervous affections. 

Confectio Aromat'ica, Electua'rium Aro- 
maticum, C. Cardiaca, C. Raleigha'na, Aro- 
matic Confection, Sir Walter Raleigh's Cordial. 
The following is the London formula. (Cinna- 
mon, nutmeg, of each 31J, cloves §j, cardamom 
seed ( ^ss, saffron §ij, prepared shells §xvi, rec- 
tified sugar Bij, water Ibj. Rub the dry sub- 
stances to a powder, adding the water gradu- 
ally till the whole be incorporated.) Dose, J}j. 
to^j. 

Confectio Aurantio'rum, Conscr'va Cor 1 - 
ticum Aurantiorum, C. Cor'ticis Erterio'ris Au- 
rantii Hispalen'sis, C. Flaved'inis Corticum Au- 
rantiorum Hispalcn'sium, Conscr'va Aurantii, C. 
Citri Aurantii, Confection of the Orange, Con- 
serve of Orange Peel. ( Yellow part of the 
peel of the orange Ibj, rectified sugar Ibiij, beat 
into a conserve.) It is stomachic, and an agree- 
able vehicle, corrigent, and adjuvant for other 
remedies. Dose, ^ss. 

Confectio Cardiaca, Confectio aromatica. 

Confectio Cas'si;e, Electua'rium Cassia 
Fis'tula, E. Cassia, E. e Cassia, E. laxati'vum, 
Conserva Cassia , Electuarium Cassia tamarinda' - 
tum scu leniti'vum, Electa' rium e Cassia, Diacas'- 
sia cum. Manna, Cassia Confection. (Cassia 
pulp Ibss, manna ^ij, tamarind pulp £'], syrupof 
roses lb ss. Bruise the manna, dissolve by heat, 
mix the pulp, and evaporate.) It is gently laxa- 
tive. Dose, gss. 

Confectio Damocratis, Mithridate. 

Confectio Hamec ; — so called from an Ara- 
bian physician, — was composed of the bark of 
the yellow myrobalans, black myrobalans, violets, 
pulp of colocynth, the polypodium of the oak, 
leaves of wormwood, thyme, aniseed, fennel, red 
roses, pulps of prunes, raisins, sugar, honey, 
senna, rhubarb, &c. It was used as a purgative 
in glysters. 

Confectio Hyacin'thi, Hxfacinth Confec- 
tion, Electuarium seu Confectio de Croco emenda'- 
tu, oiim dicta de hyacin'this (P.) A tonic and 
slightly astringent confection, composed, ac- 



cording toBaume, of terra sigillata, crab's stones, 
cinnamon, leaves of the dittany of Crete, myrrh, 
saffron, syrup of lemon, camphor, Narbonnc 
honey, oil of lemon, &c; and formerly the hya- 
cinth was added, whence its name. 

Confectio Opii, Electuarium Opiatum, Con- 
fectio Opia'ta, Philo'nium Londincn'se, The- 
riaca Edinen'sis, Philo'nium Romanum, Opium 
Confection, Electuarium Theba'icum. (Hard 
opium ^vj, long pepper ^j, ginger root §ij, car- 
raway seeds ^iij, syrup Ibj : one grain of opium 
in 3b' Ph. L.) It is narcotic and stimulant. 
Dose, gr. x to ^j. 

Confectio Paulina, Confectio Archigeni — 
c. ex Capitibus papaveris, Diacodium. 

Confectio Pip'eris Nigri, Ward's Paste for 
Fistula. (Black pepper, elecampane root, each 
lbj, fennel seed Ibiij, white sugar H>ij.) Dose, size 
of a nutmeg three or four times a day. 

Confectio Raleighana, Confectio aro- 
matica. 

Confectio Ros^: Cani'nje, (L). Conserva 
Rosa Canina, Conserva Cynos'bati, C. Cynor- 
rhodi, Rob Cynosbatos, Confection or Conserve 
of Dog Rose. (Pulp of dog rose lbj, sugar §xx. 
Incorporate.) It is chiefly used as a vehicle for 
other remedies. 

Confectio Rosm Gai/lice, (L.) Conserva 
Rosa Gal'lica, Conserva Rosa, C. Florum Rosa'- 
rum Rubra'rum, C. Florum Rosa Rubra, Rhodo- 
sae'eharum, C. Rosa Rubra, Confection of the 
Red Rose. (Petals lbj, sugar Ibiij.) It is as- 
tringent, but chiefly used as a vehicle for other 
remedies. 

Confectio Rutje, Confection of Rue. (Rue 
leaves dried, carraway seeds, bay berries, of each 
^iss, sagapenum giv, black pepper ^ij, honey 
'gxvj. Mix.) It is given in clysters, as an anti- 
spasmodic and carminative. 

Confectio de San'talis, Confection of the 
Saunders, (F.) Confection de Sandaux. (San- 
dal wood, red coral, bole armeniac, terra sigil- 
lata, kermes berries, tormentil root, dittany, saf- 
fron, myrtle, red roses, calcined hartshorn, 
cloves.) It was formerly used as an astringent. 

Confectio Scamaio'ni^e, Electuarium Scam- 
mo'nii, Electuarium e Scammonio, Caryocosti- 
num, Confection of Scam'mony. (Powdered 
scammony ,^iss, bruised cloves, powdered gin- 
ger, aa J5 vj, oil of carraway ^ss, syrup of roses, 
q. s.) A stimulating cathartic. Dose, :jss 
togj. 

Confectio Sennjf., Electuarium Cassia Sen- 
na, E. Senna cum Pulpis, E. Senna compos 1 - 
itum, Benedic'tum Laxati'vum, Electuarium 
ape'riens, E. cathol'icum commu'ne, E. diaprul- 
num, E. eccoprot'icum, Elect. Senna, E. e Senna, 
E. leniti'vum, Confection of Senna, &c. (Senna 
leaves ,^viij, figs lbj, tamarind pulp, cassia 
pulp, pulp of French prunes, each lb ss, corian- 
der seed %iv, liquorice root J^iij, sugar Ibiiss.) 
It is a laxative, and is used in habitual consti- 
pation, and in constipation during pregnancy. 
Dose, ^ss to % ss. 

Confectio' de Thcre, Frank'incense Con- 
fection, (F ) Confection d'Encens. A compound 
of the coriander seeds, nutmeg, thus, liquorice, 
mastich, cubebs, prepared hartshorn, conserve of 
red roses, sugar, &c. 

CONFECTION D'AMANDES, Confection, 
almond — c. d'Encens, Confectio de Thurc — c. 



CONFECTUM 



180 



CONI VASCULOSI 



Frankincense, Confectio de Thure — c. of the 
Orange, Confectio aurantiorum — c. of the Red 
rose, Confectio rossc gallicee — c. of Rue, Con- 
fectio rute — c. de Sandaux, Confectio de san- 
talis — c. of the Sanders, Confectio de santalis. 

CONFECTUM, Confection. 

CONFERVA HELMINTHO-CORTOS, 
Corallina corsicana. 

Confer'va Riva'lis. This species of River 
Weed has been recommended in cases of spas- 
modic asthma, phthisis, &c. 

CONFIRMANTIA, Tonics. 

CONFITURE, Confection. 

CONFLUENT, Con'fluens, from flu'ere, 'to 
flow,' and cum, ' together.' An epithet for 
certain exanthematous affections, in which the 
pimples, pustules, &,c, run together. It is 
particularly applied to small-pox, under such 
circumstances. Some authors have called 
Scarlatina or Scarlet Fever — Confluent Mea- 
sles, Morbil'li Confluen'tes. 

CONFLUENT DES SINUS, Torcular He- 
rophili. 

CONFLUEN'TIA, Confadera'tio ; same ety- 
mon. A term, employed by Paracelsus to ex- 
press the concordance between a disease and 
its remedies. 

CONFLUXIO, Sympathy. 

CONFOSDERATIO, Confluentia. 

CONFORMATION, Conforma'tio, Diap'- 
lasis, from conforma'rc, ' to arrange,' ' dispose.' 
The natural disposition or arrangement of the 
body. Faulty conformation, (F.) Vice de con- 
formation, is vice of original formation ; — ex- 
isting, of course, from birth. In French Sur- 
gery, Conformation is used synonymously with 
Coaptation, and both it, Diaplasis and anapla- 
sis, mean, also, restoration to the original form 
— as in fractures, &c. 

CONFORTANTIA, Tonics. 

CONFORTER, (F.) Confirma're, Confortd- 
re, Corrobora're. To make stronger — to give 
energy. Conforter Vestomac, ' to strengthen 
the stomach.' 

CONFRICA'TION, Confrica'tio, from confri- 
ca're, ' to rub against.' The action of reducing 
a friable substance to powder, by rubbing it be- 
tween the fingers ; and of expressing the juice 
of a plant with the hand. 

CONFU'SiE FEBRES. Intermittents, 
whose paroxyms are irregular and confused. — 
Bellini. 

CONFU'SIO, from confundo, ' I mix toge- 
ther ;' Syn'clnjsis. A disease of the eye, which 
consists in the mixture of the humours. — Ga- 
len. It has, also, been used synonymously 
with Complcxio. 

CONGELANTIA, Congelativa. 

CONGELATIO, Catalepsy. 

CON GE L A'TION , Congcla'tio, Conglacia'tio, 
Gela'tio, from con'gelo, ' I congeal,' ' I freeze.' 
The action of congealing, of passing to the so- 
lid state by the abstraction of heat ; as conge- 
lation of xcatcr, mercury, &c. 

The term had once other acceptations. 1. It 
was synonymons with concretion. 2. With 
coagulation, in which sense it is still occasion- 
ally employed. 3. The ancients called all dis- 
eases, produced by cold, congelations, as well 
as those in which there was a kind of stupor or 
torpor — particularly catalepsy. 



CONGELATI'VA MEDICAMEN'TA, Coh- 
glutinan'tia, Congelan'tia. Medicines, consi- 
dered capable of uniting, or consolidating 
wounds, <fec. 

CONGENER, Congen'erous, from cum,' with,' 
and genus, ' kind, (F.) Cong/mere. Of the 
same kind or species. R-esembling each other 
in some manner. When applied to muscles it 
means that they concur in the same action ; in 
opposition to the word antagonist, or that 
which acts in an opposite direction. 

In France Congeneres is applied to those 
who join in the dissection of the same subject. 

CONGENITA NOTJE, Nasvus. 

CONGENITAL, CON'GENITE, Conge- 
nia'lis, Congen'itus, from gen'itus, ' begotten,' 
and cum, ' with,' (F.) Congenial ou Congenital. 
Diseases which infants have at birth ; hence, 
Congenital affections are those that depend on 
faulty conformation ; as congenital hernia, con- 
genital cataract, &c. 

CONGESTION, Congcs'tio, from conge'- 
rere, ' to amass,' ' accumulate,' &c. Symphore' - 
ma, Synatliroism'us, Engorgement. Accumu- 
lation of blood or other Huid in an organ. It 
is an important symptom in febrile and other 
disorders. It may arise, either from an extra- 
ordinary flow of blood by the arteries, or from 
a difficulty in the return of blood to the heart 
by the veins. More often, perhaps, it is owing 
to the latter cause, and is termed venous con- 
gestion, stasis or stagnation : — being not unu- 
sually attended with symptoms of oppression 
and collapse. 

CONGLACIATIO, Congelation. 

CONGLO'BATE, Congloba'tus, from conglo- 
ba're, ' to collect,' ' to gather into a ball,' (F.) 
Conglobi. 

Conglo'bate Gland, Glan'dula congloba'ta, 
Glandula Muco'sa, Conglobate gland, Globatc 
gland, Lymphat'ic gan'glion, (F.) Glande con- 
globie, Ganglion lymphatique. A round body, 
formed of lymphatic vessels, connected toge- 
ther by cellular structure, but having neither 
a cavity nor excretory duct. The mesenteric, 
inguinal and axillary glands are of this class. 

CONGLOBA, Conglobate. 

CONGLOM'ERATE,Conglomera'tus,G/om'- 
erate, Glomera'tus, (F.) Conglomere. Heaped 
together. 

Conglomerate Glands, Glan'dula. conglo- 
mera'ta, Glandula vasculo'sa, are those whose 
lobules are united under the same membrane ; 
as the liver, kidney, testicle, &c. 

CONGLUTINANTIA, Congelativa. 

CONGRkS, (F.) Congress, Congres'sus. 
This term, which has often been used synony- 
mously with Coition, means, also, the ocular 
proof, formerly ordered by the Judicial Autho- 
rity, in the presence of surgeons and matrons, 
to test the impotence or capabilities of the par- 
ties ; — a most unsatisfactory and indecent ex- 
hibition. It was forbidden by the Parliament 
of Paris in the year 1667. 

CONGRESSUS, Coition. 

CONIA, Lixivium. 

CONIASIS, Incrustation. 

CONIOSTOSIS, Pulverization. 

CONIS, Pulvis. 

CONISTERIUM, Apodyterium. 

CONI VASCULO'SI. Conical bundles 



CON I A 



181 



CONSERVA 



formed by the vasa efferentia of the testis: 
having their base towards the epididymis. 

CONIA, y.ona. A wine, prepared by fer- 
menting the must of the grape on tar pre- 
viously washed in sea-water. — Orfila. See, 
also, Lixivium. 

CONl'UM MACULA'TUM, iworeiov, Coni'- 
um,Cicu'ta, Cicu'ta major, Abiotos,Cicuta terres'- 
tris, Cicuta major fa/ tida, C. vulga'ris, Common 
Hemlock, Hemlock, (F.) Cigue ordinaire, C. 
grandc. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferse. Sex. Syst. 
Pentandria Digynia. The leaves and seeds 
are narcotic and poisonous in an overdose. 
Light destroys the virtues of the leaves ; and, 
therefore, the powder should be kept in opaque 
bottles, well corked. It has been used as a 
palliative in cancer and other painful affec- 
tions ; but is not equal to opium. Externally, 
it has been applied in fomentation to cancerous 
and scrofulous ulcers. Dose, gr. ij to x. 

Da'vidson's Remedy for Cancer is said to 
consist of powdered hemlock and arsenious acid. 

CONJONCTIVE, Conjunctiva. 

CONJUGAISON, Conjugation. 

CONJUGATION, Conjuga'tio (F.) Conju- 
gaison. Assemblage, union, Conju' gium. 

Foram'ina Conjugatio'nis, (F.) Trous de 
conjugaison. The apertures at the sides of the 
spine, formed by the union of the notches of 
the vertebras. They give passage to the nerves 
of the spinal marrow, and to the vessels, which 
enter, or issue from, the vertebral canal. 

CONJUGIUM, Coition, Conjugation. 

CONJUNC'TI MORBI. Diseases joined 
together. Authors have distinguished two 
kinds of these ; — one, in which the diseases go 
on simultaneously — rnorbi connex'i ; — the other, 
in which they succeed each other — morbi con- 
seqven'tes. 

CONJUNCTIO, Articulation. 

CONJUNCTFVA MEMBRA'NA, Circum- 
caula'lis, Epipcph' ijcos , Tu'nica agna'ta, Tu'nica 
adna'ta, T. conjunctiva, (F.) Conjonctive, Mem- 
brane adnic. A mucous membrane, so called 
because it unites the globe of the eye with the 
eyelids. It covers the anterior surface of the 
eye, the inner surface of the eyelids, and the 
caruncula lachrymalis. It possesses great gene- 
ral sensibility, communicated to it by the fifth 
pair. 

CONJUNCTIVITIS, Ophthalmia. 

CONJUNGENS, Communicans. 

CONNATE, from cum natus, ' born with.' 

Connate Diseases, (F.) Maladies conndes, 
Morbi conna'ti, are such as an individual is 
born with: — Connate having the same signifi- 
cation as congenital. A difference has been 
made by some, however; those diseases or 
conditions, which are dependent upon ori- 
ginal conformation, being called congenital ; — 
whilst the diseases or affections, that may have 
supervened during gestation or delivery, are 
termed connate. 

CONNECTICUT, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. There is a mineral spring at Stafford in 
this state, twenty-four miles from Hartford, 
which has obtained more celebrity than any 
one in New England. Its principal ingredi- 
ents are iron and carbonic acid. It, conse- 
quently, belongs to the class of acidulous cha- 
lybeates. There are other springs in the state. 



of which, however, little that is accurate is 
known. 

CONNEXIO OSSIUM CARNOSA, Syssar- 
cosis. 

CONNUTRI'TUS, Syn'trophos, ovvTQocpo?, 
from cum, ' with,' and nutrior, ' I am nourished.' 
A disease is so called which has grown up, as 
it were, with an individual, or has been con- 
nate with him. — Hippocr., Galen. 

CONOID, Conoidcus, Cono'i'des, from y.tavos, 
' a cone,' and tuluc:, ' shape,' (F.) Cono'ide. Re- 
sembling a cone. 

Conoid Lig'ament. A ligament, passing 
from the coracoid process to the scapula, and 
forming part of the coraco-clavicular, (q. v.) 
ligament of some anatomists. 

CONOIDES CORPUS, Pineal gland. 

CONQUASSANT, (F.) Conqnassans, from 
cum, 'with,' 'together;' and quassa're, 'to 
shake.' Doulcurs conquassantcs are the pains 
of parturition, at the time of their greatest in- 
tensity, when the head is engao-ed in the pelvis. 

CONQUASSA'TION. Same etymon. A 
pharmaceutical operation, which consists in 
dividing, with a pestle, fresh vegetables, fruits, 
&c. See Confrication. 

CONQUE, Concha. 

CONSECUTIVE, Consecuti'vus, from cum, 
' with,' and sequi, ' to follow.' 

Consecutive Phenom'en a or S vmptoms, (F.) 
Phenomenes on accidens consecutifs, are such as 
appear after the cessation of a disease, or, ac- 
cording to others, during its decline; but with- 
out having any direct connexion with it. 

CONSENSUS, Consent of parts, Sympathy. 

CONSENT OF PARTS, C onsen' sus, Con- 
sen' Sus par'tium, Sympathi'a, from cum, ' with,' 
and senti're, ' to feel.' (F.) Consentement des 
Parties. That relation of different parts of the 
body with each other, which is more commonly 
denominated sympathy, (q. v.) 

CONSENTEMENT DES PARTIES, Con- 
sent of parts. 

CONSERVA'TION, Conserva'tio, Phylax'is, 
(pv?.ai-ic, from conserva're, 'to preserve.' (F.) 
Conservation des Drogues, Asservation. The 
art of preserving any object of pharmacy ; any 
remedial agent, &c, from decay. 

CONSERVA, Conser've, from conserva're, 
' to preserve.' A pharmaceutical preparation, 
composed of a vegetable substance and a suffi- 
cient quantity of sugar. The London and 
American pharmacopoeias prefer the term Con- 
fection, (q. v.) 

Conserva Absin'thii, C . Msin'thii marit' - 
i?ni, Conserve of Wormwood. {Leaves ffij, su- 
gar Ibiij.) It has been employed as a tonic, sto- 
machic, and vermifuge. 

Conserva de Angel'ica (P.,)Conserve d'An- 
gtlique, C. of Angel'ica. (Pulp of root 250 
parts; white sugar, boiled in a decoction of the 
root, and reduced to the consistence of a solid 
electuary, 1000 parts.) It is tonic, aromatic, 
and stomachic. 

Conserva de Apio Graveolen'te (P. ^Con- 
serve d'Ache, Conserve of Smallage. Prepared 
like the preceding. Reputed to have the same 
properties. 

Conserva Ari, Conserve of Arum. (Fresh 
root ftss, sugar ]h\ss.) Esteemed diuietic and 
stimulant. 



CONSERVE DJ1CIIE 



182 



CONSTRICTOR 



Conserva Auranti, Confectio auranti- 
orum — c. Cassia?, Confectio cassia? — c. Citri 
aurantii, Confectio aurantiorum — c. Corticis 
exterioris aurantii Hispalensis, Confectio au- 
rantiorum — c. Corticum aurantiorum, Confec- 
tio aurantiorum — c. Florum rosarum rubrarum, 
Confectio rosa? gallicae — c. Cynosbati, Confec- 
tio rosae caniniB — c. Cynorrhodi, Confectio ro- 
sae canine — c. Flavedinis corticis aurantiorum 
Hispalensium, Confectio aurantiorum — c. Ro- 
sae, Confectio rosae gallicae — c. Rosas caninae, 
Confectio rosaD caninae — c. Rosa? gallicae, Con- 
fectio rosae gallicae. 

CONSERVA CoCHLEA'RIiE HoRTEN'siS, Con- 

serve of Lemon Scurvy Grass. (Leaves Ibj, su- 
gar ftiij.) Reputed to be stimulant and anti- 
scorbutic. 

Conserva Lu'juljEjC. Folio'rum lu'julcc,Con- 
serve of Woodsorrcl. (Leaves Ibj, sugar Ibiij.) 
Gratefully acid and refrigerant. 

Conserva Menthje, C. Mentha: folio'rum, C. 
Mentha: sati'va:, Conserve of Mint. (Leaves 
Ibj, sugar Ibiij.) Stomachic in nausea and vo- 
miting. 

Conserva Pruni Sylves'tris, Pulpa pruno'- 
rum sylves'trium condi'ta, C. Prunai sytvestris, 
Conserve of Sloes, (Pulp 1 part, sugar 3 parts.) 
Possessed of astringent properties. 

Conserva Scili.^e, Conserve of Squill. (Fresh 
squills §j, sugar §x.) Possesses the diuretic 
and other virtues of the squill. 

CONSERVE D'ACHE, Conserva de apio 
graveolente — c. Lemon scurvy grass, Conserva 
cochlearis! hortensis — c. of Mint, Conserva 
menthae — c. of Orange, (red,) Confectio auran- 
tiorum — c. of Aloes, Conserva pruni sylvestris 
— c. of Smallage, Conserva de apio graveolente 
— c. of Woodsorrel, Conserva lujulae — c. of 
Wormwood, Conserva absinthii. 

CONSERVES, Spectacles. 

CONS1DENTIA. This word has two ac- 
ceptations. 1. It is synonymous with Apocatas- 
tasis ; and, 2. It signifies contraction of any 
cavity or canal: — See Synezisis. 

CONSISTENTLY. A Latin term, employed 
in two senses. 1. When joined to the word 
Morbi or JEtatis, it expresses the acme of adis- 
ease, or the age at which the constitution has 
acquired its full strength. 2. By Consistcn'tia 
humo'ris is meant the density of a humour. 

CONSOLIDA MAJOR, Symphytum— c. 
Media, Ajuga, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 
— c. Minor, Prunella — c. Regalis, Delphinium 
consolida — c. rubra, Tormentil — c. Saracenica, 
Solidao-o virgaurea. 

CONSOLIDAN'TIA, Consolidati'va Mcdica- 
men'ta. Substances, formerly given for the 
purpose of consolidating wounds, or strength- 
ening cicatrices. 

CONSOLIDATIVA, Consolidantia. 

CONSOMME, Consumma'tum, Zomos, ito/io?. 
Soup, strongly charged with gelatine, and con- 
sequently very nutritious, although not propor- 
tionably easy of digestion. 

CONSOMPTION, Consumption. 

CONSORTIUM, Sympathy. 

CONSOUDE, GRANDE, Symphytum. 

CONSOUND, MIDDLE, Ajuga. 

CONSPERSIO, Catapasma. 

CONSPICILLA, Spectacles. 

CONSPIRATIO, Sympathy. 



CONSTELLA'TUM UNGUENTUM. An 

ointment, composed of cleansed earthworms ! 
dried and pulverized ; and of the fat of the bear 
or wild boar. It was formerly employed in 
toothache, and to hasten the cicatrization of 
wounds. 

CONSTERNATIO, Stupor. 

CONSTIPATIO, Stegnosis. 

CONSTIPATION, Constipa'tio, from con- 
stipa're, ' to cram close.' Obstipa'tio, Adstric'- 
tio, Obstipa'tio alvi'na, Ischocoi'lia, Alvus ad- 
stric'ta, Stypsis, Constipa'tio alvi, Copras' tasis , 
(F.) Echauffemcnt, Ventre resserri. Costive- 
ness. A state of the bowels, in which the evacu- 
ations do not take place as frequently as usual ; 
or are inordinately hard, and expelled with 
difficulty. It may be owing, either to diminish- 
ed action of the muscular coat of the intestines, 
or to diminished secretion from the mucous 
membrane, or to both. Cathartics will usually 
remove it ; after which its exciting and predis- 
ponent causes must be inquired into and obvi- 
ated, to render the cure permanent. 

CONSTITUTIO, Habit of body— c. Nervosa, 
Nervous diathesis. 

CONSTITUTION, Constitu'tio, Catas'tasis, 
Status, from cum, ' with,' and stare, ' to stand.' 
A collection of several parts, forming a whole. 
In Medicine, Constitution means the state of 
all the organs of the human body, considered 
in regard to their particular and respective ar- 
rangement, order, or activity. A good, consti- 
tution is one in which every organ is well de- 
veloped, and endowed with due energy, so that 
all perform their functions with equal facility. 
Any want of equilibrium in their development 
and energy, forms a difference in the constitu- 
tion. We say that a man is of a good or robust, 
a delicate or weak constitution, when he is com- 
monly healthy, or commonly labouring under, 
or unusually susceptible of. disease. 

Constitu'tion of the At'ikosthere, Con- 
stitu'tioJl'eris,(F.) Constitution AtmosphAriquc. 
The different conditions of the atmosphere, as 
regards dryness and humidity, temperature, 
heaviness, direction of the winds, &c, con- 
sidered as respects their influence on the ani- 
mal economy. 

Epidem'ic Constitution or Med'ical Con- 
stitution, (F.) Constitution medicale, C. 6pid6- 
rnique. The aggregate of meteorological con- 
ditions, so far as they are appreciable, during 
which diseases prevail epidemically. 

CONSTITUTIONAL, (F.) Constitutional 
Belonging to the constitution of an individual; 
to his manner of being; as, constitutional phthi- 
sis, C. Gout, &c. By some, this epithet has 
been given to diseases, produced by the consti- 
tution of the atmosphere, but this acceptation 
is not common. 

CONSTRICTEVRS DE LA VULVE, Con- 
strictores cunni — c. du Vagin, Constrictorcs 
cunni. 

CONSTRICTIO, Systole. 

CONSTRICTIVA, Styptics. 

CONSTRICTOR, from constrin'gere, ' to 
bind.' (F.) Constricteur. That which binds in 
a circular direction. A Sphincter (q. v.). Dif- 
ferent muscles are so called. 

Constrictores Cunni, Clitoi' idis inferio'res 
lati etplani mus'culi, Sphincter Vagi'na(V.) Con- 



CONSTRINGENTIA 



183 



CONTAGION 



slrictcurs du Vagin, C. de la Vuhc. Small mus- 
cles, which originate beneath the clitoris, de- 
scend along the sides of the vagina, and termi- 
nate by becoming confounded with the trans- 
versus pcrinazi and external sphincter ani mus- 
cles. Their use is to contract the entrance of 
the vagina. 

Constrictor Ani, Sphincter ani externus — 
c. Isthmi faucium, Glossostaphylinus — c. Nasi, 
Compressor naris — c. Oris, Orbicularis oris — c. 
Palpebrarum, Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

CoNSTRicTOHES Alarum Nasi, Depressor 
Aloe Nasi. 

Constricto'kes Laryn'gis. Lieutaud de- 
scribes under the name, Grand constriclcur du 
larynx, the muscle Crico-ar ytcnoidcus latcra'lis 
with the Thyro-ar ytcnoidcus. 

Constrictor OSsoph'agi, Constrictor of the 
(Esoph'agus, (F.) Constrictcur de I'CEsophage, 
Muscle cesophagien. A fasciculus of fleshy, 
circular fibres, at the upper part of the oesopha- 
gus. 

Constricto'res Pharyn'gis, Constrictors of 
the Pharynx, Sphincter Gulm. Muscular ex- 
pansions, which assist in forming the parietes 
of the pharynx. Three of these are generally 
admitted. 1. The Constrictor Pharyngis infe'- 
rior, Crico-pharyngeus and Thyro-pharyngeus, 
Crico-thyro-pharyngien. It is broad, very thin, 
quadrilateral, and seated superficially, extend- 
ing from the thyroid and cricoid cartilages as 
far as the middle of the pharynx, and uniting, 
on the median line, with that of the opposite 
side. 2. The Constrictor Pharyngis Medius, 
Hijo-pharyngeus and Chondro-pharyngcus , Syn- 
des' mo-phar yngcus , Hyo-glosso-basi-pharyngien, 
occupies the middle part of the pharynx. It is 
triangular, and attached, anteriorly, to the great 
and little cornu of the os hyoides ; to the stylo- 
hyoid ligament ; and terminates, posteriorly, by 
joining its fellow of the opposite side. 3. The 
Constrictor Pharyngis supe'rior, Ceph'a/o-pha- 
ryngeus, Glosso-pharyngcus, Mylo-pharyngeus, 
Ptcr ygo-pharyngeus , Ptcrigo-syndesmo-staphili- 
pharyngien, is quadrilateral, and extends from 
the internal ala of the pterygoid process, from 
the inter-maxillary ligament, from the internal 
oblique line of the jaw, and from the base of 
the tongue to the posterior part of the pharynx. 
The constrictors of the pharynx contract it. 
They can likewise approximate the ends to each 
other. Chaussier considers those and the stylo- 
pharxjngeus as but one muscle, and includes all 
under this last name. 

CONSTRINGENTIA, Astringents, Styp- 
tics. 

CONSUETUDO, Habit— c. Menstrua, Men- 
ses. 

CONSULTATION, Consulta'tio, Dclihera'- 
tio, Canolo'gia, Conten'tio, Symboleu'sis. This 
word has several acceptations. In English, it 
means, almost always, the meeting of two or 
more practitioners, to deliberate on any par- 
ticular case of disease. In France, it signifies 
the written result of such deliberations, as well 
as the opinion of a physician, given to a pa- 
tient, who consults him, either personally or by 
writing. 

CONSULTING PHYSICIAN or SUR- 
GEON. One, who consults with the attending 
practitioner, regarding any case of disease. 



Some physicians, surgeons, and accoucheurs 
confine themselves to consulting practice. 
CONSUMMATUM, Consomme. 
CONSUMPTION, from consu'mere, 'to waste 
away.' Consump'tio, Syntex'is, aumj^iQ. (F.) 
Consomption. Progressive emaciation or wast- 
ing away. This condition precedes death, in 
the greater part of chronic diseases, and par- 
ticularly in phthisis pulaionalis : on this ac- 
count it is, that phthisis has received the name 
consumption. — See Phthisis. Fievre de Con- 
somption, Consumptive fever, is the same as 
Hectic fever, (q. v.) 

Consumption, Pulmonary, Phthisis pulmo- 
nalis. 

CONSUMPTPVA. Same etymology. Caus- 
tics, used for the destruction of fungi ; as 
burnt alum, lunar caustic, &c, were formerly 
so called. 

CONTABESCEN'TIA, from contabes'cerc, 
' to grow lean.' Consumption, marasmus, atro- 
phy, (q. v.) &c. 

CONTACT, Contadtus. The state of two 
bodies that touch each other. In the theory of 
contagious diseases, we distinguish immediate 
or direct contact, as when we touch a patient la- 
bouring under one of those diseases, and me- 
diate or indirect contact, when we touch, not 
the patient himself, but objects that have touch- 
ed, or emanated from him. The air is, most 
commonly, the medium by which this last kind 
of contact is effected. 

CONTA'GION, Conta'gio, Contages, Con- 
ta'gium, Aporrhod a, Jlpoc'risis, from contin'gere, 
1 to meet or touch.' The transmission of a dis- 
ease from one person to another, by direct or in- 
direct contact. The term has, also, been applied, 
by some, to the action of miasmata arising from 
dead animal or vegetable matter, bogs, fens, 
&c, but in this sense it is now abandoned. 
Contagious diseases are produced, either by a 
virus, capable of causing them by inoculation 
as in small-pox, cow-pox, hydrophobia, syphi- 
lis, &c, or by miasmata, proceeding from a sick 
individual, as in plague, typhus gravior, and in 
measles and scarlatina. Scrofula, phthisis 
pulmonalis, and cancer have, by some, been 
esteemed contagious, but apparent^ without 
foundation. Physicians are, indeed, by no 
means unanimous in deciding what diseases 
are contagious, and what not. The contagion 
of the plague and typhus, especially of the lat- 
ter, is denied by many. It seems probable, 
that a disease may be contagious under certain 
circumstances, and not under others. A case 
of common fever, arising from common causes, 
as from cold, may, if the patient be kept in a 
close, foul condition, be converted into a dis- 
ease, capable of producing emanations, which 
will excite a similar disease in those exposed to 
them. 

Contagion and infection are generally esteem- 
ed synonymous. Frequently, however, the 
former is applied to diseases not produced by 
contact; as measles, scarlet fever, &c, whilst 
infection is used for those that require positive 
contact; as itch, syphilis, &c, and conversely. 

Diseases, which cannot be produced in any 
other way than by contagion, arc said to have 
their origin in specific contagion ; as small-pox, 
cow-pox, measles, hydrophobia, syphilis, &c. 



CONTAGIOUS 



184 



CONTRA-INUICATIO 



Those, which are produced by contagion, and 
yet are sometimes owing to other causes, are 
said to arise from common contagion; as typhus, 
cynanche parotidsea, &c. 

CONTA'GIOUS, Contagio'sus. Capable of 
being transmitted by mediate or immediate 
contact ; as a contagious disease, contagious fe- 
ver, contagious effluvia, &c. 

CONTAGIUM, Miasm. 

CONTEMPLJ1TIF, (F.) Contcmplati'vus. 
Appertaining to contemplation. The predo- 
minant idea of the melancholic — of the mo- 
nomaniac — is sometimes called contemplative. 

CONTEMPLATIO, Catalepsy. 

CONTENSIO, Tension. 

CONTENTIO, Consultation. 

CONTEX'TURE, Contextu'ra, Contex'tus, 
from cum, ' with,' and texere, ' lo weave,' to make 
a web.' Arrangement of parts ; — texture. A 
name given, metaphorically, to the structure 
of organized bodies; as the contexture of mus- 
cles, fibres, &c. See Tissue and Texture. 

CONTIGUITY, DIARTHROSIS OF. See 
Continuity. 

CON'TINENCE, Continentia, from contine'- 
re, ' to contain oneself;' 'to restrain.' Absti- 
nence from the pleasures of physical love. 

CON'TINENT, Continens. This word is sy- 
nonymous with Continued. (F.) Continu. 

Continent Cause, Causa conjundta, is a 
cause, real or presumed, which, having given 
rise to a disease, continues to act during the 
whole of its duration. It may be considered 
synonymous with proximate cause. A conti- 
nent fever, Febris continens, is one which pre- 
serves, during its whole course, the same de- 
gree of intensity, without any remission or sen- 
sible exacerbation. A disease, which continues 
uninterruptedly, has been, also, called JEipa- 
thei'a or Jleipathei'a, atma&nu. 

CONTIN'UED FEVER, Febris contin'ua, 
F. continens, F. anabat'ica, F. assid'ua. A fe- 
ver which presents no interruption in its course. 
Continued fevers form a division in the class 
Pyrexia of Cullen, and include three genera, — 
Synocha, Sunochus, and Typhus. 

CONTINUTTY, Continu'itas. An adhesion 
of two things between each other, so that they 
cannot be separated without fracture or lacera- 
tion. 

Diaiithko'ses of Continuity, (F.) Diar- 
throses dc ContinuiU, are movable joints, in 
which the bones are continuous, but do not 
touch immediately : there being, between them, 
a ligamentous substance, whose flexibility per- 
mits motion. The vertebral articulations are 
examples of this. Diarthrosfs of Contigu'- 
ity, Diarthroses de ContiguM, on the other 
hand, are movable articulations, in which the 
bones are not continuous, but touch by sur- 
faces covered with a cartilaginous layer, which 
is always moistened by synovia. 

Solution of Continuity is any division of 
parts, previously continuous. Wounds and 
fractures are solutions of continuity. 

The word Continuity is opposed to Contigu- 
ity; the latter meaning the condition of two 
things which are near each other, or touch 
without uniting. There is contiguity between 
the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity 
of the scapula, but not continuity. 



CONTONDANT, Contunding. 

CONTOR'SION, Contor'sio, from contor'- 
quco, ' I twist about.' Violent movement of a 
part, accompanied with a kind of torsion ; as 
contortion of the face. 

CONTRA- APERTU'RA, from contra, 
'against,' and aperio, 'I open.' A. counter- 
opening. Contra-incis'io, Incis'io priori opposi- 
ta, (F.) Contrc-ouverture. An incision, made 
in the most depending part of a wound or ab- 
scess, when the first opening is not situate in a 
manner favourable for the discharge of the pus. 

CONTRA-EXTENSIO, Counter-extension. 

CONTRACTILE, Contractilis, i: om contra' - 
here, ' to draw together.' Capable of contract- 
ing. The fibre of muscles is contractile. 

CONTRACTILITY, Contractu 'itas ; same 
etymon. (F.) Contractilite. That vital pro- 
perty, which gives, to certain parts, the power 
of contracting. The muscles of locomotion 
are endowed with a power of voluntary con- 
tractility, or one dependent immediately on the 
action of the brain; the muscles of the viscera 
of digestion, and other internal organs, enjoy 
an involuntary contractility. Contractility and 
irritability are frequently used synonymously 
to signify the property possessed by any tissue 
of contracting on the application of an appro- 
priate stimulus. 

CONTRACTION. Same etymon. Sys'- 
tole. Action of contracting. When we speak 
of the contraction of a muscle, we mean the 
phenomena it exhibits during the time it is in 
action. 

CONTRACTU'RA. Same etymon. Acampl- 
sia, Enta'sia articula'ris, Mus'cular Stiff-joint. 
A state of permanent rigidity and progressive 
atrophy of the flexor muscles, which prevents 
the motions of extension beyond a certain 
limit. The affected muscles form hard cord3 
beneath the skin. On dissection, they are found 
converted into tendinous fibres, the fleshy fibres 
having almost disappeared, when the disease 
has been of any duration. It succeeds, fre- 
quently, other diseases, particularly rheuma- 
tism, neuralgise, convulsions, syphilis, colica 
pictonum, &c. The warm bath, vapour bath 
or thermal waters, oleaginous embrocations, 
mechanical extension of the limbs, &c, are 
the chief means of treatment. 

CONTRA-FISSU'RA,from contra, 1 against,' 
and findo, ' I cleave.' Repercus'sio, Rcson'itus, 
Calag'ma Fissura contrajacens, Jlpeche'ma, (F.) 
Contre-coup, Contre-fente, Conlre- fracture. A 
fracture, contusion, or injury, produced by a 
blow in a part distant from that which is struck. 
Five species of contra -fissures or contre-coups 
may occur in the skull. I . When the internal 
table yields and fractures. 2. When the bone 
breaks in any other part than the one struck. 

3. When a bone, which has been struck, re- 
mains uninjured, and its neighbour is fractured. 

4. When a bone is fractured in a place diame- 
trically opposite to that struck, as in fractures 
at the base of the cranium, from a fall on the 
vertex ; and lastly, when the violence of the 
blow produces a separation of the neighbour- 
ing or distant sutures. These fractures of the 
skull are also called Fractures par risonnance. 

CONTRA-INCISIO, Contra-apertura. 
CONTRA-INDICATIO, Counter-indication 



CONTRA-1 RRITATIO 



185 



CONVOLVULUS BATATAS 



CONTRA-IRMTATIO, Counter-irritation. 

CONTRACT I LITE TAR DEFAUT V EX- 
TENSION, Elasticity— c. de Tissu, Elasticity. 

CONTRACTILITY, Irritability. 

CONTRACTIO CORDIS, Systole. 

CONTRAHENTIA, Astringents, Styptics. 

CONTRA-LUNA'RIS, from contra, 'against,' 
and luna, ' the moon.' An epithet for a woman 
who conceives during the menstrual discharge. 
— Dietrich. 

CONTRA-STIMULANS, Contro-stimulant. 

CONTRAYERVA, Dorstenia contrayerva 
— c. Balls, Pulvis contrayerva^ compositus — c. 
Mexican, Psoralea pentaphylla — c. Nova, Pso- 
raleapentaphylla — c. Lisbon, Dorstenia contra- 
yerva — c. Virginiana, Aristolochia serpentaria. 

CONTRE-COUP, Contra-fissura. 

CONTREEXTENSION, Counter-exten- 
sion. 

CONTREXEVILLE, MINERAL WA- 
TERS OF. C. is a town in France, in the 
department of Vosges, four leagues from Neuf- 
chateau. The waters contain carbonate of 
iron, muriate and carbonate of lime, a bitumi- 
nous substance, and free carbonic acid. They 
are frequented by those labouring under cuta- 
neous, scrofulous, and calculous affections. 

CONTRE-FENTE, Contra-fissura. 

COJS'TRE- FRACTURE, Contra-fissura. 

CONTRE-INDICATION, Counter-indica- 
tion. 

COjYTRE-OUVERTURE, Contra-apertura. 

CONTRF'TIO, from con'tero, 'I bruise or 
make small :' — Syntrimnia, Syntripsis, Tritu'ra, 
Tritus, Trituration, Tri"tio, Comminu'tion. 

CONTRO-STIM'ULANT, Co/i*rarf£»/uZaJw, 
from contra, ' against,' and stimulus, ' that 
which excites.' A substance that possesses a 
particular, debilitating property, acting upon 
the excitability in a manner opposite to stimu- 
lus. A name given to therapeutical agents, 
which, according to the Italian theory of Con- 
tro- stimulus, are endowed with the property of 
diminishing excitement by a specific action. 
These agents are by no means clearly defined. 

CONTRO-STIM'ULUS. Same etymon. 
The name given by Rasori, about thirty years 
ago, to a new medical doctrine, of which he 
was the originator — La nuova Dottrina Medica 
Ita/iana. It is founded on the contro-stimu- 
lant property, attributed to a certain number of 
medicines. In this doctrine, as in that of 
Brown, under the name excitability, a funda- 
mental principle of physiology is admitted, by 
virtue of which living beings are endowed 
with an aptitude for feeling the action of ex- 
ternal agents or exciting influences, and of re- 
acting on these same influences. When this 
excitability is too great, there is excess of sti- 
mulus or Hyperstheni'a: when too little, there 
is deficiency or Hyposlheni'a. Diseases, gene- 
ral and local, are divided into three great 
classes, or into, 1. Hypersthenic; 2. Hyposthe- 
nic ; 3. Irritative. The contro-stimulant phy- 
sicians admit only two classes of medicines — 
stimulants and contro- stimulants. 

CONTUNDING, Contu'sing, (F.J Conton- 
dant, Contundcns, from contun'dere, 'to bruise.' 
That which causes contusions. An epithet given 
to round, blunt, vulnerating projectiles, which 
bruise or lacerate parts without cutting them. 
24 



COjYTUS, Contused. 
CONTUS, Penis. 

CONTU'SED. Same etymon. (F.) Con- 
tus. Affected with contusion. Thus we say — 
a contused wound. 

CONTUSION, Contu'sio. A Bruise; Col- 
Us'io, Phlasma, Thlasis. Thlas'ma, Th. Contu'- 
sio, (¥.)Meur Iris sure. Same etymon. An injury 
or lesion — arising from the shock of a body 
with a large surface, which presents no loss of 
substance, and no apparent wound. If the 
skin be divided, the injury takes the name of 
contused wound. The differences of contusion, 
as to extent, are of course infinite. When 
slight, the blood stagnates in the capillaries of 
the skin, or is effused into the subcutaneous 
cellular tissue. Time and cold applications 
remove it. When the texture of the parts 
has been lacerated, there is effusion of blood, 
with more or less torpor in the part. Cooling 
applications, general or topical, V.S., emol- 
lients, poultices, compression, &c, are here 
necessary, according to circumstances. In the 
severest kinds of contusion, all the soft and 
solid parts, except the skin, are bruised, and, at 
times, reduced to a kind of pap. When the 
disorganization is to this extent, there is no 
hope except in amputation. A deep contusion 
of the soft parts has been called Sarcothla' sis , 
and Sar co thlas'ma. 

CONVALESCENCE, Convakscen'tia, 
from convales'cere, ' to grow well.' Exanus'- 
trophe. Recovery of health, after disease. The 
time which elapses between the termination 
of a disease, and complete restoration of 
strength. 

CONVALLATJA MALVLIS, Lil'ium Con- 
val'lium, Convalla'ria, Muiau'themum, Lily of 
the Valley, May Lily, (F.) Muguet, Muguct de 
Mai. The recent flowers are reputed to be 
aromatic, cephalic, errhine, cathartic. They 
are not used. 

Convalla'ria Polygona'tum. The sys- 
tematic name of Solomon's Seal. Sigil'lum 
Salamo'nis, Polygona'tum. The root was once 
used as an astringent and tonic. It is, also, a 
reputed cosmetic. 

CONVERSION, Conver'sio. Change from 
one state into another. 

Conversion of Diseases, (F.) Conversion 
des maladies, is the change or transformation 
of one disease into another. 

CONVOLUTION, Convolu'tio, from convol'- 
vere, ' to entwine.' Episphce'rion, Gyrus, (F.) 
Cir convolution. 

The Intestinal Convolutions are the turns 
made by the intestines in the abdomen. 

The Cerebral Convolutions are the round, 
undulating, tortuous projections, observed at 
the surface of the brain. In them, Gall's or- 
gans, of course, terminate. 

CONVOL'VULUS BATA'TAS, from con- 
vol'vcre, ' to roll together.' C. In'dicus. The 
Sweet Potato, Spanish Potato. This is the only 
esculent root of the genus Convolvulus. It is 
much eaten in the United States. 

Convolvulus Cantab'rica, Cantahrica, La- 
vender-leaved Bindweed. It has been considered 
anthelmintic and actively cathartic. 

Convolvulus, Ileus,— c. lndicus, c. Ba- 
tatas. 



CONVULSIBILITAS 



186 



COPAIFERA OFFICINALIS 



Convolvulus Jalapa, A systematic name of 
the Jalap plant, properly the Ipomcea Jalapa. Ja- 
la'pium, Mechoaca'na nigra, Jalappa, Jalapa, 
Jalap Root, Gialappa, Xalappa, Bryo'nia Me- 
choachan'na nigricans, Bryo'nia Peruvia'na, Che- 
ta'pa, Rhabar'barum Nigrum, Gelappium, (F.) 
Jalap, is procured from South America. Its 
odour is nauseous ; taste sweetish and slightly 
pungent. It is solid, hard, heavy, brittle ; frac- 
ture resinous ; internally, light gray ; exter- 
nally, covered with a deep brown, wrinkled 
bark. Its operation is cathartic — the resinous 
part griping violently. Dose, lOgr. to gss. A 
drop or two of any essential oil may prevent it 
from griping. An active principle has been 
separated from Jalap, to which the names Jala- 
pine and Cathartine have been given. 

Convolvulus Major Albus, Convolvulus 
sepium — c. Maritimus, Convolvulus soldanella. 
Convolvulus Mechoachan, Mechoaca'na: 
Radix, Jalappa alba, Rhabar'barum album, Me- 
choacan, (F.) Rhabarbe blanche. A Mexican 
convolvulus, the root of which possesses ape- 
rient properties, and was once extensively used 
instead of jalap. 

Convolvulus Pandura'tls, Wild Potato, 
Mcch'ameck, Wild Rhubarb, Wild Potato-Vine, 
Kassaudcr , Kassader. In Virginia, and some 
other parts of the United States, the root of this 
plant has been much recommended in cases of 
gravel. It is used either in powder or decoction. 
Convolvulus Perennis, Humulus lupulus. 
Convolvulus pes Ca'pri.*:, Bargada. A plant 
used in India in cataplasm, in arthritic cases. 

Convolvulus Scammo'nia. The systematic 
name of the Scarn'mony Plant. Scammo'nia, 
Scammoniai Gummi-Resi'na, Convolvulus Syria- 
cus, Scammonium Syriacum, Diagryd'ium, Da- 
c.rydion, Scammony, Muhmoudy , (F.) Scammonee 
d'Alcp. A Syrian and Mexican plant; the con- 
crete gummi-resinous juice of which comes to 
us in blackish-gray fragments, becoming whi- 
tish-yellow when touched with wet fingers. It 
is a drastic, hydrogogue cathartic. Dose, gr. 
iij to gr. xv, triturated with sugar. 
Convolvulus, Sea, — c. Soldanella. 
Convolvulus Sepium, Convolvulus major 
albus. Great Bindweed, (¥.) Liseron des Haics, 
Grand Liseron. The juiceof this plantis violent- 
ly purgative, and is given in dropsical affections. 
Convolvulus Soldanel'la. The sytematic 
name of the Sea Convolvulus. Bras' sica Marti- 
na, Calystcgia Soldanella, Sea Bindweed , Con- 
volvulus Marit'imus, Soldanella, (¥.) Chou Marin. 
The leaves of this plant are said to be drastic 
cathartic ; but they are not much, if at all, used. 
Convolvulus Syriacus, Convolvulus scam- 
monia. 

Convolvulus Turpe'thum, Turpethum. The 
systematic name of the Turbith plant, (F.) Racine 
de Turbith. The cortical part of the root of this 
species of convolvulus is brought from the East 
Indies. It is a cathartic, but not used. 

CONVULSIBILITAS. See Subsultus ten- 
dinum. 

CONVULSIF, Convulsive. 

CONVULSIO HABITUAL1S, Chorea— c. 

Indica, Tetanus — c. Raphania, Raphania — c. 

Soloniensis, Ergotism — c. Tonica, Tonic spasm. 

— c. Uteri, Abortion. 

CONVUL'SION, Spasmus, Convul'sio, from 



convel'lere, ' to pull together.' Conduc'tio, Hu ■ 
ran'osos, Disten'tio nervo'rum, Clonic Spasm, 
Convul'sio clon'ica, Eclamp'sia. This word has 
several acceptations. It means any violent per- 
version of the animal movements. The word 
Convul'sions generally, however, signifies alter- 
nate contractions, violent and involuntary, of 
muscles, which habitually contract only under 
the influence of the will. This alternate con- 
traction, when slight, is called Tremor, when 
strong and permanent, tetanus, trismus, &c. 
Spasms, Cramp, Risus Sardonicus, St. Vitus s 
Dance are convulsions. 

Con vulsio Cere a' lis, ConvulsioabUstilag"inS, 
Cereal Convulsion, (F.) Convulsionciriale, Ergo- 
tisme convulsif, Convulsion de Sologne. A singu- 
lar disorder, of the convulsive kind, attended 
with a peculiar tingling and formication in the 
arms and legs. It is said to be endemic in some- 
parts of Germany, and to arise often from the 
use of spoiled corn. 

CONVULSION DE SOLOGNE, Convulsio 
ccrcctlis. 

CONVULSIONNAIRE (F.) A name given , 
during the last century, to individuals, who had, 
or affected to have, convulsions, produced by 
religious ideas. 

CONVUL'SIVE, Convulsi'vus, Spasmo'des, 
Agitato' rius, (F.) Convulsif. That which is ac- 
companied by, or is analogous to, convulsions, 
as convulsive cough, convulsive disease. 

CON YZA, Inula dysenterica — c.Comaaurea, 
Solidago Virgaurea — c. Media, Inula dysen- 
terica. 

Conv'za Squarrosa, Brephoc'tonon, Great 
Fleabane or Spikenard, (F.) Herbe aux Mouchcs. 
A European plant, whose strong and disagreea- 
ble odour was formerly considered to be de- 
structive to flies, fleas, &c. Its infusion in wine 
was once used as an emmenagogue and anti- 
icteric : in vinegar as an anti-epileptic. 

COOKERY, Culinary art. 

COOPERTORIUM, Thyroid cartilage. 

COPAHU, Copaiba. 

COOS'TRUM. The middle part of the dia- 
phragm. — Ruland. 

COPA'IBA. The resinous juice of the Copaif- 
era officinalis. Family, Leguminosffi. Sex. Syst. 
Decandria Monogynia. It is the Copdifera. of- 
ficinalis Resina, BaV samum Copaiba, B. Bra- 
zilien'se, B. de Copaiba, B. Capi'vi. The Balsam 
of Copaiba or Copaiva. (F.) Copahu, Baume dc 
Copahu, B. du Brisil, T&ribinthe de Copahu. 
Its odour is peculiar, but not unpleasant. Taste 
pungent, bitter; consistence, syrupy; colour 
yellowish, and transparent. It is soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and the expressed oils. S. g. 
0.950. Its properties are stimulant and diuretic ; 
in large doses it is purgative. It acts on the 
lining membrane of the urethra, and on mucous 
membranes, in general. It is given in gonor- 
rhoea, gleet, leucorrhosa, &c: in the dose of gtt 
x to 3j, twice or thrice a day. Should symp- 
toms of urticaria or diarrhoea arise, the dose is 
too large, and must be diminished. It can be 
inspissated by means of magnesia so as to be 
made into pills, and recently a plan has been 
devised for enveloping it in gelatine, so that its 
taste is entirely concealed. See Capsules, 
gelatinous. 

COPAIFERA OFFICINALIS. See Copaiba. 



COPAL or COPALE 



187 



UORAL 



COPAL' oa COPALE, Resina Copal. The 
resin, which flows, spontaneously, from the 
Elmocar'pus Copalif'era, a Guinea plant. It is 
a stimulant, like all the resins; and, dissolved 
in rectified spirit of wine, has been used in cases 
of spongy gums and looseness of the teeth; but 
it is now only employed in varnishes. 
COPE, Cut. 

COPHONIA, Acouophonia. 
COPHO'SIS, Sur'ditas, Epicopho'sls, Par- 
acusis, Dysccstht/sia audito'ria, from xunpog, 
'deaf.' (F.) Surditi. Diminution or loss of 
hearing. Cullen uses the word synonymously 
with Dysecasa, and Pinel with Paracou'sia or 
Parac'ue. According to Sauvages, Cophosis 
differs from both: from Dysecasa, because, in it 
the sonorous rays cannot reach the labyrinth: 
and from Paracousia, which consists in a con- 
fused state of hearing. 

Cophosis seems, usually, to be synonymous 
with deafness, (q. v.) — Paracu'sis Sur'ditas. 

COPOS, Kunog, Lassitu'do, Fatiga'tio, Las- 
situde, Fatigue. A state of the body, in which 
the greater part of the animal functions are 
exerted with less promptitude and vigour than 
common. 

The ancients admitted three species: 1. That 
arising from plethora, Lassitu'do tensi'va, Tono'- 
des, Torwihjc, 2. From plethora and increased 
heat combined, Lassitu'do phlcgmono' sa, astuo'- 
sa, (pi.eyfiovu)St]s, Phlcgmono' des, and, 3. Owing 
to a morbid condition of the humours, Lassitu'do 
ulcero'sa. 'ilKwdt'c, Helco'des. 

COPPER, Cuprum — c. Ammoniated, Cu- 
prum ammoniatum — c. Subacetate of, Cupri 
subacetas — c. Sulphate of, Cupri sulphas — c. 
Ammoniacal sulphate of,Cuprum ammoniatum. 
COPPERAS, Ferri sulphas— c. White, Zinci 
sulphas. 

COPRACRATIA, Scoracrasia. 
COPRA GO'GUM, from Z077O0?, < faeces,' and 
ayto, ' 1 bring away.' Stercus c prirnis viis edit- 
cens. A cathartic. The name of a laxative 
electuary, mentioned by Ruland. 

COPREM'ETOS, Coproem'etos, from zojtqo;, 
'excrement,' and fi<fc>, ' I vomit.' One who 
vomits fasces. — Hippocr. 

COPROCRIT'ICUS, Coprocrit'icvs, from 
Kongo?, 'excrement.,' and xqivvj, 'I separate.' 
A mild cathartic, (q. v.) — an eccoprotic. 
COPROEMFTOS, Copremetos. 
COPROPHORIA, Catharsis. 
COPRORRHCEA, Diarrhoea. 
COPROS, Excrement. 

COPROSCLERO'SIS, from ko-tooc, 'excre 
merit,' and anX^noo), 'I harden.' Induration of 
faecal matters. 

COPROSTASIS, Constipation. 
COPTE or COPTON, from zo.ttw, < I beat 
or pound.' A sort of cake, composed of vege- 
table substances, which the ancients adminis- 
tered internally, and applied to the epigastric 
region in the form of cataplasm. 

"CO PITS, Gold Thread, Copiis Trifo'lia, 
JS'igella. The root of this is much used in Mas- 
sachusetts, in aphthous and other ulcerations of 
the mouth, as a local application. It is a pure bit- 
ter, and can be used, wherever such is indicated. 
Corns Tketa, Mishme Teeta, (Upper Assam) 
Honglane (Chinese.) The root of this plant is 
considered to be a powerful tonic and stomachic. 



COPTON, Cople. 

COPULA, Ligament — c. Camalis, Coition. 
COPULATION, Coition. 
COQ, Phasianus Gallus. 
COqUE DU LEVAJVT, see Menispermum 
cocculus — c. d'CEuf, see Ovum — c. Levant, see 
Menispermum cocculus. 

COQUELICOT, Papaver rhceas. 
COqUELOURDE, Anemone pulsatilla. 
COqUELUCHE, Influenza, Pertussis. 
COqUERET, Physalis. 
COqUETTE, Influenza. 
COqUlLLE, Cochlea— c. d'CEuf. See Ovum. 
COQUENTIA MEDIC AM GN'TA, from «/- 
qucre, ' to digest.' Medicines, which were 
formerly believed to be proper for favouring 
the coction or digestion of food. 
COR, A corn. Also, Heart, (q. v.) 
COR'ACO-BRA'CHIAL, Cor'aco-brachia'lis. 
Belonging both to the coracoid process and arm. 
The Coraco-Brachialis (Muscle,) Coraco- 
humiral — (Ch.) Perfora'tus Casse'rii, Per- 
foratus, Coraco-brachia'zis, is situate at the in- 
ner and upper part of the arm. it arises from 
the coracoid process of the scapula, and is in- 
serted at the middle part of the inner side of 
the humerus. It carries the arm forwards and 
inwards, raising the humerus a little. It can, 
also, by acting inversely, depress the shoul- 
der. 

CORACO CLAVICULAR, Coraco-clavi- 
cnla'ris. Belonging to the coracoid process and 
clavicle. 

The Coraco-Clavicular Ligament, called, 
also, mo- clavicular , serves to unite the clavicle 
to the coracoid process. It is very irregular, 
and formed of two fasciculi, which the greater 
part of anatomists have described as particular 
ligaments, under the names Conoid and Tra- 
pezoid. 

CORACO-HUMERAL1S, Coraco-brachialis 
— c. Hyoideus, Omohyoideus — c. Radialis, Bi- 
ceps flexor cubiti. 

COR'ACOID, Coraco'ideus, Coraco'idcs, C. 
Processus, Cornicula'ris Processus, Crow' s -beak- 
like Process, Proces'sus anchora'lis, rostriformis, 
ancyroides, from koqcc!;, ' acrow," and nSog, ' re- 
semblance.' (F.) Coraco'ide. Resembling the 
beak of a crow. A name given by Galen, (and 
still retained,) to the short, thick process, situate 
at the anterior part of the upper margin of the 
scapula; and which has some resemblance to 
the beak of a crow. This process gives.attach- 
ment to the Coraco-clavicular and Coraco-acro' '- 
mial ligaments, and to the Coraco-brachia' lis , 
Pcctora'lis minor, and Biceps muscles. 

The Coracoid Ligament, Ligamen' turn cora- 
coidcum, (F.) L. Coracdidicn. This name is 
given to the small fibrous fasciculus, which con- 
verts the notch, at the superior margin of the 
scapula, into a foramen. 

CORAIL, Coral — c. des Jardins, Capsicum 
annuum. 

CORAL, Coral'lium, Coral' lus, Arbor Ma- 
ris, Azur, Bolesis, from xuoc w, ' I adorn,' and 
'«/.?,' the sea.' (F.) Corail. One of the most 
beautiful productions of the deep. It is fixed 
to submarine rocks, in the form of a shrub; 
and is of a bright red colour. It is the habita- 
tion of a multitude of animals, of the Zoophyta 
order, and is formed of a calcareous substance, 



CORALLINA 



183 



CORIUM 



secreted by these animals themselves. It is in 
very hard, concentric layers; covered, exter- 
nally, by a species of porous bark, full of cel- 
lules, each of which contains one of these ani- 
mals. Linnaeus calls the red coral, Isis nob'ilis, 
and M. de Lamarck, Coral' Hum ruhrum. It is 
much fished for, on the coasts of Barbary and 
Sicily. Coral was formerly esteemed tonic, 
absorbent, astringent, &c, but analysis has 
shown, that it contains only carbonate of lime 
and a little gelatine. — Dioscorides, Pliny, Ori- 
basius, the Geoponica, &c. The Corallium al- 
bum is a hard, white, calcareous, brittle sub- 
stance, the nidus of the Madrep'ora oculata. It 
has been exhibited as an absorbent. 

CORALLI'NA. Diminutive of CaralMum; 
Muscus marit'imus, Corallina officinal I is, Drion, 
Corallina alba, Sea Cor'alline, White Worm- 
weed. The production of an animal, which 
belongs to the genus Pol'ypi, and which is 
found in all the seas of Europe; — particularly 
in the Mediterranean. It has the appearance 
of a plant, is homogeneous, an inch or two in 
height, of a white, reddish, or greenish colour, 
salt taste, and marine smell. It contains gela- 
tine, a